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Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Class 11 MCQ


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29 Questions MCQ Test - Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11

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Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1

Formation and development of pollen grains is studied under:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1
Formation and development of pollen grains is studied under Palynology.
Explanation:
- Palynology is the branch of science that deals with the study of pollen grains and spores.
- It involves the examination, identification, and analysis of pollen grains and spores to understand various aspects such as plant reproduction, environmental conditions, and plant evolution.
- Pollen grains are male reproductive structures produced by plants for the purpose of fertilization.
- They are formed within the anthers of flowers through a process called microsporogenesis.
- The development of pollen grains involves several stages, including the formation of microspore mother cells, meiosis, and the differentiation of microspores into pollen grains.
- Palynologists use various techniques and tools such as microscopy, pollen analysis, and pollen dating to study pollen grains and their significance in different fields such as paleoecology, archaeology, and forensic science.
- The study of pollen grains is important in understanding plant reproductive biology, plant-pollinator interactions, and the impact of environmental factors on plant populations.
- Palynology also plays a crucial role in pollen allergy research and the development of pollen-based medicines.
- Overall, Palynology is a multidisciplinary field that combines aspects of botany, geology, ecology, and archaeology to study the formation and development of pollen grains and their applications in various scientific disciplines.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2

Plant diseases due to deficiency of minerals is studies under:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2
Plant diseases due to deficiency of minerals is studied under Plant Physiology.
Plant diseases caused by mineral deficiencies are a significant concern in agriculture and horticulture. To understand and manage these diseases effectively, they are studied under the field of plant physiology. Here's a detailed explanation of why plant physiology is the correct answer:
1. Plant Physiology:
- Plant physiology is the scientific study of how plants function and respond to their environment. It focuses on understanding the essential processes and functions that occur within plants.
- One important aspect of plant physiology is the uptake, transport, and utilization of minerals by plants.
- Plant physiology helps in understanding how minerals are absorbed by plant roots, transported through the vascular system, and utilized for various plant functions.
- Deficiency of essential minerals can lead to various physiological disorders and diseases in plants.
2. Mineral Deficiency Diseases:
- Mineral deficiencies in plants can result in visible symptoms and affect plant growth, development, and overall health.
- Different minerals play specific roles in plant metabolism and functioning. Examples include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), etc.
- Deficiency of these minerals can lead to diseases such as nitrogen deficiency causing chlorosis, phosphorus deficiency causing stunted growth, potassium deficiency causing wilting, etc.
- Understanding the symptoms, causes, and management of these mineral deficiency diseases is essential for effective crop production and plant health.
3. Plant Pathology:
- Plant pathology primarily deals with the study of plant diseases caused by pathogens, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.
- While plant pathology encompasses a broader range of plant diseases, including those caused by pathogens and non-pathogens, it does not specifically focus on mineral deficiency diseases.
- Plant pathology is more concerned with diagnosing and managing diseases caused by infectious agents rather than studying mineral deficiencies.
In conclusion, the study of plant diseases due to deficiency of minerals is conducted under the field of plant physiology. Plant physiology focuses on understanding how plants function and respond to their environment, including the uptake, transport, and utilization of minerals. It plays a crucial role in identifying and managing diseases caused by mineral deficiencies in plants.
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Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3

Which cytochrome most used in taxonomy:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3
Which cytochrome is most used in taxonomy?
The most commonly used cytochrome in taxonomy is Cytochrome c.
Explanation:
Here is a detailed explanation of why Cytochrome c is the most used cytochrome in taxonomy:
1. Cytochrome c: Cytochrome c is a small protein found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of cells.
2. Conservation: Cytochrome c is highly conserved across different organisms, meaning that its amino acid sequence remains relatively unchanged over time. This conservation allows for comparisons between different species and provides valuable information for taxonomic classification.
3. Evolutionary relationships: By comparing the amino acid sequences of Cytochrome c in different organisms, scientists can infer evolutionary relationships. The more similar the amino acid sequences, the more closely related the organisms are likely to be.
4. Universal presence: Cytochrome c is present in all eukaryotes, from animals to plants to fungi. This universality makes it a useful marker for comparing and classifying different species.
5. Easy to sequence: The gene encoding Cytochrome c is relatively short and easy to sequence, making it a convenient choice for taxonomic studies. This ease of sequencing allows for large-scale comparisons across a wide range of species.
In conclusion, Cytochrome c is the most commonly used cytochrome in taxonomy due to its conservation, universal presence, ease of sequencing, and its ability to provide valuable information about evolutionary relationships between different species.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4

Cultivation of flowers studied under which branches:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4
Branches of Cultivation of Flowers
There are several branches of cultivation that are specifically focused on the growth and development of flowers. These branches include:
1. Floriculture:
- Floriculture is the branch of cultivation that specifically deals with the production and management of flowers and ornamental plants.
- It includes the cultivation of flowers for various purposes such as cut flowers, potted plants, bedding plants, and landscaping.
- Floriculture also involves the study of different flower varieties, their growth requirements, propagation techniques, pest and disease management, and post-harvest handling.
2. Olericulture:
- Olericulture is the branch of cultivation that focuses on the production and management of vegetables and vegetable crops.
- Although primarily concerned with vegetables, olericulture also includes the cultivation of some flowering vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, and artichokes.
3. Anthology:
- Anthology is the study of flowers and flowering plants in a scientific and systematic manner.
- It involves the classification, identification, and study of various aspects of flowers such as their structure, reproductive mechanisms, and evolutionary relationships.
4. Pomiculture:
- Pomiculture is the branch of cultivation that specifically deals with the production and management of fruit-bearing trees and plants.
- While it primarily focuses on fruit production, pomiculture also includes the cultivation of flowering fruit trees such as apple, pear, and cherry trees.
In summary, the cultivation of flowers is primarily studied under the branch of floriculture, which focuses on the production and management of flowers and ornamental plants. However, aspects of flower cultivation can also be found in other branches such as olericulture, anthology, and pomiculture.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5

