UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11


80 Questions MCQ Test | UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11


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This mock test of UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 80 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 11 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. Investments in service, like those in production and distribution, must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations.
This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank, which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be described to customers.

According to the passage, investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the

Solution:

From the passage it can be inferred that investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the basis on which they need to be 
weighed. 

QUESTION: 2

The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. Investments in service, like those in production and distribution, must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations.
This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank, which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be described to customers.

The passage suggests which of the following about service provided by the regional bank prior to its investment in enhancing that service?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned that “If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher service levels may be wasted” implies that the passage suggests to enable the bank to retain customers at an acceptable rate prior to its investment in enhancing that service. 

QUESTION: 3

​The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. Investments in service, like those in production and distribution, must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations.

This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank, which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be described to customers.

The passage suggests that bank managers failed to consider whether or not the service improvement

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned that “The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy.” Implies that bank manager failed to consider whether or not the service improvement was an innovation that competing banks could have 
imitated. 

QUESTION: 4

The Christmas season, of course, is an appropriate time of year to reflect on busyness. The time between Christmas and New Year should be a time for reflection and relaxation, but is often stressed. Rather than taking time out after the busyness of Christmas preparations, many of us find ourselves in a whirlwind of sales shopping, sporting activities, or visiting friends or family. One form of busyness is replaced by another. Being busy has become so ubiquitous it has come to mean everything and nothing. As more people identify with the problem of busyness, some of us seek advice from time management experts about how to manage our busy lives. But data suggests that we are not as busy as we think we are. Social scientists who, specialise in researching every day time- use can compare trends in how we spend time from the 1960s onwards. The UK expert on time use, Jonathan Gershuny, claims that actual time spent in work has not increased since the 1960s - but what we mean by busyness has changed over time. In his view, busyness has become a badge of honour. There are a number of reasons for this change in definition. More women in the workforce mean that more households have to juggle both partners working with the demands of domestic routines. Meanwhile, social prestige is associated with being busy and, as we often experience at Christmas, leisure time has become more of an intensive experience.

According to author visiting friends, shopping etc while Christmas is?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned that “Rather than taking time out after the busyness of Christmas preparations, many of us find ourselves in a whirlwind of sales shopping, sporting activities, or visiting friends or family. One form of busyness is replaced by another.” implies that according to the author these are a form of busyness. 

QUESTION: 5

The Christmas season, of course, is an appropriate time of year to reflect on busyness. The time between Christmas and New Year should be a time for reflection and relaxation, but is often stressed. Rather than taking time out after the busyness of Christmas preparations, many of us find ourselves in a whirlwind of sales shopping, sporting activities, or visiting friends or family. One form of busyness is replaced by another. Being busy has become so ubiquitous it has come to mean everything and nothing. As more people identify with the problem of busyness, some of us seek advice from time management experts about how to manage our busy lives. But data suggests that we are not as busy as we think we are. Social scientists who, specialise in researching every day time- use can compare trends in how we spend time from the 1960s onwards. The UK expert on time use, Jonathan Gershuny, claims that actual time spent in work has not increased since the 1960s - but what we mean by busyness has changed over time. In his view, busyness has become a badge of honour. There are a number of reasons for this change in definition. More women in the workforce mean that more households have to juggle both partners working with the demands of domestic routines. Meanwhile, social prestige is associated with being busy and, as we often experience at Christmas, leisure time has become more of an intensive experience.

What is/are the view(s) of time management experts?
1. During Christmas avoid shopping, visiting friends.
2. Now busyness has become a badge of honour.
We are not as busy as we think.

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned that “time management expert’s data suggests that we are not as busy as we think we are in their view, busyness has become a badge of honour”. 

QUESTION: 6

The Christmas season, of course, is an appropriate time of year to reflect on busyness. The time between Christmas and New Year should be a time for reflection and relaxation, but is often stressed. Rather than taking time out after the busyness of Christmas preparations, many of us find ourselves in a whirlwind of sales shopping, sporting activities, or visiting friends or family. One form of busyness is replaced by another. Being busy has become so ubiquitous it has come to mean everything and nothing. As more people identify with the problem of busyness, some of us seek advice from time management experts about how to manage our busy lives. But data suggests that we are not as busy as we think we are. Social scientists who, specialise in researching every day time- use can compare trends in how we spend time from the 1960s onwards. The UK expert on time use, Jonathan Gershuny, claims that actual time spent in work has not increased since the 1960s - but what we mean by busyness has changed over time. In his view, busyness has become a badge of honour. There are a number of reasons for this change in definition. More women in the workforce mean that more households have to juggle both partners working with the demands of domestic routines. Meanwhile, social prestige is associated with being busy and, as we often experience at Christmas, leisure time has become more of an intensive experience.

What is/are the reason(s) for the change in the definition of busyness?

1. Social prestige is associated with being busy.

2. More women in the workforce

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned “. More women in the workforce mean that more households have to juggle both partners working with the demands of domestic routines. Meanwhile, social prestige is associated with being busy”.

QUESTION: 7

A, B and C have the money in ratio 3: 4: 5, if B gives 400 to C the ratio of amount A, B and C have becomes 5: 6: 9. Find the initial total amounts that A, B and C have?

Solution:

Initially A, B and C have 3x, 4x and 5x respectively.

B gives 400 to C now ratio is 5: 6: 9

So, 4x – 400 = 6y and 5x + 400 = 9y

x = (5/3) y and y = 600.

So, final amount of A, B and C are 3000, 3600, 5400

Initial amount = 3000, 4000, 5000. Therefore, total sum = (3000 + 4000 + 5000) =12000

QUESTION: 8

 In an exam out of 1800 students, 65% boys and 80% girls are passed. If total pass percentage was 75%, how many girls appeared in the exam and how many girls failed? 

Solution:

from the question, we get the question 

x = 600

So, the number of girls (1800 -600) = 1200

QUESTION: 9

P2 Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Eight students A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are planning to enjoy car racing. There are only two cars and following are the conditions.

  1. One car can accommodate maximum five and minimum four students.
  2. A will sit in the same car in which D is sitting but H is not in the same car.
  3. B and C cannot sit in the same car in which D is sitting.
  4. F will sit in the car of four people only along with A and E but certainly not with G.

If H and G are sitting in the same car, who are other two students sitting in the same car?

Solution:

There are two cars I and II.

A and D sit in the same car, means, in I car H cannot sit in the same car i.e., H will sit in car II B and C are not in the same car in which D is sitting i.e. B and C will sit in car II. G is also in other car, means car II. Now, we have Car I – ADEF Car II – BCGH B and C are in the same car in which G and H are there.

