UPSC Paper 1 Mock Test - 5

100 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Civil Services Revision & Mock Tests | UPSC Paper 1 Mock Test - 5

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With reference to Low Earth Orbits (LEO), consider the following statements:

1. Satellites in LEO suffer high atmospheric drag compared to those in geostationary orbit.
2. Satellites in LEO have high dwell time over a particular area.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- For the LEO Satellites there is still some atmospheric drag. Even though the amount of atmosphere is far too little to breath, there is enough to place a small amount of drag on the satellite or other object.

- As a result, over time these objects slow down and their orbits slowly decay. Simply put, the satellite or spacecraft slows down and this allows the influence of gravity to pull the object towards the Earth.

- Satellites in this orbit also have a smaller dwell time i.e., the time a satellite sits over one part of globe.


Human bodies can be scanned with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) because they contain


- When patients slide into an MRI machine, they take with them the billions of atoms that make up the human body.

- For the purposes of an MRI scan, we’re only concerned with the hydrogen atom, which is abundant since the body is mostly made up of water and fat.

- All of the atoms are going in various directions, but when placed in a magnetic field, the atoms line up in the direction of the field.

- These hydrogen atoms have a strong magnetic moment, which means that in a magnetic field, they line up in the direction of the field.


In a closed system, between the system and environment, there is no exchange of

1. Matter
2. Energy
3. Heat


- Closed systems are those in which no matter exchange takes place between the system and the environment.

- In isolated system, neither matter nor energy exchange takes place with the environment.


With reference to an inverter, consider the following statements:

1. An inverter is a device that converts alternating current to direct current.
2. An inverter is fitted in the main power line.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- An inverter is a device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).

- An inverter is fitted in the main power line.

- A rectifier converts AC to DC. 


If we cannot see a black hole (even with a telescope), then how are they detected?

1. By studying the behaviour of objects around them.
2. Calculating the value of red shift.
3. Detecting the gravitational lens effect.
4. Detecting the emitted radiation.


Although we cannot see black holes, we can detect or guess the presence of one by measuring its effects on objects around it. The following effects may be used:

1. Mass estimates from objects orbiting a black hole or spiraling into the core

2. Gravitational lens effects

3. Emitted radiation


Refrigerators have become a common household appliance. A refrigeration system


- Refrigeration is the process of cooling a space, substance, or system to lower and/or maintain its temperature below the ambient one (while the removed heat is rejected at a higher temperature).

- In other words, refrigeration means artificial (human-made) cooling. 


With reference to petrol and diesel engine, consider the following statements:

1. A petrol engine draws a mixture of petrol and air while a diesel engine draws only air during suction.
2. Both petrol and diesel engine uses a carburettor.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- Carburetor provides a homogeneous Air-Fuel mixture according to the engine load required or throttle position.

- Combustion occurs in diesel engines when fuel is injected into highly compressed air (high temperature because of compression).

- Combustion occurs in petrol engine when the Air-fuel mixture is ignited with the help of spark plug.

- The reason for different combustion theories for diesel and petrol engines is because of nature (volatility, self-ignition temp etc. )of petrol and diesel .

Hence no presence of homogeneous air-fuel mixture is there in diesel engines so there is no question of carburettor there.


Carbon nanotubes, often called the strongest material have which of the following properties?

1. High electrical and thermal conductivity.
2. Very high tensile strength.
3. Higher lifetime.


- Carbon nanotubes can exhibit remarkable electrical conductivity. 

- They also have exceptional tensile strength and thermal conductivity because of their nanostructure and strength of the bonds between carbon atoms.


Which of the following is/are charged particle?

1. Ions
2. Free radicals
3. Neutrons


- Free radicals are not charged. Ions can be positively or negatively charged.

- Neutrons are again chargeless.

- Ions always hold a charge, but free radicals are not charged species even if they have unpaired electrons.


Burning biomass for energy does not release

1. Sulphur
2. Mercury
3. Nitrogen


The correct option is A.

Burning either fossil fuels or biomass releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas. However, the plants that are the source of biomass for energy capture almost the same amount of CO2 through photosynthesis while growing as is released when biomass is burned, which can make biomass a carbon-neutral energy source.


Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) is related to


- Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

- A SAFER is a safety device worn on tethered U.S. EVAs, since the capability of returning to the spacecraft is essential.


The cell wall is present in

1. Bacteria
2. Blue-green algae
3. Plants


- Plants and blue-green algae are well known to possess cell wall.

- Bacteria also have cell walls. Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids.

- In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins.


Consider a body at temperature of 100 units kept in a room with room temperature 20 units.

Event A : The temperature of the body decreased from 100 to 60.
Event B : The temperature of the body decreased from 60 to 20.

Q. Which of the following is true?


The question is based on Newton’s Law of Cooling which states that the rate of change of the temperature of an object is proportional to the difference between its own temperature and the ambient temperature (i.e. the temperature of its surroundings). So, A will take less time than B.


Assertion (A) – Most satellite TV antenna in India face south, south east or south-west.
Reason (R) – TV transmission satellite mostly uses a geostationary orbit.


- Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

- TV transmission satellite is in a geostationary orbit.

- Geostationary orbits can only be accomplished with equatorial orbits, and since India is in the northern hemisphere this means the satellite will always be in south direction.

- Very few communication satellites use polar orbits, or any orbit inclined out of the equatorial plane for that matter, to prevent the need for constant reaming of the receiver dish.


With reference to pesticides and insecticides, consider the following statements:

1. Both pesticides and insecticides kill by poisoning, suffocating or paralyzing.
2. Pesticides are a subgroup of insecticides that are specifically used for killing pests.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- The difference between a pesticide and insecticide lies in the different function each performs.

- A pesticide is a chemical substance that is used to kill, control, or repel pests, including mammals, fish, and insects.

- As the name implies, an insecticide affects only insects. This means that an insecticide is a subgroup of pesticides.

- Both pesticides and insecticides kill by poisoning, suffocating, or paralyzing.


With reference to sound waves, consider the following statements:

1. Sound waves can undergo diffraction and this phenomenon is used in auditoriums to provide better hearing experience.
2. It is because of diffraction that sound can be heard around corners even though sound travel in a straight line.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- Sound waves can undergo interference and this phenomenon is used in auditoriums to provide better hearing experience.

- It is because of diffraction that sound can be heard around corners even though sound travel in a straight line.

- In auditoriums, destructive interference between sound from the stage and sound reflected from other parts of the hall can create dead spots in which both volume and clarity of sound are poor. Such interference can be reduced by use of sound-absorbing materials on reflecting surfaces.

- On the other hand, interference can improve an auditorium’s acoustical qualities. This is done by arranging the reflecting surfaces in such a way that the level of sound is actually increased in the area in which the audience sits.

- When sound waves pass around an obstacle or through an opening in an obstacle, the edge of the obstacle or the opening acts as a secondary sound source, sending out waves of the same frequency and wavelength (but of lower intensity) as the original source.

- The spreading out of sound waves from the secondary source is called diffraction. Because of this phenomenon, sound can be heard around corners despite the fact that sound waves generally travel in a straight line.


Ammeter and Voltmeter are used to measure current and voltage respectively. Which of the following is true about them?


- Ammeter is connected in series because it is a very low resistance (nearly zero) device. If it is connected in parallel, it would draw most of the current and would get damaged.

- Voltmeter is connected in parallel because it is a very high resistance device (nearly infinite), if it is connected in series, it would increase the equivalent resistance of the circuit to nearly infinite and no current would flow through the circuit.



There are four fundamental forces in the universe.

1. Electromagnetic force.
2. Gravitational force.
3. Strong nuclear force.
4. Weak nuclear force.

Q. The correct order of these forces from strongest to weakest is


- Gravitational force is the weakest among the fundamental forces.

- There are four fundamental forces (that we know of) in our universe: Strong Nuclear, Electromagnetic, Weak Nuclear and Gravitational.

- The strongest one is the Strong Nuclear force, which is responsible for keeping the nuclei of atoms together.

- About one hundred times weaker than the strong nuclear force is the electromagnetic one. This is the strongest force that we experience in our everyday lives.

- In fact, whenever we touch anything we experience the Electromagnetic force. The electrons in our skin repel electrons in whatever we touch through this force.

- The Weak Nuclear force is the one responsible for most decays of particles and nuclei – which is where radioactivity comes from.

- This force is about 10 billion times weaker than the Electromagnetic force.

- The weakest of all is the Gravitational force. In fact, Gravitational force is 10 thousand billion billion billion billion times weaker than the Electromagnetic force.


A virtual image can be formed by

1. Concave mirror.
2. Concave lens.
3. Convex mirror.
4. Convex lens
5. Plane mirror


- A plane mirror forms a virtual image positioned behind the mirror.
- A diverging lens (one that is thicker at the edges than the middle) a convex mirror forms a virtual image. Such an image is reduced in size when compared to the original object.

- A converging lens (one that is thicker in the middle than at the edges) or a concave mirror is also capable of producing a virtual image if the object is within the focal length. Such an image will be magnified.


The term ‘micro-finance’ frequently appears in newspapers. Micro-finance includes

1. Small loans
2. Small deposits
3. Money transfer
4. Payment services


- Microfinance refers to a variety of financial services that target low-income clients.

- Since the clients of microfinance institutions (MFIs) have lower incomes and often have limited access to other financial services, microfinance products tend to be for smaller monetary amounts than traditional financial services.

- These services include loans, savings, insurance, and remittances (payments). So, microfinance is not limited to loans and deposits only, it includes other financial services also.


Consider the following statements about International Finance Corporation:

1. It is known as the private arm of the world bank.
2. It lends money to private sector companies of all countries.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


- The International Finance Corporation (IFC) provides financing of private-enterprise investment in developing countries around the world, through both loans and direct investments.

- IFC lends money to private sector companies of its member countries only and not all countries.


Inclusive growth is an important objective of the development process. In this context, which of the following would amount to inclusive growth?