Contribution of Rishi charak and Parashar is included under the branch:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5
Contribution of Rishi Charak and Parashar under the branch of Pharmacognosy:
- Rishi Charak and Parashar are ancient Indian scholars who made significant contributions to the field of pharmacognosy, which is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants and other natural sources.
- Their contributions are mainly found in the ancient Indian medical text known as the Charak Samhita, which is considered one of the oldest and most authoritative texts on Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine.
- The Charak Samhita provides detailed information about various medicinal plants, their properties, and their uses in treating different diseases and ailments.
- Rishi Charak and Parashar classified medicinal plants into different categories based on their therapeutic properties, such as herbs, shrubs, and trees.
- They also described various methods of preparing and administering medicinal preparations, including decoctions, powders, and oils.
- The knowledge and practices outlined in the Charak Samhita have been an invaluable resource for the development of modern pharmacognosy and the discovery of new drugs from natural sources.
- Today, many of the medicinal plants and formulations mentioned by Rishi Charak and Parashar are still used in Ayurvedic medicine and have been scientifically validated for their therapeutic properties.
In conclusion, the contributions of Rishi Charak and Parashar under the branch of pharmacognosy have had a profound impact on the understanding and utilization of medicinal plants in traditional and modern medicine. Their work in the Charak Samhita continues to be a valuable source of knowledge for researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacognosy.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6

M.S. Swaminathan concerned with:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6
M.S. Swaminathan's Concern with Mutation Breeding
Mutation breeding is a technique used in agriculture to induce genetic variations in plants, resulting in the development of new and improved crop varieties. M.S. Swaminathan, an eminent Indian geneticist and agricultural scientist, has shown a particular concern with mutation breeding. Here are the reasons why:
1. Improving Crop Varieties: Swaminathan has been a strong advocate for using mutation breeding to improve crop varieties. He believes that induced mutations can help develop plants with desirable traits such as disease resistance, increased yield, and improved nutritional content.
2. Increase in Genetic Diversity: Mutation breeding can introduce new genetic variations into crop plants, which can enhance their adaptability to different environmental conditions. Swaminathan recognizes the importance of increasing genetic diversity to ensure food security and sustainability.
3. Accelerating the Breeding Process: Traditional breeding methods can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Swaminathan sees mutation breeding as a valuable tool to speed up the process of developing new crop varieties with desired characteristics.
4. Sustainable Agriculture: Swaminathan emphasizes the importance of sustainable agriculture practices. He believes that mutation breeding, when combined with other sustainable farming techniques, can contribute to the production of resilient crops that require fewer chemical inputs and have a reduced impact on the environment.
5. Addressing Global Challenges: With the challenges of climate change, population growth, and food insecurity, Swaminathan recognizes the need for innovative approaches to agriculture. He believes that mutation breeding can play a significant role in addressing these global challenges by providing farmers with improved crop varieties.
In conclusion, M.S. Swaminathan has shown a keen interest in mutation breeding as a means to improve crop varieties, increase genetic diversity, accelerate breeding processes, promote sustainable agriculture, and address global challenges in the field of agriculture.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7

"Systema mycologicum" book was written by :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7
Systema Mycologicum Book
The book "Systema Mycologicum" was written by Elias Fries, a Swedish mycologist. Here is a detailed explanation:
1. Introduction to Systema Mycologicum
- Systema Mycologicum is a significant work in the field of mycology, which is the study of fungi.
- The book was first published in 1821 and consisted of three volumes.
- It aimed to provide a systematic classification of fungi, describing their morphology, characteristics, and classification.
2. Author of Systema Mycologicum
- The author of "Systema Mycologicum" is Elias Fries.
- Elias Magnus Fries (1794-1878) was a renowned Swedish mycologist and botanist.
- He is often referred to as the "father of modern mycology" for his contributions to the field.
- Fries established the basis for the modern classification of fungi and introduced many new concepts and terms.
3. Contributions of Elias Fries
- Fries developed a system of classification based on the morphology of fungi, including the characteristics of spores, fruiting bodies, and other features.
- He introduced the use of Latin binomial nomenclature for naming fungi, which is still widely used today.
- Fries described numerous new species of fungi and made significant advancements in understanding their life cycles and reproductive structures.
- His work laid the foundation for future mycologists and greatly influenced the field of mycology.
4. Impact of Systema Mycologicum
- "Systema Mycologicum" was a groundbreaking publication that revolutionized the study of fungi.
- It provided a comprehensive classification system that was widely adopted by mycologists.
- The book inspired further research in the field and contributed to the development of mycological knowledge and understanding.
In conclusion, the book "Systema Mycologicum" was written by Elias Fries, a Swedish mycologist who made significant contributions to the field of mycology. His work revolutionized the classification and understanding of fungi, and his book remains an important reference in the study of fungi today.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