QUESTION: 10

P2 Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Eight students A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are planning to enjoy car racing. There are only two cars and following are the conditions.

  1. One car can accommodate maximum five and minimum four students.
  2. A will sit in the same car in which D is sitting but H is not in the same car.
  3. B and C cannot sit in the same car in which D is sitting.
  4. F will sit in the car of four people only along with A and E but certainly not with G.

 If E and A are sitting in the same car, which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

There are two cars I and II. 

A and D sit in the same car, means, in I car H cannot sit in the same car i.e., H will sit in car II B and C are not in the same car in which D is sitting i.e. B and C will sit in car II. G is also in other car, means car II.

Now, we have

Car I – ADEF

Car II – BCGH

Clearly G is not sitting. 

QUESTION: 11

P2 Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Eight students A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are planning to enjoy car racing. There are only two cars and following are the conditions.

  1. One car can accommodate maximum five and minimum four students.
  2. A will sit in the same car in which D is sitting but H is not in the same car.
  3. B and C cannot sit in the same car in which D is sitting.
  4. F will sit in the car of four people only along with A and E but certainly not with G.

Which of the following statements is superfluous for the above sitting arrangements ?

Solution:

There are two cars I and II. A and D sit in the same car, means, in I car H cannot sit in the same car i.e., H will sit in car II B and C are not in the same car in which D is sitting i.e. B and C will sit in car II. G is also in other car, means car II.

Now, we have

Car I – ADEF

Car II – BCGH

Statement (i) is superfluous, it is not necessary. 

QUESTION: 12

Scholars argued that "the curriculum, while loud on rhetoric, fails to address the equality of education that students of underprivileged and marginalized groups experience." Several other critics described the revised curriculum as a retrogressive step in education that sought to impose the religious agenda in the garb of a national identity. The subsequent change of national government in 2004 led to the curriculum review in 2005, underlining a new political interest in the role of education in national development, its role in social mobilization and transformation directed specifically at questions of caste and gender asymmetry and minority empowerment. Deeper than these politically driven initiatives, however, the professional need for curriculum review emerges from the long ossification of a national education system that continues to view faculty as "dispensers of information" and students as "passive recipients" of an "education" sought to be "delivered" in four-walled classrooms with little scope to develop critical thinking and understanding.

Which of the following best describes the phrase "passive recipients" as used in the passage?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned “the professional need for curriculum review emerges from the long ossification of a national education system that continues to view faculty as "dispensers of information" and students as "passive recipients" of an "education" implies that the phrase passive recipients is used for the students. 

QUESTION: 13

​Scholars argued that "the curriculum, while loud on rhetoric, fails to address the equality of education that students of underprivileged and marginalized groups experience." Several other critics described the revised curriculum as a retrogressive step in education that sought to impose the religious agenda in the garb of a national identity. The subsequent change of national government in 2004 led to the curriculum review in 2005, underlining a new political interest in the role of education in national development, its role in social mobilization and transformation directed specifically at questions of caste and gender asymmetry and minority empowerment. Deeper than these politically driven initiatives, however, the professional need for curriculum review emerges from the long ossification of a national education system that continues to view faculty as "dispensers of information" and students as "passive recipients" of an "education" sought to be "delivered" in four-walled classrooms with little scope to develop critical thinking and understanding.

To facilitate social transformation, which of the following has been identified by the author as one of the factors?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned “The subsequent change of national government in 2004 led to the curriculum review in 2005, underlining a new political interest in the role of education in national development, its role in social mobilization and transformation directed specifically at questions of caste and gender asymmetry and minority empowerment. Deeper than these politically driven initiatives” implies that support of the well-framed curriculum is used to facilitate social transformation.

QUESTION: 14

​Scholars argued that "the curriculum, while loud on rhetoric, fails to address the equality of education that students of underprivileged and marginalized groups experience." Several other critics described the revised curriculum as a retrogressive step in education that sought to impose the religious agenda in the garb of a national identity. The subsequent change of national government in 2004 led to the curriculum review in 2005, underlining a new political interest in the role of education in national development, its role in social mobilization and transformation directed specifically at questions of caste and gender asymmetry and minority empowerment. Deeper than these politically driven initiatives, however, the professional need for curriculum review emerges from the long ossification of a national education system that continues to view faculty as "dispensers of information" and students as "passive recipients" of an "education" sought to be "delivered" in four-walled classrooms with little scope to develop critical thinking and understanding.

 What hampers the critical thinking ability of college-going students?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned “national education system that continues to view faculty as "dispensers of information" and students as "passive recipients" of an "education" sought to be "delivered" in four-walled classrooms with little scope to develop critical thinking and understanding.” implies that absence of focus while designing curriculum framework hampers the critical thinking ability of college-going students. 

QUESTION: 15

During a two-day meeting later this week in a stately neo-baroque building in Tokyo, nine men may vote to end of one of the oldest periods in the history of central banking- and send one of the clearest signals yet that Japan’s economy has finally emerged from 15 years of stagnation. Led by Governor Toshihiko Fukui, the monetary policy committee at the Bank of Japan (BOJ) will vote on whether to raise its overnight lending rate to 0.25% or leave it at Zero, where it has been for more than five years. That shift would not just demonstrate that the BOJ believes the world’s second largest economy is now on sound footing—it would also have profound effect on global markets and both corporate and private borrowers.
The race hike is by no means guaranteed—the BOJ could wait until its next meeting in August or beyond. But 32 out of 41 analysts and traders surveyed by Reuters last week said they expect an increase at this week’s meeting. Yasunari Ueno, Chief market economist at Mizhuo securities, says, "I put the possibility for hike this week at 80% to 90%." If it doesn’t happen, there’s nonetheless a widespread belief that it will inevitably do so in the next few months—and that the first rise will likely be followed by more.

It appears that about one- and-a- half decades ago, Japan’s economy was in a state of

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned “Japan’s economy has finally emerged from 15 years of stagnation. Led by Governor Toshihiko Fukui” implies that from about one- and-a-half decades ago Japan’s economy was in a state of Jeopardy. 