1. Poverty reduction.
2. Disinvestment.
3. Good governance.
4. Skill building.


- Inclusive growth is a concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society.

- Disinvestment is reducing the government ownership in public sector enterprises. It is not in any way related to inclusive growth. The rest three helps in inclusive growth.


National treatment (NT) is an important policy of WTO. NT means


- Statement b and c essentially implies the same thing, though they are differently worded.

National treatment:

1) Treating foreigners and locals equally – Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally — at least after the foreign goods have entered the market.

2) The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents. National treatment only applies once a product, service or item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on an import is not a violation of national treatment even if locally-produced products are not charged an equivalent tax.


Which of the following is/are a part of the participatory development process?

1. State
2. NGOs
3. Pressure groups
4. Cooperatives


- In participatory development (PD), people are willingly involved in a wide range of development activities, as agents and beneficiaries of development.

- Participatory development seeks to engage local populations in development projects.

-It is clear from the definition of PD that NGOs, Pressure Groups, and Cooperatives are involved in it. There might be some confusion over how state is a part of PD.

- It is actually the state activity that can facilitate or hinder PD. If state does not allow NGOs or pressure groups, how can they function?

- On the other hand, states through their policy and support can facilitate PD.

- In last few years, the role of the state in participatory development has changed from the reconstruction and development programme to growth, employment and redistribution.


The Trade facilitation agreement (TFA) of the WTO says that farm subsidies cannot be more than 10 percent of the


Value of agricultural production. TFA runs in a clause that says farm subsidies cannot be more than 10 percent of the value of agricultural production.


India maintains buffer stocks of food grains. The buffer stocks helps in

1. providing food security
2. incentivizing farmers
3. stabilizing prices
4. running PDS


Incentivizing farmers – This is done by announcing the minimum support prices (MSP) and other schemes like price stabilization fund schemes for plantation crops. The buffer stocks helps in providing food through the PDS, thus ensuring food security. It also acts as a cushion during price rises due to shortfall, thus helping in stabilizing prices.


Consider the following economy traits

1) Prolonged increase in demand
2) Heating up of economy
3) Demand-supply lag

Q. They are the characteristic feature of which phase of business/economy cycle?


All these are features of a boom phase of business cycle. During boom phase, the demand goes on increasing and the economy heats up. The supply is limited and hence there develops a demand-supply lag.


Which of the following conditions is/are conducive for the formation of tropical cyclones?

1. Large and continuous supply of warm and moist air.
2. Large value of coriolis force.
3. Inflow of air at upper level of atmosphere.


Large and continuous supply of warm and moist air is the most important condition for formation of tropical cyclones. Where the coriolis force is zero (like the equator), tropical cyclones do not develop. An upper level outflow of air (and not inflow) helps in formation of tropical cyclones. 


When cold front passes over an area then

1. Temperature decreases.
2. Relative humidity increases.
3. sky becomes clear.


Relative humidity (RH) decreases when cold front passes over an area. Cold fronts are associated with clear sky and weather while warm fronts have clouds and rainfall.


The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon is much more powerful than the Bay of Bengal branch because


The Arabian Sea is larger than the Bay of Bengal. The Arabian Sea is approximately 1,491 million square miles, while the Bay of Bengal contains approximately 839,000 square miles. Both are located in Asia and are northern areas of the Indian Ocean.

The entire Arabian Sea current advances towards India, whereas only a part of the Bay of Bengal current enters India, the remainder proceeding to Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia.


Secondary circulation in atmosphere consists of

1. polar easterlies|
2. temperate cyclones
3. mountain winds
4. monsoon
5. sea breezes


Primary circulation – planetary winds, includes polar easterlies. Secondary circulation – cyclones, anticyclones, monsoon etc Tertiary winds – local winds like land and sea breezes, mountain and valley winds etc.


With reference to monsoon of eastern Asia and southern Asia, consider the following statements:

1. Winter monsoon in eastern Asia is stronger than summer monsoon while it is the opposite in southern Asia.
2. The burst of monsoon over southern Asia is associated with turbulent weather whereas that in east Asia is characterized by mild weather disturbances.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


These are the two essential differences between the monsoon of eastern Asia and southern Asia.


With reference to frontal precipitation, consider the following statements:

1. Precipitation associated with a warm front is of long duration.
2. Heavy but short duration precipitation occurs because of stationary front.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Precipitation associated with a warm front is of long duration. Heavy but short duration precipitation occurs because of cold front.


Which of the following region/s will have most of its rainfall in the months of December-January?

1. areas in the borderlands of the Mediterranean sea.
2. central and southern California coast in USA
3. central Chile


All these areas have Mediterranean type climate which is characterized by winter rains. As Chile is in southern hemisphere, it will have summer in the months of December-January and hence will have nil or very low rainfall. The other two areas located in northern hemisphere will have most of their annual rains in the winter months of December-January.


The greatest damage to life and property from a hurricane is due to


While both strong winds and torrential rains cause damage, the greatest damage is due to the storm surge. Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted astronomical tides.