T. N. Khushoo, Sunder lal Bahuguna and Baba Amte are :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8
T. N. Khushoo, Sunder lal Bahuguna and Baba Amte are:
- Environmentalist: These individuals are renowned for their work in the field of environmental conservation and activism.
- T. N. Khushoo: He was an Indian botanist and environmentalist who made significant contributions to the study of plant taxonomy and conservation. He was also involved in the preservation of medicinal plants and traditional knowledge.
- Sunder lal Bahuguna: He was an environmentalist and social activist who is best known for his role in the Chipko movement, a grassroots movement in India that focused on the protection and conservation of forests. He advocated for sustainable development and the rights of local communities.
- Baba Amte: He was an Indian social worker and activist who dedicated his life to the upliftment of marginalized communities, particularly those affected by leprosy. While not specifically an environmentalist, he promoted sustainable living and emphasized the importance of harmonious coexistence with nature.
In summary, T. N. Khushoo, Sunder lal Bahuguna, and Baba Amte are all environmentalists who have made significant contributions to the field of environmental conservation and social activism.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9

 Palaeobotany involves a help from which branch:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9
Palaeobotany involves a help from which branch:

  • Palynology: Palynology is the branch of science that deals with the study of pollen and spores. It plays a crucial role in palaeobotany by providing information about plant evolution, vegetation history, and environmental changes.


  • Geography: Although geography can be related to palaeobotany in terms of studying the distribution of fossil plants, it is not directly involved in the analysis and interpretation of plant fossils.


  • Geology: Geology is closely related to palaeobotany as it provides the necessary framework for the study of plant fossils. It helps in understanding the geological processes, dating the rock formations, and identifying the paleoenvironment in which the plants existed.


  • Sociology: Sociology is not related to palaeobotany. It is the study of human society, social behavior, and social institutions, which is unrelated to the study of plant fossils.


Therefore, the correct answer is C: Geology. Geology provides the necessary support and knowledge to analyze and interpret plant fossils, making it an essential branch in the field of palaeobotany.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10

Study of living molecules is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10
Study of living molecules is called molecular biology.
Explanation:
The study of living molecules is a field of science that focuses on understanding the structure, function, and interactions of biological molecules within living organisms. This field is called molecular biology and it plays a crucial role in various scientific disciplines, including genetics, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Here are some key points to further explain the study of living molecules:
- Definition: Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and other macromolecules, and their interactions within living organisms.
- Scope: Molecular biology encompasses a wide range of research areas, including the study of gene expression, protein synthesis, genetic mutations, DNA replication, and molecular mechanisms of diseases.
- Techniques: Molecular biologists utilize various techniques and technologies to study living molecules, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, gel electrophoresis, recombinant DNA technology, and gene editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9.
- Applications: The knowledge gained from studying living molecules in molecular biology has numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. It helps in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new drugs, improving crop yields, and creating genetically modified organisms.
- Interdisciplinary Nature: Molecular biology is an interdisciplinary field that incorporates concepts and techniques from genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biophysics to unravel the complexities of living molecules.
In conclusion, the study of living molecules is called molecular biology, and it plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding of life processes at the molecular level.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11

A scientist who studies the interaction of microfungi and Bacteria, should be referred to as

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11

The scientist who studies the interaction of microfungi and bacteria should be referred to as a microbiologist. Here is a detailed explanation:
Microbiologist:
- A microbiologist is a scientist who studies microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic organisms.
- They study the characteristics, behavior, and interaction of microorganisms in various environments, including the interaction between microfungi and bacteria.
- Microbiologists use various techniques and tools to study microorganisms, such as culturing, DNA sequencing, microscopy, and molecular biology techniques.
Mycologist:
- A mycologist is a scientist who specifically studies fungi.
- While a mycologist may study the characteristics and behavior of fungi, they may not necessarily focus on the interaction between microfungi and bacteria.
Bacteriologist:
- A bacteriologist is a scientist who specifically studies bacteria.
- While a bacteriologist may study the characteristics and behavior of bacteria, they may not necessarily focus on the interaction between microfungi and bacteria.
Ethnobotanist:
- An ethnobotanist is a scientist who studies the relationships between people and plants, particularly in relation to traditional knowledge and cultural practices.
- While an ethnobotanist may study the use of fungi and bacteria in traditional practices, they may not specifically focus on the interaction between microfungi and bacteria.
Therefore, the correct answer is D: Microbiologist.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12

Professor Nanda and Professor Ranjan are known for their contribution in :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12
Professor Nanda and Professor Ranjan are known for their contributions in Plant Physiology. Here is a detailed explanation of their work:
Plant Physiology:
- Plant physiology is the study of how plants function, grow, and respond to their environment.
- It involves understanding the various physiological processes that occur in plants, such as photosynthesis, respiration, water and nutrient uptake, and hormone regulation.
- Professor Nanda and Professor Ranjan have made significant contributions in this field.
Professor Nanda:
- Professor Nanda is known for his extensive research in plant physiology.
- He has conducted studies on the role of hormones in plant growth and development.
- His work has focused on understanding how plant hormones regulate various physiological processes.
- Professor Nanda's research has helped in improving crop yield, stress tolerance, and overall plant health.
Professor Ranjan:
- Professor Ranjan is also a renowned expert in the field of plant physiology.
- His research has primarily focused on understanding the mechanisms of photosynthesis in plants.
- He has studied how plants capture sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.
- Professor Ranjan's work has provided insights into improving photosynthetic efficiency in crops, which can contribute to increased food production.
Overall, Professor Nanda and Professor Ranjan have made significant contributions to the field of plant physiology. Their research has advanced our understanding of how plants function and has practical implications for crop improvement and agricultural productivity.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13