QUESTION: 16

During a two-day meeting later this week in a stately neo-baroque building in Tokyo, nine men may vote to end of one of the oldest periods in the history of central banking- and send one of the clearest signals yet that Japan’s economy has finally emerged from 15 years of stagnation. Led by Governor Toshihiko Fukui, the monetary policy committee at the Bank of Japan (BOJ) will vote on whether to raise its overnight lending rate to 0.25% or leave it at Zero, where it has been for more than five years. That shift would not just demonstrate that the BOJ believes the world’s second largest economy is now on sound footing—it would also have profound effect on global markets and both corporate and private borrowers.
The race hike is by no means guaranteed—the BOJ could wait until its next meeting in August or beyond. But 32 out of 41 analysts and traders surveyed by Reuters last week said they expect an increase at this week’s meeting. Yasunari Ueno, Chief market economist at Mizhuo securities, says, "I put the possibility for hike this week at 80% to 90%." If it doesn’t happen, there’s nonetheless a widespread belief that it will inevitably do so in the next few months—and that the first rise will likely be followed by more.

The change in lending rate by Bank of Japan (BOJ) would affect which of the following?

  1. Give a perception to the world that it is on concrete footing.
  2. all over the worldMarkets
  3. It will not have any impact on corporate and private borrowers.
Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned. “That shift would not just demonstrate that the BOJ believes the world’s second largest economy is now on sound footing—it would also have profound effect on global markets and both corporate and private borrowers.” implies that the change in rate by Bank of Japan (BOJ) would affect market all over the world and it also give a perception to the world that it is on concrete footing.

QUESTION: 17

 If x $ y = (x + y + xy -1) (x + y + xy + , then the value of (4 $ 5) is.

Solution:

As per the definition of $, (4 $ 5) would be (4 + 5 + 4 × 5 - 1) (4 + 5 + 4 × 5 + 1) = 840. So, 
answer is (b)

QUESTION: 18

Each of the 350 members in a society is required to sign up for a minimum of one and a maximum of three clubs. The three clubs to choose from are the painting club, the singing club, and the dancing club. A total of 174 peoples sign up for the dancing club, 126 students for the singing club, and 174 students for the painting club. If 114 students sign up for exactly two clubs, how many students sign up for all three clubs?

Solution:

QUESTION: 19

The diagonal of a rectangle is V21 cm and its area is 50 sq. cm. What is the perimeter of the rectangle?

Solution:

For a rectangle, d2 = l2 + b2

where l= length, b = breadth and d = diagonal of the of the rectangle

d = √21

d2 = l2 + b2
(l2 + b2 = 21)      (1)
Area = l x b = 50    (2)
[(a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + lab]

Using the above formula, we have 

(l + b)2 = l2 + b2 + 2lb

(l + b)2 = 21 + 2 x 50     [from (1) and (2)]

(l + b)2 = 121

(l + b) = 11

Perimeter of rectangle = 2(l + b)

=  2(11) =  22 cm

QUESTION: 20

A man completes a journey in 14 hrs. He travels first half of journey at the rate of 15 km/h and the second half at the rate of 20 km/h. Find the total journey in km.

Solution:

According, to question, 

QUESTION: 21

In a family there are seven children. In which A, B and C are male while W, X, Y and Z are female. There is only one carrom board in this family and children want to play. For each game they select a team in which two male children are must. All children must be able to play with each other. But, B cannot play with W, C cannot play with Z and W cannot play with Y.

If Y is selected and B is rejected, the team will consist of which one of the following groups?

Solution:

Two male children and B isn’t playing. So, A and C are must in team and Y is selected so Z mustn’t be in team because C can’t play with her. So, X is the fourth member of the team.

QUESTION: 22

In a family there are seven children. In which A, B and C are male while W, X, Y and Z are female. There is only one carrom board in this family and children want to play. For each game they select a team in which two male children are must. All children must be able to play with each other. But, B cannot play with W, C cannot play with Z and W cannot play with Y.

If B is selected and Y is rejected, the team will consist of which one of the following groups?

Solution:

If B is selected then W can’t be selected and if C is playing then Z mustn’t play. So, the team will be A, B, C and X.

QUESTION: 23

In a family there are seven children. In which A, B and C are male while W, X, Y and Z are female. There is only one carrom board in this family and children want to play. For each game they select a team in which two male children are must. All children must be able to play with each other. But, B cannot play with W, C cannot play with Z and W cannot play with Y.

 If all the three males are selected, then how many combinations of teams are possible ?

Solution:

If B plays W mustn’t play and C plays then Z mustn’t play. So there is two possible teams (A, B, C and X) and (A, B, C and Y) 

QUESTION: 24

The norm of anonymity means that the civil servants must work from behind the curtain, without praise or blame. In the word of Mohit Bhattacharya, "Anonymity meant that the civil servant would merely advice the politician from behind and would be protected from being exposed to the din and fury of politics. The norm of anonymity requires that the minister has to answer for the actions of the civil servants working under him in the parliament and thus, protect them from the criticism of the parliamentarians. This implies that the minister assumes total responsibility for the commissions and omissions of the civil servants working under him. The minister runs his department / ministry and is politically responsible for its activities. He is mainly concerned with policy and consults his secretary on policy decisions. It is the Minister who decide which course of action to adopt. He alone would be answerable in the parliament for good and bad results of the policy, not the secretary. Therefore, the norm of anonymity is the counterpart of the principle of ministerial responsibility. In other words, the principle of anonymity goes hand in hand with the principle of ministerial responsibility.

Which among the following is not implied by anonymity in the passage above?

Solution:

Clearly, in the above passage nothing is mentioned about either their work should be hidden from public eyes or not so it is incorrect.

QUESTION: 25

​The norm of anonymity means that the civil servants must work from behind the curtain, without praise or blame. In the word of Mohit Bhattacharya, "Anonymity meant that the civil servant would merely advice the politician from behind and would be protected from being exposed to the din and fury of politics. The norm of anonymity requires that the minister has to answer for the actions of the civil servants working under him in the parliament and thus, protect them from the criticism of the parliamentarians. This implies that the minister assumes total responsibility for the commissions and omissions of the civil servants working under him. The minister runs his department / ministry and is politically responsible for its activities. He is mainly concerned with policy and consults his secretary on policy decisions. It is the Minister who decide which course of action to adopt. He alone would be answerable in the parliament for good and bad results of the policy, not the secretary. Therefore, the norm of anonymity is the counterpart of the principle of ministerial responsibility. In other words, the principle of anonymity goes hand in hand with the principle of ministerial responsibility.

What does collective responsibility mean as per the passage above?

Solution:

Collective responsibility means that the executive shall be responsible to the parliament for their action and policies. Thus, the principle of ministerial responsibility ensures that for every act or wrong act in his Ministry / department, the minister has to answer in the parliament and protect the civil servants working under him from the criticism of the parliament. So, the executive is responsible to the parliament for all its actions and policies.