What are the causes of low pressure in the equatorial region?

1. high temperature
2. air convergence
3. high humidity


Due to high temperature, a low pressure belt is created in the equatorial region. This gives rise to air convergence in the area. So, air convergence is the effect of low pressure and not its cause. High humidity has no role to play in generation of low pressure areas.


 Which of the following areas is/are best suited for formation of air masses?

1. an extensive area with broadly uniform surface of earth.
2. areas having cyclones.
3. hot deserts in tropical regions.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Areas having cyclones have converging air flow and are therefore not suited for formation of air masses. Air masses are formed over an extensive area with broadly uniform surface of earth like hot desert region in tropical areas. Anticyclone over an area also helps in formation of air masses as they have divergent air flow.


The Supreme Court is a court of record. This means

1. its judgements are recorded for perpetual memory.
2. it can punish for contempt of Supreme court.
3. it can punish for contempt of High court.


As a Court of Record, the Supreme Court has two powers:

(a) The judgements, proceedings and acts of the Supreme Court are recorded for perpetual memory and testimony. These records are admitted to be of evidentiary value and cannot be questioned when produced before any court. They are recognized as legal precedents and legal references.

(b) It has power to punish for contempt of court, either with simple imprisonment for a term up to six months or with fine up to Rs. 2,000 or with both. In 1991, the Supreme Court has ruled that it has power to punish for contempt not only of itself but also of high courts, subordinate courts and tribunals functioning in the entire country.


With reference to the Committee on Public Undertakings consider the following statements:

1. Only a Lok Sabha member can become its chairman.
2. Unlike other committees, a minister can also become its member.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


A minister cannot become its member. The chairman of the committee is appointed by the Speaker from amongst its members who are drawn from the Lok Sabha only. Thus, the members of the Committee who are from the Rajya Sabha cannot be appointed as the chairman.


In the order of precedence, the speaker has an equal rank to


The speaker is given a very high position in the order of precedence. He is placed at seventh rank, along with the Chief Justice of India. This means, he has a higher rank than all cabinet ministers, except the Prime Minister or Deputy Prime Minister.


Consider an ordinary bill that originated in the legislative assembly and is sent to the legislative council. If the council rejects the bill then


The legislative assembly passes the bill for the second time. The legislative assembly can override the legislative council by passing the bill for the second time and not vice versa. The mechanism of passing the bill for the second time to resolve a deadlock applies to a bill originating in the legislative assembly only. When a bill, which has originated in the legislative council and sent to the legislative assembly, is rejected by the latter, the bill ends and becomes dead. The Constitution does not provide for the mechanism of joint sitting of two Houses of the state legislature to resolve a deadlock between them over the passage of a bill.


Article 33 empowers the parliament to restrict or abrogate the Fundamental Rights of

1. members of armed forces.
2. members of para-military forces.
3. non-combatants are employee of armed forces like barbers, carpenters etc.


Article 33 empowers the Parliament to restrict or abrogate the fundamental rights of the members of armed forces, paramilitary forces, police forces, intelligence agencies and analogous forces.The expression members of the armed forces’ also covers such employees of the armed forces as barbers, carpenters, mechanics, cooks, chowkidars, bootmakers, tailors who are non-combatants.


With reference to recognized political party, consider the following statements:

1. The status is contingent on the performance of a party.
2. All recognized parties are either a National party or a State party.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The status of recognized party is contingent on the performance of a party. All recognized parties are either a National party or a State party.


Consider the following statements about National emergency:

1. A revocation of emergency by President must be approved by the Parliament within one month.
2. The President must revoke a proclamation of emergency if the Parliament passes a resolution disapproving its continuation.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


A proclamation of emergency may be revoked by the President at any time by a subsequent proclamation. Such a proclamation does not require the parliamentary approval. Further, the President must revoke a proclamation if the Lok Sabha ( and not Parliament) passes a resolution disapproving its continuation.


The legislative assembly of Delhi can make laws on

1. public order
2. police
3. land


These subjects are within the state list but only Parliament can make laws on them in case of Delhi.


Who among the following takes the oath to ‘uphold the constitution and the laws’?

1. President
2. CAG
3. Supreme court Judge


The comptroller and Auditor General is appointed to keep watch on the accounts of the union and the states.
According to-
Section-IV of the Third Schedule of   the Constitution of India prescribes the following form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India at the time of assumption of office: —
“I, A.B., having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge)  of  the Supreme Court of India (or Comptroller and Auditor-General of India) do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the  Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favor, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.”
The oath of president does not includes the phrase ‘to uphold  the constitution and the laws’ rather, according to article 60 of Indian Constitution the oath of the President states ‘will do the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law’, which is not asked in the question. Hence the correct answer is the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.


On a question whether a member of parliament (MP) is subject to any of the disqualification under Representation of People’s Act, 1951 whose decision is final?


On the question whether a member is subject to any of the disqualifications under ROPA, 1951, the President’s decision is final. However, he should obtain the opinion of the election commission and act accordingly.