CAZRI is related with :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13
The answer is A: Desert
- CAZRI stands for the Central Arid Zone Research Institute.
- It is an agricultural research institute in India.
- The main focus of CAZRI is on the development and improvement of agricultural practices in arid and semi-arid regions.
- The institute conducts research on various aspects related to arid agriculture, including crop improvement, soil and water conservation, agroforestry, and livestock management.
- CAZRI also works on the development and promotion of technologies and practices suitable for arid regions, such as drought-tolerant crops and water-efficient irrigation methods.
- The institute collaborates with farmers, government agencies, and other research organizations to disseminate knowledge and provide training and extension services.
- CAZRI plays a crucial role in addressing the challenges faced by farmers in arid regions and contributes to the sustainable development of agriculture in these areas.
- Therefore, CAZRI is primarily related to the study and research of agricultural practices in desert and arid regions.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14

Application of law of genetics for improvement of human race is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14
Application of law of genetics for improvement of human race is called Eugenics.
Eugenics is the application of the principles of genetics to improve the genetic quality of the human population. It involves selecting and promoting individuals with desired traits and discouraging or preventing those with undesirable traits from reproducing. Here are some key points about eugenics:
1. Definition: Eugenics is a field of study that focuses on improving the genetic composition of a population through controlled breeding or genetic manipulation.
2. Goals: The main goal of eugenics is to enhance the genetic traits that are considered advantageous while reducing or eliminating traits that are seen as detrimental to the overall well-being of the human race.
3. Selective breeding: Eugenics involves encouraging individuals with desirable traits, such as intelligence, physical fitness, and disease resistance, to reproduce and pass on their genes to future generations.
4. Negative eugenics: Negative eugenics aims to prevent or reduce the occurrence of genetic disorders, disabilities, or other undesirable traits by discouraging or prohibiting individuals with these traits from reproducing.
5. Positive eugenics: Positive eugenics focuses on promoting individuals with desirable traits to reproduce, thereby increasing the prevalence of those traits in the population.
6. Controversies: Eugenics has been a topic of ethical and social debate due to its potential for discrimination, violation of human rights, and the potential for misuse or abuse of genetic information.
7. Historical context: Eugenics gained popularity in the early 20th century, with some countries implementing eugenic policies, such as forced sterilization and selective breeding programs. However, these practices were later discredited and condemned due to their association with Nazi Germany's policies during World War II.
In conclusion, eugenics is the application of genetic principles to improve the genetic quality of the human population. It involves selective breeding and aims to enhance desirable traits while reducing or eliminating undesirable traits. However, it is important to consider ethical and social implications when discussing eugenics.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15

Father of biochemistry is :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15
Father of biochemistry is -
- Purkinje
- Schultze
- Leibig
- Blackman
Answer: c. Leibig
Detailed
Biochemistry is the branch of science that deals with the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. The term "biochemistry" was coined by the German chemist Carl Neuberg in 1903. However, the father of biochemistry is commonly attributed to Justus von Liebig.
Justus von Liebig was a German chemist who is known for his contributions to the field of organic chemistry and biochemistry. He made significant discoveries and advancements in the understanding of chemical reactions occurring in living organisms. Some of his notable contributions include:
1. Concept of Vitalism: Liebig rejected the concept of vitalism, which proposed that living organisms possess a "vital force" that distinguishes them from inanimate matter. He believed that the chemical reactions occurring in living organisms are governed by the same principles as inorganic chemistry.
2. Organic Chemistry: Liebig made significant contributions to the field of organic chemistry. He developed new techniques for analyzing and synthesizing organic compounds, which laid the foundation for the study of biochemistry.
3. Nutritional Science: Liebig's research on the chemical composition of food and the nutritional requirements of organisms laid the groundwork for modern nutritional science. He emphasized the importance of a balanced diet and the role of essential nutrients in maintaining health.
Overall, Justus von Liebig's pioneering work in organic chemistry and his contributions to the understanding of chemical processes in living organisms make him the father of biochemistry.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16

M.O.P. Iyenger is related to :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16
Explanation:
Introduction:
M.O.P. Iyenger is related to the study of Phycology. Phycology is the scientific study of algae.
Detailed Explanation:
M.O.P. Iyenger, also known as Muthulakshmi Odayar Ponnuswami Iyengar, was an Indian botanist and mycologist who made significant contributions to the field of phycology. Here is a breakdown of each option and why M.O.P. Iyenger is related to Phycology instead of the other options:
A. Mycetology: Mycetology is the study of fungi. While M.O.P. Iyenger was a botanist and mycologist, his primary focus was on algae rather than fungi.
B. Bryology: Bryology is the study of bryophytes, which include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Again, M.O.P. Iyenger's main area of expertise was algae, not bryophytes.
C. Spermology: Spermology is the study of pollen and spores. While related to the field of botany, it does not directly align with M.O.P. Iyenger's work on algae.
D. Phycology: Phycology is the study of algae, including their ecology, taxonomy, physiology, and morphology. M.O.P. Iyenger's contributions to the field of phycology make this option the correct answer.
In conclusion, M.O.P. Iyenger is related to the study of Phycology, which focuses on algae.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17