QUESTION: 26

​The norm of anonymity means that the civil servants must work from behind the curtain, without praise or blame. In the word of Mohit Bhattacharya, "Anonymity meant that the civil servant would merely advice the politician from behind and would be protected from being exposed to the din and fury of politics. The norm of anonymity requires that the minister has to answer for the actions of the civil servants working under him in the parliament and thus, protect them from the criticism of the parliamentarians. This implies that the minister assumes total responsibility for the commissions and omissions of the civil servants working under him. The minister runs his department / ministry and is politically responsible for its activities. He is mainly concerned with policy and consults his secretary on policy decisions. It is the Minister who decide which course of action to adopt. He alone would be answerable in the parliament for good and bad results of the policy, not the secretary. Therefore, the norm of anonymity is the counterpart of the principle of ministerial responsibility. In other words, the principle of anonymity goes hand in hand with the principle of ministerial responsibility.

What, as per the passage, can be said to be the relationship between ‘Anonymity’   and  ‘Ministerial
responsibility’.

Solution:

From the above passage, its clear Anonymity is for civil servants while ministerial responsibility is for executive (i.e., Ministers). Therefore, Anonymity applies to the Civil-Servant while Ministerial responsibility is that of political executive to the parliament.

QUESTION: 27

Just as one must learn the art of killing in the training for violence, so one must learn the art of dying in the training for non-violence. Violence does not mean emancipation from fear, but discovering the means of combating the cause of fear. Non-violence, on the other hand, has no cause for fear. The votary of non-violence has to cultivate the capacity for sacrifice of the highest type in order to be free from fear. He recks not if he should lose his hand, his wealth, his life. He who has not overcome all fear cannot practice ahimsa to perfection. The votary of ahimsa has only one fear that is of god. He who seeks refuge in god ought to have a glimpse of the atma that transcends the body; and the moment one has a glimpse of the imperishable Atma one sheds the love of the perishable body. Training in violence is thus diametrically opposed to training in violence. Violence is needed for the protection of things external; non-violence is needed for the protection of Atma, for the protection of one’s honour.
Which of the following statement as per the passage are correct?
1. Violence means overcoming the cause of fear.
2. Violence means trying to eliminate the cause of fear.
3. Non-violence means combating the source of fear.
4. Non-violence means sacrificing even self for shedding fear.

Solution:

From the passage we may conclude that author’s view Violence does not mean emancipation from fear, but discovering the means of combating the cause of fear while Nonviolence has to cultivate the capacity for sacrifice of the highest type in order to be free from fear. 

QUESTION: 28

​Just as one must learn the art of killing in the training for violence, so one must learn the art of dying in the training for non-violence. Violence does not mean emancipation from fear, but discovering the means of combating the cause of fear. Non-violence, on the other hand, has no cause for fear. The votary of non-violence has to cultivate the capacity for sacrifice of the highest type in order to be free from fear. He recks not if he should lose his hand, his wealth, his life. He who has not overcome all fear cannot practice ahimsa to perfection. The votary of ahimsa has only one fear that is of god. He who seeks refuge in god ought to have a glimpse of the atma that transcends the body; and the moment one has a glimpse of the imperishable Atma one sheds the love of the perishable body. Training in violence is thus diametrically opposed to training in violence. Violence is needed for the protection of things external; non-violence is needed for the protection of Atma, for the protection of one’s honour.

Why does the author suggest that practitioners of non-violence should develop capacity for sacrifice?

Solution:

In the passage author suggest that practitioners of non-violence should develop capacity for sacrifice in order to be free from fear.

QUESTION: 29

Study the following information carefully to answer the questions.
Amul, Byomkesh, Chaman, Diksha, Emily, Fahim and Gauri are seated in a straight line facing north but not necessarily in the same order.

  • Only three people sit between Fahim and Byomkesh.
  • Neither Fahim nor Byomkesh sits at the extreme ends of the line.
  • Only two people sit between Byomkesh and Emily.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of either Byomkesh or Fahim.
  • Diksha sits third to  the left of Gauri.
  • Gauri is not an immediate neighbour of Byomkesh.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of Amul.

Who are immediate neighbours of Chaman?

Solution:
QUESTION: 30

Study the following information carefully to answer the questions.
Amul, Byomkesh, Chaman, Diksha, Emily, Fahim and Gauri are seated in a straight line facing north but not necessarily in the same order.

  • Only three people sit between Fahim and Byomkesh.
  • Neither Fahim nor Byomkesh sits at the extreme ends of the line.
  • Only two people sit between Byomkesh and Emily.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of either Byomkesh or Fahim.
  • Diksha sits third to  the left of Gauri.
  • Gauri is not an immediate neighbour of Byomkesh.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of Amul.

At what position Chaman is sitting from the right?

Solution:
QUESTION: 31

Study the following information carefully to answer the questions.
Amul, Byomkesh, Chaman, Diksha, Emily, Fahim and Gauri are seated in a straight line facing north but not necessarily in the same order.

  • Only three people sit between Fahim and Byomkesh.
  • Neither Fahim nor Byomkesh sits at the extreme ends of the line.
  • Only two people sit between Byomkesh and Emily.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of either Byomkesh or Fahim.
  • Diksha sits third to  the left of Gauri.
  • Gauri is not an immediate neighbour of Byomkesh.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of Amul.

Who is sitting between Fahim and Gauri?

Solution:
QUESTION: 32

Study the following information carefully to answer the questions.
Amul, Byomkesh, Chaman, Diksha, Emily, Fahim and Gauri are seated in a straight line facing north but not necessarily in the same order.

  • Only three people sit between Fahim and Byomkesh.
  • Neither Fahim nor Byomkesh sits at the extreme ends of the line.
  • Only two people sit between Byomkesh and Emily.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of either Byomkesh or Fahim.
  • Diksha sits third to  the left of Gauri.
  • Gauri is not an immediate neighbour of Byomkesh.
  • Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of Amul.

Who is sitting right to Emily?

Solution:

From clue 1 and clue 2 (Only three people sit between Fahim and Byomkesh and neither Fahim nor Byomkesh sits at the extreme ends of the line.), there are two possibilities. 

From clue 3 and clue 4 (Only two people sit between Byomkesh and Emily and Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of either Byomkesh or Fahim). Again, there are two possibilities. 

Using, clue 5 and clue 6 (Diksha sits third to the left of Gauri and Gauri is not an immediate neighbour of Byomkesh) we are with only one possibility. 

Using statement 7, (Diksha is not an immediate neighbour of Amul) we get the final 
arrangement.