Man causes soil erosion through

1. use of improper ploughing methods.
2. leaving roots of crop in the field after harvest.
3. practicing trash farming.
4. use of heavy machines.


Leaving roots of the crop in the field after harvest is a called stubble mulching and it prevents soil erosion. Similarly trash farming means spreading and planting the residue in the field and it prevents soil erosion. Use of heavy machine leads to soil compaction and reduction in infiltration of rainwater. The rainwater then flows heavily as runoff and washes away the soil.


Which of the following evidences support the theory of gradual rise in air temperature and consequent global warming?

1. spreading of tropical diseases towards temperate regions.
2. downward shifting of snow lines of tropical mountains.
3. freezing of permafrost areas.


Upward shifting of snow lines of tropical mountains and thawing of permafrost areas indicate global warming. Spreading of tropical diseases towards temperate regions signify that conditions are becoming more tropical due to increase in temperature. It thus also indicate global warming.


Biofuels are fuels extracted from plants and crops and these have various advantages. These include

1. increasing agricultural diversity.
2. reduced use of fertilizers.
3. renewable source of energy.


Biofuels may lead to monoculture where farmers will prefer cultivating such crops which can be used in making biofuels. Fertilizers are used in such crops and it will only increase the fertilizer use. Biofuels are renewable sources and this is their advantage compared to non-renewable fossil fuels.


The sources of mercury pollution include

1. coal fired thermal power plants.
2. supersonic jets.
3. automobiles.
4. waste incinerators


Supersonic jets release nitrogen oxides and not mercury.

Others are sources of mercury pollution –

Coal-fired power plants- Mercury exists naturally in coal, making coal-fired power plants the largest source of mercury pollution in this country

Trash incinerators Hazardous waste, medical waste, and regular garbage incinerators release 13.1 tons (or about 26,000 pounds) of mercury every year, according to statistics from the EPA. The mercury comes from common household items, such as compact fluorescent light bulbs and thermostats, and from automobile scrap. 

Despite common perceptions that mercury is used in thermometers and blood pressure machines, the medical industry has switched to mercury-free versions of those tools, and medical waste now accounts for the smallest percentage of mercury emissions from incinerators.


A balanced ecosystem is one in which the

1. number of organisms at all levels is equal.
2. amount of biomass at all trophic levels is equal.
3. organisms are interdependent on each other.


A balanced ecosystem is one in which the amount of energy synthesized and utilized is nearly equal.


With to the IUCN classification, extinct species are those which have been:

1. completely eliminated from wild areas.
2. completely eliminated from managed areas.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Extinct species are those which have been completely eliminated from wild areas as well as completely eliminated from managed areas.


The Great Indian Bustard is a critically endangered species. Its population has been declining due to

1. habitat loss
2. frequent poaching
3. construction of windmills


The GIBs have been vanishing over the years due to shrinking habitat. Thar Desert is the only landscape in the world that provides viable breeding population to GIBs. While changing lifestyle in the desert, and unregulated human activities have endangered the species, thousands of windmills around the park are posing a serious threat to the GIB which has been categorized as “critically endangered”.


Which one of the following adumbrated principles and constitutional provisions which were later incorporated in the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms?


The Lucknow Pact was an agreement that reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the following joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916 during A.C.Mazumdar as President.


Nagarjuna’s Shunyavada is expounded in -


Madhyamika, “school of the Middle Way,” that began about the 2nd century. Madhyamika profoundly influenced the development of Mahayana, especially in China and Tibet and, eventually, Japan.
Nagarjuna was a patriarch of Mahayana and the founder of Madhyamika.
The Wisdom Sutras focus on sunyata, “emptiness.” Nagarjuna’s principle contribution to Buddhism was his systematization of the sutras’ teachings which is found in Madhyamika.


The High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras to replace the Sadar Courts of Diwani and Nizamat were established in the year—


By Indian High Courts Act 1861, the Supreme & Sadar Courts were amalgamated. The ‘Indian High Court Act’ of 1861, vested in Queen of England to issue letters patent to erect and establish High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.The High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established by Indian High Courts Act 1861.
It’s worth note that Indian High Courts Act, 1861 did not by itself create and establish the High Courts in India. The objective of this act was to effect a fusion of the Supreme Courts and the Sadar Adalats in the three Presidencies and this was to be consummated by issuing Letter Patent.
The Charter of High Court of Calcutta was issued on 14th May, 1862 and Madras and Bombay was issued on June 26, 1862. Indian High Court Act 1861 also gave power to set up other High Courts like the High Courts of the Presidency Towns with similar powers.Under this power, a High Court was established in 1866 at High Court of Judicature for the North-Western Provinces at Agra on 17 March 1866 by the Indian High Courts Act of 1861 replacing the Sadr Diwani Adalat.


The earliest-Indian coins are not earlier than—


The first coins in India may have been minted around the 6th century BCE by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were punch-marked coins called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.


Given below are two statements — One labelled as Assertion (A) : and the other labelled as Reason(R):

Assertion (A) : There are instances of rural resistance in early medieval Deccan and South India.
Reason (R) : Grants of agrahara and devadana rights to brahmanas and temples respectively undermined the rights of villagers.