Study of processes involved in fossilisation of plants and animals is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17
Study of processes involved in fossilisation of plants and animals is called Taphonomy.
Taphonomy is the scientific study of the processes that affect the preservation of organisms after their death and the formation of fossils. It involves the examination of various factors and processes that contribute to the fossilization of plants and animals.
Some key points about taphonomy include:
1. Definition: Taphonomy comes from the Greek words "taphos" meaning burial and "nomos" meaning law. It essentially refers to the laws of burial or the study of what happens to organisms after death.
2. Fossilization: Taphonomy focuses on understanding the processes involved in the transformation of organic remains into fossils. It examines how organisms are buried, decay, and become mineralized over time.
3. Factors influencing preservation: Taphonomy investigates the various factors that can impact the preservation of organisms, such as the environment, scavenging, decay, and sedimentation. It helps in understanding why certain organisms are more likely to fossilize than others.
4. Taphonomic processes: It involves the study of different taphonomic processes, including biostratinomy (the processes that occur after death but before burial), diagenesis (the processes that occur during burial and fossilization), and lithification (the processes that occur after burial).
5. Applications: Taphonomy has practical applications in paleontology, archaeology, and forensic science. It helps in interpreting ancient ecosystems, understanding past environments, and studying the preservation of human remains.
In conclusion, taphonomy is the study of the processes involved in the fossilization of plants and animals. It focuses on understanding how organisms become fossils and the factors that influence their preservation.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18

Biometry is the :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18
Biometry is the study of biological problems using statistical methods.
Biometry is a field that combines biology with statistics to study and analyze various biological phenomena. It involves the use of mathematical and statistical techniques to draw conclusions and make predictions about biological systems. Some key points about biometry include:
- Definition: Biometry is the application of statistical methods to the study of biological problems. It involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data related to living organisms and their interactions with the environment.
- Statistical Methods: Biometry utilizes a wide range of statistical techniques to analyze biological data. These methods include hypothesis testing, regression analysis, correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and various multivariate statistical techniques.
- Data Collection: Biometricians collect data from biological systems using various methods such as sampling, observation, and experimentation. This data can include information about population sizes, growth rates, genetic traits, disease prevalence, and other relevant factors.
- Data Analysis: Once the data is collected, biometricians use statistical software and techniques to analyze and interpret the data. They may calculate summary statistics, perform statistical tests, create models, and visualize the results to gain insight into the biological phenomenon being studied.
- Applications: Biometry is applied in various fields of biology, including ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, and agriculture. It helps researchers understand patterns and relationships in biological data, make predictions, and inform decision-making processes.
- Importance: Biometry plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biological systems. It helps in designing experiments, making inferences from data, testing hypotheses, and generating evidence-based conclusions. It also aids in the development of models and theories to explain biological phenomena.
In conclusion, biometry is a discipline that combines biology and statistics to study and analyze biological problems. It involves the application of statistical methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data related to living organisms. This field is essential for understanding the complexities of biological systems and making informed decisions in various areas of biology.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19

The microscopic study of tissues is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19
Microscopic study of tissues is called Histology:
- Histology: The microscopic study of tissues is known as histology. It involves the examination of tissues at a cellular level to understand their structure, composition, and function.
- Importance: Histology plays a crucial role in the field of medicine and biology as it helps in the diagnosis of diseases, understanding the development of tissues, and conducting research on various biological processes.
- Methods: Histological studies involve the use of various techniques such as tissue fixation, sectioning, staining, and microscopy. These methods allow researchers to visualize different tissue components and analyze their organization and interactions.
- Types of tissues: Histology covers the study of different types of tissues, including epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues. Each type of tissue has unique characteristics and functions, which can be observed and analyzed through histological examination.
- Applications: Histology is widely used in medical fields such as pathology, anatomy, and forensic medicine. It helps in diagnosing diseases, identifying cancerous cells, and understanding the effects of drugs on tissues.
- Advancements: With the advancement of technology, histology has also evolved. Techniques like immunohistochemistry and molecular histology allow the identification of specific proteins and genes within tissues, providing deeper insights into cellular functions.
- Collaboration: Histologists often collaborate with other researchers and medical professionals to analyze tissue samples and contribute to the understanding and treatment of various diseases.
- Conclusion: Histology is a fundamental discipline in the study of tissues and plays a vital role in advancing our knowledge of cellular structures and functions. It is an essential tool in various scientific and medical fields, contributing to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20

The study of embryonal abnormalities :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20
The study of embryonal abnormalities:

Embryonal abnormalities refer to the structural or functional abnormalities that occur during embryonic development. The study of these abnormalities is important for understanding the causes and mechanisms behind developmental disorders and birth defects. The correct answer is A: Teratology.


Teratology:

  • Teratology is the branch of biology and medicine that focuses on the study of abnormal development and congenital malformations.