Now, we can answer these questions easily, with the help of the above arrangement.

QUESTION: 33

A, B and C have 40, x and y balls with them respectively. If B gives 20 balls to A, he is left with half as many balls as C. If together they had 60 more balls, each of them would have had 100 balls on an average. What is the ratio of x to y?

Solution:

Given, (40+x+y+60)/3=100

x + y =200 ………… (eq.1)

x – 20 = y/2 2x – y = 40 …………. (eq.2)

Solving 1 and 2 We get x= 80, y=120.  

Ratio of x: y = 2: 3 

QUESTION: 34

 The incomes of A, B, C are in the ratio of 12: 9: 7 and their spending are in the ratio 15: 9: 8. If A saves 25% of his income. What is the ratio of the savings of A, B and C respectively?

Solution:

Let the income be 12x, 9x, 7x and expenditure is 15y, 9y, 8y.
Income – Expenditure = Savings

For A, 12x -15y = 25% of 12x = 3x  9x =15y  => y = 3x/5  B’s

Saving = 9x - 9y  => 9x-9(3x/5) => 18x/5

C’s Saving = 7x-8y => 7x – 8(3x/5) => 11x/5

Savings Ratio A: B: C :: 3x: 18x/5: 11x/5

Required ratio = 15: 18: 11 

QUESTION: 35

A survey conducted in Britain confirmed that an abnormally high percentage of patients suffering from arthritis of the spine who had been treated with X rays contracted cancer. Another study revealed a high incidence of childhood cancer in cases where the mother had been given prenatal pelvic X rays. These studies have pointed to the need to re-examine the assumption that exposure to low-linear energy transfer presents only a minor risk. Recently, examination of the death certificates of former employees of a West Coast plant that produces plutonium for nuclear weapons revealed markedly higher rates for cancers of the pancreas, lung, bone marrow, and lymphatic system than would have been expected in a normal population. While the National Academy of Sciences committee attributes this difference to chemical or other environmental causes rather than radiation, other scientists maintain that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, leads to an increase in cancer risk. It is believed by some that a dose of one rem, if sustained over many generations, would lead to an increase of 1 percent in the number of serious genetic defects at birth, a possible increase of 1,000 disorders per million births.

According to the passage, some scientists believe that a dose of one rem of radiation continued over a period of generations would

Solution:

In the passage it is clearly mentioned that a dose of one rem if sustained over many generations, would lead to an increase of 1 percent in the number of serious genetic defects at  birth.

QUESTION: 36

A survey conducted in Britain confirmed that an abnormally high percentage of patients suffering from arthritis of the spine who had been treated with X rays contracted cancer. Another study revealed a high incidence of childhood cancer in cases where the mother had been given prenatal pelvic X rays. These studies have pointed to the need to re-examine the assumption that exposure to low-linear energy transfer presents only a minor risk. Recently, examination of the death certificates of former employees of a West Coast plant that produces plutonium for nuclear weapons revealed markedly higher rates for cancers of the pancreas, lung, bone marrow, and lymphatic system than would have been expected in a normal population. While the National Academy of Sciences committee attributes this difference to chemical or other environmental causes rather than radiation, other scientists maintain that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, leads to an increase in cancer risk. It is believed by some that a dose of one rem, if sustained over many generations, would lead to an increase of 1 percent in the number of serious genetic defects at birth, a possible increase of 1,000 disorders per million births.

The passage implies that each of the following statements about radiation has been disputed EXCEPT?

Solution:

In the passage it is mentioned that many small doses of radiation are as harmful as a large dose. So, it implies that human can’t tolerate any amount of radiation. 

QUESTION: 37

"Masterpieces are dumb," wrote Flaubert, "They have a tranquil aspect like the very products of nature, like large animals and mountains." He might have been thinking of War and Peace, that vast, silent work, unfathomable and simple, provoking endless questions through the majesty of its being. Tolstoi’s  simplicity is "overpowering," says the critic Bayley, "disconcerting," because it comes from "his casual assumption that the world is as he sees it." Like other nineteenth- century Russian writers he is "impressive" because he "means what he says," but he stands apart from all others and from most Western writers in his identity with life, which is so complete as to make us forget he is an artist. He is the centre of his work, but his egocentricity is of a special kind. Goethe, for example, says Bayley, "cared for nothing but himself. Tolstoi was nothing but himself."

Which of the following best paraphrases Flaubert’s statement quoted?

Solution:

It is mentioned in the passage that “Masterpieces have a tranquil aspect like the very products of nature, like large animals and mountains” imply that Flaubert implies that Great works of art do not explain themselves to us any more than natural objects do.

QUESTION: 38

​"Masterpieces are dumb," wrote Flaubert, "They have a tranquil aspect like the very products of nature, like large animals and mountains." He might have been thinking of War and Peace, that vast, silent work, unfathomable and simple, provoking endless questions through the majesty of its being. Tolstoi’s  simplicity is "overpowering," says the critic Bayley, "disconcerting," because it comes from "his casual assumption that the world is as he sees it." Like other nineteenth- century Russian writers he is "impressive" because he "means what he says," but he stands apart from all others and from most Western writers in his identity with life, which is so complete as to make us forget he is an artist. He is the centre of his work, but his egocentricity is of a special kind. Goethe, for example, says Bayley, "cared for nothing but himself. Tolstoi was nothing but himself."

The author quotes from Bayley to show that

Solution:

In the passage author mentioned that Bayley calls it “disconcerting," because it comes from "his casual assumption that the world is as he sees it imply that although Tolstoi observes and interprets life, he maintains no self-conscious distance from his experience

QUESTION: 39

An Employer pays Rs. 15 for each day a worker works, and forfeits Rs. 5 for each day he is idle. At the end of 40 days, a worker gets Rs. 160. For how many days did the worker remain idle?

Solution:

Suppose the worker remained idle for x days.  Then, He worked for (40 – x) days.

=15 (40 – x) – 5x =160

600-15x-5x=160  

20x = 600 -160

20x =440  x = 22. 

QUESTION: 40

The ratio between the length and the breadth of a rectangular park is 4: 1. If a man cycling along the boundary of the park at the speed of 15 km/hr completes one round in 10 minutes, then the length of the park (in sq. m) is:

Solution:

Perimeter = Distance covered in 10 min.

= (15000/60)*10 =2500 m  

Let h = 4x and b = x  

Then, 2(4x + x) = 2500  x = 250.

Then length = 4 * 250 =1000.

QUESTION: 41

An error 3% in excess is made while measuring the side of a square. The percentage of error in the calculated area of the square is:

Solution:

Let 100 cm is read as 103 cm.