In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following correct?


In ancient Indian social structure the term aniravasita is related to


Those Sudras who are not regarded so low as to defile the plates and vessels permanently in which they might have taken their meal. The caste system in India may have several origins, possibly starting with the well-defined social orders of the Indo-Aryans in the Vedic Period, c. 1750-500 BCE. The Vedas were ancient scriptures, written in the Sanskrit language, which contained hymns, philosophies, and rituals handed down to the priests of the Vedic religion.


Which of the following pair is NOT correctly matched?


Mamalla was a title of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I (630-70 CE).


Biographies of Jaina Tirthankaras are found in—


The Kalpa Sūtra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira. Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE, it was probably put in writing 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana (Moksha) of Mahavira.


The Polygars were


These chiefs were known as nayakas and they usually spoke Telugu or Kannada. Many nayakassubmitted to the authority of the kings of Vijayanagara but they often rebelled and had to be subdued by military action. The amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire.


Which one of the following Sultans extended agricultural loans called sondhars to the poor peasants for promoting cultivation?


Mohammad Bin Tughlaq the most educated sultan of Delhi introduced Taqavi' and 'Sondhar' , the loans that were given to farmers


With reference to ‘KUSUM Scheme’, observe the following three statements:

1. It aims at promoting decentralized solar energy.

2. Under this, the farmers will be able to irrigate their crops through solar-powered agriculture pumps.

3. The central government will bear the full expenditure of this scheme.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Choose the correct answer using the code given below:


At present, the KUSUM scheme provides for solaring of individual pumps of farmers. The farmers would get free electricity from day one because the feeder would be solarised and the cost can be paid off in about three years.


The Theosophists advocated the revival and strengthening of—


The Theosophists advocated the revival and strengthening of the ancient religions of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. They recognized the doctrines of the transmigration of the soul. It was a movement led by westerners who glorified Indian religious and philosophical traditions.


The Swaraj Party decided to take part in the Reforms Scheme under the Government of India Act, 1919 because—


The Mughal emperor who issued a firman to the English East-India Company in 1717 to trade freely in Bengal was —


Farrukh Siyar's Farman (1717) was a grant giving concessions to the English east india company and allowing them tax-free monopoly trade specially in the Mughal subah of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.


Who among the following were among those who caused major uprisings against Murshid Quli Khan?

1. Sitaram Ray
2. Udai Narayan
3. Ghulam Muhammad
4. Saadat Khan


Raja Sitaram Ray s/o Udai Narayan (1658–1714) was an autonomous king, a vassal to the Mughal Empire, who revolted against the empire and established a short-lived sovereign Hindu dominion in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.


With whom was the Ryotwari settlement a made?


Tax from the land was a major sources of revenue for the kings and emperors from ancient times. Ryotwari system was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820. So zamindars made peasant cultivate the land, in return British collected part of their revenue as tax.


Which of the following is Correct?


The Permanent Settlement of Bengal was brought into effect by the East India Company headed by the Governor-General Lord Cornwallis in 1793. This was basically an agreement between the company and the Zamindars to fix the land revenue.


Which agricultural product did NOT attract the British people?


During the Mauryan period Lakshan Adhyaksha was


During the Mauryan period, Lakshan Adhyaksha was the officer in charge of coin minting.


Which one of following denoted a series of coins?


Gadhaiya coins or Gadhiya coins are found from many regions in Northern India, Gujarat being one of the centers. These were imitation of Indo-Sassanian influence and are of the Silver Drachma type. They represent a period from 850AD to 950AD. 


Which one of the following statements correctly describes the - Dual Government arrangement made by the East-India Company in Bengal?


Robert Clive had established Dual Government in Bengal. In the system of Dual Government, the Britishers had authority but not any type of responsibility. According to G.S. Chhabra, 'It was under these circumstances that a sort of government was established by Clive who is known as diarchy or a dual government. Under this system, the Nawab 79 continued to handle the actual work of criminal, civil and police administration in lieu of a fixed payment by the Company. However, the ultimate authority lays in the hands of the British who were responsible also for external defense of the country. For the collection of revenues too, the existing administrative machinery was retained although the ultimate revenue authority passed on the Company itself.


Foreign capitalists were attracted by Indian industry for a variety of reasons. Which one of the following reasons was not one of them?


The author who described the Revolt of 1857 as the ‘First War of Independence’ was—


In India, the term ‘First War of Independence’ was first popularized by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1909 book The History of the War of Indian Independence, which was originally written in Marathi.


The three methods of land revenue assessment-batai, khet batai and long batai-were related to—


Batai or Galla-bakhshi was a very old system which continued during the Mughal period. This was a simple method of crop-sharing  in which the produce was arranged into heaps and divided into three shares, one of which  was taken by the state. Under this system the peasant had the choice to pay in cash or kind.


Of the four events mentioned below, which one was chronologically the last to take place?