  • It involves the examination of how external factors, such as drugs, chemicals, infections, and environmental factors, can influence embryonic development and lead to abnormalities.

  • Teratologists study both the causes and effects of embryonal abnormalities, aiming to identify risk factors and develop preventive measures.

  • They use various research methods, including animal models, cell culture studies, and epidemiological studies, to investigate the mechanisms and outcomes of abnormal development.

  • Teratology plays a crucial role in assessing the safety of drugs and chemicals during pregnancy and in providing guidance for prenatal care and interventions for pregnant women.


Tricology:

  • Tricology is the study of hair and its diseases, including hair loss, scalp disorders, and hair care.

  • It is not related to the study of embryonal abnormalities.


Teleology:

  • Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose, goals, and aims in nature or human behavior.

  • It is not directly related to the study of embryonal abnormalities.


Taphonomy:

  • Taphonomy is the study of the processes that affect the preservation of organisms in the fossil record.

  • It focuses on understanding how organisms decay, become fossilized, and are eventually preserved over time.

  • While it involves the study of abnormalities in fossilized organisms, it is not specifically related to embryonal abnormalities.


In conclusion, the study of embryonal abnormalities is known as teratology. Teratologists investigate the causes, mechanisms, and outcomes of abnormal development and play a crucial role in understanding and preventing birth defects and developmental disorders.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21

Father of Indian cytology :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21
Father of Indian cytology:
The correct answer is A. K. Sharma. Here is a detailed explanation:
Introduction to Indian Cytology:
Cytology is the study of cells, their structure, function, and the changes that occur in them. It plays a crucial role in understanding various diseases and their treatment. In India, several scientists have contributed significantly to the field of cytology.
Father of Indian Cytology - A. K. Sharma:
- A. K. Sharma is widely regarded as the Father of Indian Cytology.
- He was a renowned Indian scientist and cytologist.
- Sharma made significant contributions to the field of cytology in India through his research and discoveries.
- He developed various techniques and methods for studying cells, which laid the foundation for the advancement of cytology in India.
Other Notable Cytologists in India:
While A. K. Sharma is considered the Father of Indian Cytology, there are other notable cytologists who have made significant contributions to the field:
- P. Maheshwari:
- P. Maheshwari was an Indian botanist and cytologist.
- He is known for his research on plant chromosomes and their behavior during cell division.
- Maheshwari's work has contributed to our understanding of plant cytology in India.
- B. P. Pal:
- B. P. Pal was an Indian cytogeneticist.
- He made significant contributions to the study of human cytogenetics.
- Pal's research focused on chromosomal abnormalities and their association with genetic disorders.
- Lal Singh Ji:
- Lal Singh Ji was an Indian cytologist and researcher.
- He made notable contributions to the study of animal cytology and genetics in India.
- Singh's research focused on understanding the cellular structure and genetic makeup of various animal species.
Conclusion:
While there have been several notable cytologists in India, A. K. Sharma is considered the Father of Indian Cytology. His contributions and research have paved the way for advancements in the field and have had a significant impact on the study of cells in India.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22

Study of fresh water lakes, ponds and streams is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22
Limnology: The Study of Freshwater Lakes, Ponds, and Streams
Definition:
Limnology is the scientific study of inland aquatic ecosystems, including fresh water lakes, ponds, and streams. It encompasses the physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of these bodies of water.
Key Points:
1. Limnology focuses on understanding the characteristics, processes, and dynamics of freshwater ecosystems.
2. It involves studying the physical properties of water bodies, such as temperature, pH, turbidity, and water flow.
3. Chemical analysis is conducted to examine the composition of water, including nutrient levels, dissolved oxygen, and pollutant concentrations.
4. Biological studies in limnology involve investigating the various organisms that inhabit freshwater environments, including microorganisms, plants, and animals.
5. The interactions between organisms and their environment, such as predator-prey relationships and nutrient cycling, are also explored.
6. Limnologists examine the geological features of freshwater systems, such as the formation of lakes and the erosion and sedimentation processes.
7. The field of limnology is interdisciplinary, drawing knowledge and methods from other scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, and geology.
8. The findings and insights gained from limnological studies are important for the management and conservation of freshwater resources.
Conclusion:
Limnology plays a crucial role in understanding and conserving freshwater ecosystems. By studying the physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of lakes, ponds, and streams, limnologists contribute to our understanding of these vital water resources and help develop effective strategies for their protection and sustainable use.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23

The branch of biology dealing with identification, naming and classifying the living organisms is known as :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23
Taxonomy: The Branch of Biology Dealing with Identification, Naming, and Classification of Living Organisms

Taxonomy is the scientific discipline that involves the identification, naming, and classification of living organisms. It is an essential branch of biology that enables scientists to organize and understand the vast diversity of life on Earth. Here is a detailed explanation of taxonomy:


1. Definition of Taxonomy

  • Taxonomy is the science of classification, involving the systematic arrangement of organisms into hierarchical categories based on their shared characteristics and evolutionary relationships.

  • It aims to provide a standardized and universally accepted system for identifying and naming organisms.


2. Importance of Taxonomy

  • Taxonomy allows scientists to accurately identify and differentiate between different species, ensuring clarity in scientific communication.

  • It provides a framework for understanding the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity among organisms.

  • Taxonomy helps in the conservation and management of biodiversity by identifying and studying endangered species.