Area 100*100=10000  

Error area 103*103=10609  

Diff=609.

%ge error= (609/10000)*100 =6.09%. 

QUESTION: 42

A shopkeeper marks up the price of his product by 20%. If he increases the discount from 5% to 10%, the profit would decrease by Rs 2

Solution:

Let CP be 100 then MP 120

5% discount =114.  

10% discount =108.

If we let CP as 100 we get difference of Rs 6 but the actual difference 21, which is 3.5 times of 6.

It implies the CP of product = 3.5 * 100= 350, Then MP=20% of 350=70 =350 + 70 = 420. 

Now 20% discount, 20% of 420 =336.  Loss =350-336=Rs14.

QUESTION: 43

The average age of a family of 6 members is 20 years. If the age of the youngest member be 5 years, the average age of the family at the birth of the youngest member was?

Solution:

Total present age of the family (6*20) = 120 yrs

Total age of the family 5 years ago = (120 – 6*5) = 90 years  

At that time, Total members in the family = 5

Therefore Average age at that time = 90/5 = 18 yrs..

QUESTION: 44

The number of students in 3 classes are in the ratio 4: 5: 6. If 15 students are increased in each class this ratio changes to 11:13:15. The total number of students in the three classes in the beginning was

Solution:

Let the number of students in the classes be 4x, 5x and 6x respectively;  

Total students = 4x + 5x + 6x = 15x.  

Given, (4x+15)/(5x+15) = 11/13

3x=30==>x=10.  

Then Total no of students is 15x=15*10=150.

QUESTION: 45

Highways are a critically important infrastructure for an emerging nation. And the design of appropriate contracts is the critical instrument for meeting the challenge of highways. What are these challenges? To put it in one sentence, the objective or the challenge is to maximise the difference between:

  1. The additional welfare that our citizens get from having more and better roads and,
  2. The present value of the cost of building those roads.

The broad principles above translate into these following general rules.

  1. We have to have a cut-off rule to decide which project is worthwhile and which are not.
  2. Between two identical roads if one can be done at lower cost, we should choose the one with the lower cost, subject to that being viable in the sense of (1), above.
  3. All costs do not take the form of brick and mortar. A build-up of fiscal deficit is also a form of cost. This may be difficult to reduce to the equivalent of brick and mortar cost but must not be omitted for that reason.

Some of the problems can be overcome if projects are awarded on the basis of a transparent and hands-off auction system. The heart of an efficient, cost effective and transparent system of PPP partnership whereby the government gives out the task of developing new highways to the private sector is the system of auction. Auction work best when the product is being sold lock, stock and barrel to a bidder. Hence, system such as BOT (toll) and annuitized BOT (toll) are better suited to being given out through competitive auction than the BOT (annuity). In the case of BOT (toll) and annuitized BOT the developer basically gets to own the road for the next 20 years. Hence, this comes close to a lock, stock and barrel sale.

Which of the following is suggested by the passage to overcome some of the problems associated with highway projects?

Solution:

From the passage, the suggested way to overcome some of the problems associated with highway projects is by awarding of contracts on auction system based on public-privatepartnership (PPP) model. 

QUESTION: 46

The broad principles which determine the validity/ suitability of a Highway/ road is to determine the difference between;

Solution:

From the passage it can be drawn that the broad principles which determine the validity/ suitability of a Highway/ road is to determine the difference between the benefit to the society from the project and the cost which the society has to pay for it.

QUESTION: 47

A possible theory of ocean formation is that the sinking plate cools the neighbouring mantle and produces convection currents that move the plates. This last theory is attractive because it gives some hope of explaining the enclosed seas, such as the Sea of Japan. These seas have a typical oceanic floor, except that the floor is overlaid by several kilometres of sediment. Their floors have probably been sinking for long periods. It seems possible that a sinking current of cooled mantle material on the upper side of the plate might be the cause of such deep basins. The enclosed seas are an important feature of the Earth’s surface, and seriously require explanation because, in addition to the enclosed seas that are developing at present behind island arcs, there are a number of older ones of possibly similar origin, such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and perhaps the North Sea.

According to the passage, the floor of the Black Sea can best be compared to a

Solution:

From the passage it can be drawn that the floor of the Black Sea can best be compared to a slowly settling foundation. 

QUESTION: 48

How many really suffer as a result of labour market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930‘s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labour market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple- earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labour force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labour market pathologies.

Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage?

Solution:

In the given passage author clarifies that income measure are not precise in measuring 
poverty. 

QUESTION: 49

​How many really suffer as a result of labour market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930‘s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labour market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple- earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labour force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labour market pathologies.

The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that

Solution:

Author stated that “unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930‘s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners” implies that unemployment now has less severe effects.

QUESTION: 50

When a particular positive number is divided by 3, the remainder is 1. If the same number is divided by 5, the remainder is 4. If the difference between the quotients of the division is 3, then find the number.

Solution:

Let the quotients when this number is divided by 3 and 5 be x and y respectively.

(Note that x will be greater than y as 3 is smaller than 5).

Number = 3x + 1 = 5y + 4

Given that, x – y = 3

On solving both equation we get, x = 6, y=3

Thus the number is 5 × 3 + 4= 19. 

QUESTION: 51

Jyoti bought two varieties of pulses, costing Rs 50 per kg and Rs 60 per kg each, and mixed them in some ratio. Then she sold the mixture at Rs 70 per kg, making a profit of 20 percent. What was the ratio of the mixture?

Solution:

Let 1: k be the ratio in which Jyoti mixed the two types of pulses.

Then a sample of (1+k) kg of the mixture should equal 1 kg of pulses of the first type and k kg of pulses of the second type.

The pulses of the first type cost 50 Rs a kg and that of the second type costs 60 rupees a kg. Hence, it cost him: (1 kg 50 rupees per kg) + (k kg 60 rupees per kg) = 50 + 60k

Since she sold the mixture at 70 rupees per kg, he must have sold the net (1+k) kg of the mixture at 70(1+k).

Since she earned 20% profit doing this, 70(1+k) must be 20% more than 50+60k.

Hence, we have the equation

So, the required ratio be 1: 5 

QUESTION: 52

Statement: Many cases of cholera were reported from a nearby village.
Courses of action:

  1. The question to be raised in the legislative assembly.
  2. A team of doctors should be rushed to the village.
Solution:

(1) course of action is not the immediate relief to the victims. Thus (1) is not the right course of action to be chosen for the problem. The immediate medical aid will definitely mitigate the problem to a large extent. Thus (2) course of action is the immediate action to be taken and it is the remedial step. 