Simla Conference: June 1945
Election of July 1946
The offer of the Cabinet Mission Plan : May 1946
Muslim league joining the interim government : After the formation of Interim government in 2 sept 1946


In the committee which prepared the Nehru Report (1928) the Liberal Federation was by—


Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, KCSI, PC was a prominent Indian freedom fighter, lawyer and politician. He was a key figure in India's struggle for independence, helping draft the Indian Constitution. He was the leader of the Liberal party in British-ruled India.


Which of the following basic types of fertilisers is NOT in use in India?


There are 3 basic types of fertiliser used—urea, Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP), and Muriate of Potash (MOP) but in many ways, urea dominates the sector.


Which of the following statements is correct regarding the Comprehensive Cost of Cultivation Survey?


In the light of the experiences gained in planning and organization of the scheme on Farm Management Studies a scheme entitled “Comprehensive scheme for cost of cultivation of principal crops” was launched in the year 1970-71. This scheme was meant to collect continuous and representative data on cost structure of crops. A uniform set of schedule were devised for the collection of data so that the data belonging to different regions can be compared.
So it can be easily said that the correct statement regarding COC survey is that The Comprehensive Cost of Cultivation (CoC) Survey is a mechanism for data generation on cost structure of crops and various inputs which are used for cultivation of different crops in India.


The Situational Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households aimed at

I. at capturing the condition of agricultural households in the rural areas of the country in the context of policies and programmes of Government of India.
II. to collect information on various aspects relating to farming and other socio-economic characteristics of agricultural households.

Q. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?


The Situational Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households aimed at capturing the condition of agricultural households in the rural areas of the country in the context of policies and programmes of Government of India. It was designed to collect information on various aspects relating to farming and other socio-economic characteristics of agricultural households. Information on consumer expenditure, information on income and productive assets, their indebtedness, farming practices and preferences, resource availability, awareness of technological developments, access to modern technology in the field of agriculture and information on crop loss & crop insurance was also collected.


In which of the following year WTO was established?


The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.


Consider the following forms of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs):

I.Partial Scope Agreement (PSA
II.Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
III.Customs Union (CU)

Q. Which of the followings is/are among the forms of Preferential Trade Agreement?


Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) have been proliferating, especially since the establishment of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1994. As of 1st December 2015, the WTO had received notifications of no less than 619 PTAs (disaggregated by goods, services, or accessions), of which 413 were already in force.


Which of the following statements is correct regarding Partial Scope Agreement (PSA)?


According to Regional Trade Agreements Information System – User Guide A "Partial Scope" Agreement (PS) means that the agreement covers only certain products. They do not cover all the product.
Which is why the correct statement is An agreement which is only partial in scope, meaning it allows for trade between countries on a small number of goods.


What is Economic Union?


An economic union is a common market where member countries coordinate macro-economic and exchange rate policies.


Which of the following statements is correct regarding Free Trade Agreement (FTA)?


A free trade agreement is a preferential arrangement in which members reduce tariffs on trade among themselves, while maintaining their own tariff rates for trade with non members.


Which of the following is correct regarding Custom Union?


A customs union (CU) is a free-trade agreement in which members applies a common external tariff (CET) schedule to imports from non members where an economic union is a common market where member countries coordinate macro-economic and exchange rate policies.


India has signed bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with several Asian economies but which one of following Asian country India never signed a bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with?


Within Asia, India has signed bilateral FTAs with Sri Lanka (1998), Afghanistan (2003), Thailand (2004), Singapore (2005), Bhutan (2006), Nepal (2009), Korea (2009), Malaysia (2011) and Japan (2011). India and China have Free Trade Agreements under consideration.


Within Asia India have two regional trade Agreement, one among them is with:


Within Asia, India has signed bilateral FTAs with Sri Lanka (1998), Afghanistan (2003), Thailand (2004), Singapore (2005), Bhutan (2006), Nepal (2009), Korea (2009), Malaysia (2011) and Japan (2011). There have also been two regional trade agreements, the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA, 2004) and the India-Association of Southeast Asian Nations Agreement (ASEAN, 2010).


Recently, the Government of India has amended rule 23 of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961. On a pilot basis, e-postal ballot system has been introduced by for service voters consisting of:


The Government has amended rule 23 of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961 enabling service voters, including armed forces personnel, to cast their vote in elections through e-postal ballot. 
Under this system a blank postal ballot paper would be transmitted to them electronically. The armed forces personnel serving in remote and border areas would be greatly benefitted since the present system of two-way transmission of ballot paper by the postal services has not been able to meet the expectations of the service voters. 


Consider the following statements regarding the recently launched “Urja Ganga project”?

1. The main objective is to provide piped cooking gas to all the residents of Varanasi within two years.
2. Seven East India cities including Varanasi, Patna, Jamshedpur, Kolkata, Ranchi, Bhubaneswar and Cuttack will be the major beneficiaries of the project.