3. Taxonomic Hierarchy

  • Taxonomy follows a hierarchical system of classification, with various levels or ranks.

  • The hierarchy includes Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.

  • Each level represents a progressively more specific grouping of organisms based on shared characteristics.


4. Taxonomic Methods

  • Taxonomists use a combination of morphological, anatomical, physiological, and molecular characteristics to classify organisms.

  • Traditional taxonomic methods involve studying physical features, such as body structure, reproductive organs, and other observable traits.

  • Modern molecular techniques, like DNA sequencing, have revolutionized taxonomy by providing insights into genetic relationships among organisms.


5. Taxonomic Nomenclature

  • The system of naming organisms is called binomial nomenclature.

  • Each species is assigned a unique two-part scientific name, consisting of the genus and species epithet.

  • The scientific names are based on Latin or Greek words and are universally recognized.


In conclusion, taxonomy plays a crucial role in understanding and organizing the vast diversity of living organisms. Through its systematic classification and naming, taxonomy provides a foundation for biological research, conservation efforts, and the overall understanding of life on Earth.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24

Arboriculture related with :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24
Arboriculture is a branch of horticulture that deals with the cultivation, management, and study of trees, shrubs, and other woody plants. It involves various practices aimed at promoting the health, growth, and beauty of these plants.
Culture of ornamental trees and shrubs
- Arboriculture primarily focuses on the cultivation and care of ornamental trees and shrubs, which are grown for their aesthetic value in landscapes and gardens.
- Arborists, who are professionals in arboriculture, specialize in the maintenance and preservation of these plants, ensuring they are healthy and well-maintained.
- They perform activities such as pruning, tree shaping, and tree planting to enhance the appearance and structure of ornamental trees and shrubs.
Tree preservation and management
- Arboriculture also involves the preservation and management of trees in urban and natural environments.
- Arborists assess the health and condition of trees, identifying any diseases, pests, or structural issues that may affect their stability or pose a risk to surrounding areas.
- They provide treatments, such as pest control and disease management, to maintain the health and vigor of trees.
- Arborists also implement measures to protect trees during construction projects or other activities that may impact their root systems or overall health.
Tree risk assessment
- Another important aspect of arboriculture is conducting tree risk assessments to evaluate the potential hazards posed by trees.
- Arborists assess factors such as tree species, age, condition, and proximity to structures or high-traffic areas to determine the level of risk associated with each tree.
- Based on these assessments, they develop management plans to mitigate risks and ensure public safety.
Urban forestry
- Arboriculture plays a vital role in urban forestry, which involves the management and care of trees in cities and towns.
- Urban foresters and arborists collaborate to enhance the urban environment by planting and maintaining trees, managing tree canopies, and addressing issues related to tree health and sustainability.
- They also educate the public about the benefits of trees and the importance of their preservation in urban settings.
Arboriculture encompasses a wide range of practices and techniques aimed at promoting the health and longevity of trees and shrubs. It is closely related to the culture of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as tree preservation, risk assessment, and urban forestry.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25

Olericulture is study of :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25
Answer:
Olericulture is the study of vegetables.
Olericulture focuses on the cultivation, production, and management of vegetables. It involves various aspects of vegetable science, including plant breeding, genetics, physiology, nutrition, pest management, and post-harvest handling. Here are some key points about olericulture:
Definition:
- Olericulture is a branch of horticulture that specifically deals with the science and practice of growing vegetables.
Scope of Olericulture:
1. Vegetable Production: Olericulture involves the cultivation of various vegetable crops for commercial and subsistence purposes.
2. Plant Breeding: It focuses on developing improved vegetable varieties with desirable traits such as high yield, disease resistance, and quality.
3. Crop Physiology: Olericulture studies the physiological processes of vegetable plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental factors.
4. Crop Nutrition: It deals with the nutrient requirements of vegetables and methods to optimize their uptake for better growth and productivity.
5. Pest and Disease Management: Olericulture includes the study of pests, diseases, and their control measures to minimize crop losses.
6. Post-Harvest Handling: It covers the techniques and technologies for proper handling, storage, and preservation of harvested vegetables to maintain their quality and extend shelf life.
Importance of Olericulture:
1. Food Security: Olericulture plays a crucial role in ensuring an adequate supply of fresh and nutritious vegetables for human consumption.
2. Economic Value: Vegetable production and trade contribute significantly to the agricultural economy, providing income and employment opportunities.
3. Health and Nutrition: Vegetables are rich in essential nutrients and contribute to a balanced diet, promoting good health and preventing diseases.
4. Environmental Sustainability: Olericulture practices aim to minimize the use of synthetic chemicals and promote sustainable agricultural practices, reducing environmental impacts.
In conclusion, olericulture is an important field of study that focuses on the cultivation and management of vegetables. It encompasses various disciplines and plays a vital role in ensuring food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26