QUESTION: 53

In a class of 70 students, a boy is ranked 18th When five boys joined, his rank was dropped by two. What is his new rank from the end?

Solution:

After 5 boys joined, total strength of class = 70 + 5 = 75

As rank was dropped by two from 18th rank, new rank is 20.

Rank of the boy from the beginning = 20

Number of students below his rank = 75 - 20 = 55

Rank from the end = (75- 20) + 1 = 56 

QUESTION: 54

Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.
Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the difference (in tonnes) between the production of Canada in 2013 and that of America in 2016?

Solution:

Production of America in 2016 = 35 Lakh tonnes

Production of Canada in 2013 = 30 Lakh tonnes

So, the difference is 5 Lakh tonnes or 500000 tonnes. 

QUESTION: 55

Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.
Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the percentage increase in production of America from 2016 to 2017?

Solution:

Production of America in 2016 = 35 Lakh tonnes

Production of America in 2017 = 65 Lakh tonnes 

Percentage increase of America from 2016 to 2017 

QUESTION: 56

Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.
Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

For which of the following years the percentage of rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for Britain?

Solution:

Percentage rise/fall in production for B

QUESTION: 57

Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.
Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

The total production of company C in 2014 and 2018 is what percentage of the total production of company C in 2016 and 2017?

Solution:

QUESTION: 58

Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.
Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the difference (in Lakh tonnes) between the average production per year of the company with highest average production and that of the company with the lowest average production?

Solution:

Average production of A = 51.66

Average production of B = 43.33

Average production of C = 30.83

Difference of production = 51.66 – 30.83
⇒ 20.83

QUESTION: 59

In a rare coin collection, there is one gold coin for every four non-gold coins. 5 more gold coins are added to the collection and the ratio of gold coins to non-gold coins would be 1: 3. Based on the information, the total number of coins in the collection now becomes

Solution:

At Start: x gold coins; 4x non-gold coins

Add 5: x+ 5 gold; 4x non-gold

Then, according to the given ratio

3 × number of gold coins = number of non-gold coins

3(x+5) = 4x

3x + 15 = 4x

x = 15

Total number of gold is x+ 5 = 15 + 5 = 20

Total number of non-gold is 4x = 80

Total number of coins is 100

QUESTION: 60

Ten new Magazines started on January, 5 Entertainment magazines, 3 political magazines 2 cricket magazines by April, only seven of the new magazines were still available, five of them being Entertainment magazines Based on the above information, four conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?

Solution:

No reason is provided for unavailability of any magazine. Hence, option (d) is not correct. Three magazines were unavailable. As no Entertainment magazine is unavailable, they must be either political magazine or cricket magazine. Now, there were only two cricket magazines. So, at least one magazine unavailable was a political magazine. Hence, option (c) is correct.

QUESTION: 61

Ram is younger to Harsh by 9 years. If their ages are in the respective ratio of 4:5, how old is Ram?

Solution:

Let Harsh's age be x years.
Then, Ram’s age = (x - 9) years.

(x - 9)/x = 4/5

x = 45

Hence, Ram's age = (x - 9) = 36 years.

QUESTION: 62

Shubh is 30 years old and Niku is 25 years old. How long ago was the ratio of their ages 3: 2?

Solution:

Here, we have to calculate: How many years ago the ratio of their ages was 3:2. Let us assume x years ago

At present: Shubh is 30 years and Niku is 25 years

x years ago: Shubh’s age = (30 – x) and Niku's age = (25 – x)

Given, the ratio of their ages was 3:2 

Solving, we get: x = 15

Therefore, the answer is 15 years.

QUESTION: 63

In 10 years, A will be thrice as old as B was 5 years ago. If A is now 9 years older than B, the present age of B is:

Solution:

Let B's present age = x years.

Then, A's present age = (x + 9) years.

(x + 9) + 10 = 3(x - 5)

=> x + 19 = 3x - 15

=> x =17 

QUESTION: 64

At 5'O clock, clock ticks 5 times. The time between first and last tick was 36 sec. How much time it takes at 11'O clock?

Solution:

At 5’o clock it ticks 5 times so there are total 4 time intervals. Total time taken = 36 
seconds
Hence, the time taken between any two consecutive ticks = 36/4 seconds = 9 seconds.

Similarly, clock will tick 11 times at 11 o’ clock.

At 11o’clock there will be 10 intervals.

Hence total time needed at 11 o’clock = 10 × 6 = 60 seconds.

QUESTION: 65

Six boys ABCDEF and six girls PQRSTU are standing in rows in such a way that each girl faces one boy, not necessarily in the same order.

  • P is to the immediate right of the girl who is facing E the boy at the extreme right.
  • Only B is sitting between D and E.
  • F is to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C.
  • R is facing A and is to the immediate left of Q.
  • U is third to the left of S.

Which of the following girls is facing D?

Solution:
QUESTION: 66

Six boys ABCDEF and six girls PQRSTU are standing in rows in such a way that each girl faces one boy, not necessarily in the same order.

  • P is to the immediate right of the girl who is facing E the boy at the extreme right.
  • Only B is sitting between D and E.
  • F is to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C.
  • R is facing A and is to the immediate left of Q.
  • U is third to the left of S.

Which of the following pairs of a boy and a girl is at one of the extreme ends?

Solution:
QUESTION: 67

Six boys ABCDEF and six girls PQRSTU are standing in rows in such a way that each girl faces one boy, not necessarily in the same order.

  • P is to the immediate right of the girl who is facing E the boy at the extreme right.
  • Only B is sitting between D and E.
  • F is to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C.
  • R is facing A and is to the immediate left of Q.
  • U is third to the left of S.

Who is standing to the immediate left of D?

Solution:
QUESTION: 68

Six boys ABCDEF and six girls PQRSTU are standing in rows in such a way that each girl faces one boy, not necessarily in the same order.

  • P is to the immediate right of the girl who is facing E the boy at the extreme right.
  • Only B is sitting between D and E.
  • F is to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C.
  • R is facing A and is to the immediate left of Q.
  • U is third to the left of S.

Four of the following five are alike in a certain way. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

Solution:

First of all, we have to consider that boys and girls are sitting facing the opposite direction. So, left of boys is right of girls. Using, statement 1 (P is to the immediate right of the girl who is facing E the boy at the extreme right) E is at the extreme end. The position of E and P are Boys Right 

Using, statement 2 (Only B is sitting between D and E). The position of B and D are;

Using statement 3 (F is to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C), we know about the sitting arrangement of boys.