Q. Choose the correct statements:


Key features of Urja Ganga:

I.  The main aim of Urja Ganga project is to provide pipe line along overall Varanasi to provide cooking gas to the residents of Varanasi within next two years.
II. The Pipeline will cost worth Rs. 51,000 crores and will be 1,500 km covered long gas pipeline along with gas stations at various locations.
III.Urja Ganga project would also enable the availability of about 5 Lakh LPG gas cylinders to the rural population in next 5 years. 
IV. Construction of 20 CNG stations is also the part of project.
V.  20 Lakh is the estimated number of households which will get the piped gas connection under the Urja Ganga project in Eastern region of India.
VI. Seven East India cities including Varanasi, Patna, Jamshedpur, Kolkata, Ranchi, Bhubaneswar and Cuttack will be the major beneficiaries of the project.
VII.Government has also planned to develop 25 industrial clusters in these 5 states using the gas from this pipeline.
VIII.A total of 2540 km long natural gas pipeline would be laid under the project in 5 states.


Consider the following statements regarding the first National Tribal Carnival recently inaugurated:

I.  It has been organized by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change to promote a sense of inclusiveness amongst the tribals.
II. According to census 2011, Mizoram has the largest proportion of scheduled tribal population in India.

Q. Choose the correct the statements:


The first National Tribal carnival has been organized by Ministry of Tribal Affairs to promote a sense of inclusiveness amongst the tribals. The carnival showcases and promotes various facets of tribal culture on a large scale.

The underlying idea is to preserve and promote various facets of the tribal life relating to culture, tradition, customs and their skills and to expose it to the general public with a view to utilizing the potential for overall holistic development of the Scheduled Tribes.

Census 2011: Scheduled Tribes Population


India has moved one rank up to the 130th position in the Ease of doing business ranking for 2017. Which organization releases this index?


The ease of doing business index is created by the World Bank Group. The ease of doing business index is meant to measure regulations directly affecting businesses.
A nation's ranking on the index is based on the average of 10 sub indices:

1. Starting a business – Procedures, time, cost and minimum capital to open a new business
2. Dealing with construction permits – Procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse
3. Getting electricity – procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly constructed warehouse
4. Registering property – Procedures, time and cost to register commercial real estate
5. Getting credit – Strength of legal rights index, depth of credit information index
6. Protecting investors – Indices on the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits
7. Paying taxes – Number of taxes paid, hours per year spent preparing tax returns and total tax payable as share of gross profit
8. Trading across borders – Number of documents, cost and time necessary to export and import
9. Enforcing contracts – Procedures, time and cost to enforce a debt contract
10.Resolving insolvency – The time, cost and recovery rate (%) under bankruptcy proceeding.


The World Economic Forum has placed India at 87 in 2016 Global Gender Gap Report. Which of the following indices is NOT a parity index for this report?


The Global Gender Gap report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in economies around the globe:

1. Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
2. Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
3. Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures

4. Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. 

Most of the variables used to create the index are indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.

However, The Human Poverty Index was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations to complement the Human Development Index but in 2010 it was supplanted by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index.


Consider the following statements regarding Global Competitiveness Report 2016-17:

I. The Global Competitiveness Report is published by the World Economic Forum since 2004.
II. The Global Competitiveness Index integrates the macroeconomic and the micro/business aspects of competitiveness into a single index.
III. India has jumped 16 places in the GCI report to occupy the 39th spot.

QWhich of the following statement(s) is/are correct?


The Global Competitiveness Report is published by the World Economic Forum since 2004. The Global Competitiveness Index integrates the macroeconomic and the micro/business aspects of competitiveness into a single index. The GCI separates countries into three specific stages: factor-driven, efficiency-driven, and innovation-driven, each implying a growing degree of complexity in the operation of the economy.

India has jumped 16 places in the GCI report to occupy the 39th spot. In 2015-16 GCI report, India was placed at 55th position as compared to 71st rank in 2014-15 report.


With which of the following countries India does NOT have agreements for civil nuclear cooperation?


As of 2016, India has signed civil nuclear agreements with 14 countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Russia, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vietnam.


Recently the Monetary Policy Committee of RBI has cut down the repo rate by 25 basis points. With cut down in repo rate what will be the effect on inflation?


Repo rate is the rate at which the central bank of a country lends money to commercial banks in the event of any shortfall of funds. Repo rate is used by monetary authorities to control inflation.

The central bank takes the contrary position in the event of a fall in inflationary pressures. Repo and reverse repo rates form a part of the liquidity adjustment facility.


Consider the following statements:

1. Lexan is a type of polymer used for making electrical switches.
2. Bakelite is a polymer used for making bullet proof glasses.
3. Styrene is a polymer used for making tyres of automobiles.

Q. Which of the following statements is/are correct?


The material that is used for switches has to be bad conductors of electricity, like porcelain, bakelite, and thermosetting plastic The two main synthetic rubber polymers used in tire manufacturing are butadiene rubber and styrene butadiene rubber. These rubber polymers are used in combination with natural rubber.
Lexan is a kind of polycarbonate , thermosetting polymer containing carbonate groups. They are strong, tough materials, and are optically transparent. This is why a laminated polycarbonate (Lexan) is used to make bulletproof glass.

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