Branch of Biology which deals with the manipulations at gene level so as to produce an organism with new and desired characters is:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26
Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is the branch of biology that deals with the manipulation of genes in order to produce an organism with new and desired characteristics. It involves altering the genetic material of an organism using biotechnology techniques. Here's a detailed explanation:
1. Definition and Purpose:
- Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of an organism's DNA using various techniques.
- The purpose of genetic engineering is to introduce specific genes or modify existing genes to enhance or introduce desired traits in an organism.
2. Techniques used in Genetic Engineering:
- Recombinant DNA Technology: In this technique, genes from one organism are combined with the genes of another organism to create a new DNA sequence.
- Gene Editing: Techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 are used to precisely modify or edit specific genes within an organism's genome.
- Transformation: Foreign DNA is introduced into the host organism, allowing it to express new traits.
- Gene Cloning: Specific genes are isolated and replicated in large quantities.
3. Applications of Genetic Engineering:
- Agriculture: Genetic engineering is used to create genetically modified crops with enhanced traits such as pest resistance, increased yield, and improved nutritional content.
- Medicine: Genetic engineering plays a crucial role in producing therapeutic proteins, developing gene therapy for genetic disorders, and creating genetically modified organisms for medical research.
- Environmental Conservation: Genetic engineering can be used to develop organisms that can degrade pollutants or reduce the impact of invasive species.
4. Ethical Considerations:
- Genetic engineering raises ethical concerns related to the manipulation of nature, potential risks to ecosystems, and the potential for misuse or unintended consequences.
- Strict regulations and guidelines are in place to ensure responsible and ethical use of genetic engineering techniques.
In conclusion, genetic engineering is the branch of biology that focuses on manipulating genes to produce organisms with desired traits. It is a powerful tool that has revolutionized various fields, including agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27

Biology term was first used by :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27
Biology term was first used by:
- Lamarck and Treviranus
Explanation:
- The term "biology" was first used by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist, and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, a German biologist, in the early 19th century.
- Lamarck used the term "biologie" in his work "Hydrogéologie" in 1802, referring to the study of life.
- Treviranus also used the term "Biology" in his book "Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur" in 1802.
- Both Lamarck and Treviranus played significant roles in the development of biology as a scientific discipline.
- Their contributions laid the foundation for the study of living organisms and the understanding of their structure, function, evolution, and interactions.
- Since then, biology has evolved into a vast field encompassing various branches such as botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics, and ecology, among others.
- The use of the term "biology" by Lamarck and Treviranus marked a significant milestone in the history of science, as it provided a distinct name for the study of life and paved the way for further advancements in the field.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28

Branch of botany dealing with the development of improved varieties of plants is :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28
Branch of botany dealing with the development of improved varieties of plants is Plant breeding.
Plant breeding is a branch of botany that focuses on the development of improved varieties of plants with desirable traits. It involves a combination of scientific techniques and traditional breeding methods to enhance crop yield, quality, resistance to diseases, and adaptability to different environmental conditions. Here is a detailed explanation of plant breeding:
1. Definition of plant breeding:
- Plant breeding is the science and practice of improving plants for human benefit.
- It involves selecting and crossing plants with desirable traits to create new varieties.
2. Objectives of plant breeding:
- To develop plants with higher yield potential to meet the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products.
- To improve the nutritional quality of crops, such as increasing protein content or enhancing vitamin levels.
- To enhance the resistance of plants to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses.
- To improve the adaptability of crops to different agro-climatic conditions.
- To develop plants with improved agronomic traits, such as drought tolerance, weed competitiveness, and lodging resistance.
3. Methods used in plant breeding:
- Selection: Identifying and choosing individual plants with desirable traits from a population for further breeding.
- Crossbreeding: Crossing two or more plants with different desired traits to combine those traits in the offspring.
- Hybridization: Breeding plants from two different but closely related species to create hybrids with improved characteristics.
- Genetic engineering: Manipulating the genetic material of plants to introduce specific traits or genes from other organisms.
4. Techniques used in plant breeding:
- Conventional breeding: Traditional breeding methods involving controlled pollination, selection, and backcrossing.
- Molecular breeding: Utilizing molecular markers and genomic technologies to identify and select plants with desired traits.
- Biotechnology: Applying genetic engineering techniques to introduce specific genes into plants.
Plant breeding plays a crucial role in ensuring food security, improving agricultural productivity, and addressing challenges related to climate change and population growth. By developing improved varieties of plants, plant breeders contribute to the sustainable and efficient production of food, fiber, and other plant-based products.
Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29

The study of cultivation of Garden plants for  flowers and Fruits is called –

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29
The study of cultivation of garden plants for flowers and fruits is called horticulture.
Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that deals with the cultivation of plants for ornamental purposes, as well as for fruits, vegetables, and herbs. It involves the science, art, and business of cultivating and managing plants for human use and enjoyment.
Key points about horticulture:
- Horticulture includes various sub-disciplines such as pomology (fruit cultivation), olericulture (vegetable cultivation), floriculture (flower cultivation), and landscape horticulture (design and maintenance of gardens and landscapes).
- It focuses on the selection, breeding, propagation, cultivation, and management of plants.
- Horticulturists study plant physiology, genetics, plant nutrition, pest management, and plant propagation techniques.
- They also learn about soil management, irrigation, and other techniques to ensure optimal plant growth and productivity.
- Horticulture plays a crucial role in the production of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants for commercial purposes.
- It also promotes the preservation and conservation of plant species and contributes to the beautification of our surroundings.
In conclusion, horticulture is the study and practice of cultivating garden plants for flowers and fruits. It encompasses various aspects of plant science and management techniques to ensure successful cultivation and utilization of plants for aesthetic and functional purposes.
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