Using, statement 3 (R is facing A and is to the immediate left of Q), the position of R and A is 
also known.

Using statement 4, (U is third to the left of S) we know the whole sitting arrangement because there is only one place from where third to the left place is vacant. So, the arrangement will be; 

QUESTION: 69

Examine the following statements:

  1. Only those who have a pair of spectacles can become the members of the Special eye’s club.
  2. Some members of the Special eye’s club have lenses.
  3. Those members who have lenses can take part in ramp walk contests.

Which one of the following conclusion can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

Having a pair of spectacles and be a member of the special eye's club

QUESTION: 70

Statements:
A. All the tiger are leopard.
B. No leopard is an elephant.

Conclusions:

  1. Some tigers are leopard.
  2. No leopard is a elephant.
Solution:

QUESTION: 71

A and B enter into a partnership and A invests 
Rs. 15,000 in the partnership. At the end of 3 months, he withdraws Rs.5000. At the end of another 5 months, he withdraws another Rs.5000. If B receives Rs. 12,000 as his share of the total profit of Rs. 23,500 for the year, how much did B invest in the company?

Solution:

The total profit for the year is 23,500. Of this B gets Rs. 12,000. Therefore, A would get (23,500−12,000) =Rs. 11,500

The partners split their profits in the ratio of their investments. Therefore, the ratio of the investments of,

A: B= 11500:12000 = 23:24. 

A invested Rs.15000 initially for a period of 3 months. Then, he withdrew Rs.5000.

Hence, his investment has reduced to Rs.10000 (for the next 5 months).

Then he withdraws another Rs.5000.

Hence, his investment will stand reduced to Rs.5000 during the last four months.

So, the amount of money that he had invested in the company on a money-month basis will be,

= (3 x 15000) + (5x 10000) + (4 x 5000)

= 45000+50000+20000 =115000

If A had 1,15,000 money months invested in the company, B would have had 1,20,000 money months invested in the company (as the ratio of their investments is 23:24). If B had 120000 money-months invested in the company, he has essentially invested

1,20,000/12 =10,000

QUESTION: 72

Choose the box that is similar to the box formed from the given sheet of paper

Solution:

In this case × lies opposite -;

+ lies opposite @;

$ lies opposite %.

Opposite sides cannot be adjacent. So, figure (1) and figure (2) rejected. So, figure (3) and figure (4) may be the similar box.

QUESTION: 73

Given below is a survey conducted in four cities about people liking different Politicians. The total number of people surveyed was 2018 and they were distributed as given in the chart. The table shows the percentage of people liking the Politicians in that particular city. An individual can have liking for more than one Politician.

Percentage in 4 cities of 2000 peoples surveyed

  1. Ranchi
  2. Patna
  3. Delhi
  4. Mumbai

Which city has maximum people liking N Kumar in the given survey?

Solution:

Let x be the percentage of total population surveyed in any city and y be the percentage of people surveyed in the city who like N Kumar.

Then N Kumar has maximum liking in that city where ‘x × y’ is maximum.

For Mumbai = 30 × 12 = 360

Delhi = 14 × 25 = 350

Patna = 6 × 23 = 138

Ranchi = 19 × 22 = 418 

QUESTION: 74

Given below is a survey conducted in four cities about people liking different Politicians. The total number of people surveyed was 2018 and they were distributed as given in the chart. The table shows the percentage of people liking the Politicians in that particular city. An individual can have liking for more than one Politician.

Percentage in 4 cities of 2000 peoples surveyed

  1. Ranchi
  2. Patna
  3. Delhi
  4. Mumbai

If all the fans of R Paswan also like N Modi in Mumbai, then how many people in Mumbai like N Modi but not R Paswan?

Solution:

N Modi’s fans who don’t like R Paswan = (62 – 36)% of (30% of 2000) = 26% of 600 = 156

QUESTION: 75

Given below is a survey conducted in four cities about people liking different Politicians. The total number of people surveyed was 2018 and they were distributed as given in the chart. The table shows the percentage of people liking the Politicians in that particular city. An individual can have liking for more than one Politician.

Percentage in 4 cities of 2000 peoples surveyed

  1. Ranchi
  2. Patna
  3. Delhi
  4. Mumbai

If M yadav and R Gandhi don’t have common fans then how many of the total people surveyed in all the four cities together like neither of them?

Solution:

In Mumbai, [100 - (29 + 21)] % = 50% don’t like either M yadav or R Gandhi.

50% of (30% of 2000) = 300

Same way: in Patna = 299

Delhi = 250 

Ranchi = 220

Total = 1069

QUESTION: 76

Given below is a survey conducted in four cities about people liking different Politicians. The total number of people surveyed was 2018 and they were distributed as given in the chart. The table shows the percentage of people liking the Politicians in that particular city. An individual can have liking for more than one Politician.

Percentage in 4 cities of 2000 peoples surveyed

  1. Ranchi
  2. Patna
  3. Delhi
  4. Mumbai

What can be the maximum number of people surveyed in Delhi who don’t like any of the above Politicians?

Solution:

In Delhi, for calculating maximum no. of people surveyed who don’t like any of the given 
Politicians, 
Let us assume that 52% fans who like N Modi also like the other five Politicians. So those who don’t like any of the above = (100 - 52) % = 48% of (25% of 2000) = 240

QUESTION: 77

Given below is a survey conducted in four cities about people liking different Politicians. The total number of people surveyed was 2018 and they were distributed as given in the chart. The table shows the percentage of people liking the Politicians in that particular city. An individual can have liking for more than one Politician.

Percentage in 4 cities of 2000 peoples surveyed

  1. Ranchi
  2. Patna
  3. Delhi
  4. Mumbai

What can be the maximum number of people surveyed in Patna who like all the Politicians given in the table?

Solution:

At maximum the required no. can be 6% of 23% of 2000 = 27.6 = 27

QUESTION: 78

The volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava cools rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into the water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact, geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.

Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

Solution:

In the passage it is given that pillow lava is formed by rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into the water or ice. 

QUESTION: 79

The volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava cools rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into the water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact, geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.

In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

Solution:

From the passage it is easily concluded that the author interested in analyzing the controversy of pillow lava. 

QUESTION: 80

The volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava cools rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into the water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact, geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.

The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologists mentioned (“Some geologists”) have made which of the following  errors in reasoning?

  1. Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.
  2. Deliberately ignored existing counterevidence.
  3. Repeatedly failed to take new evidence into account.
Solution:

In the passage author observes that the controversy is due to the availability of misleading information. So, the author agrees that some geologist Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.