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Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Class 11 MCQ


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30 Questions MCQ Test - Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11

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Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1

Folk uses of plants are studies under:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1
Answer:
Uses of plants in folk culture are studied under:
A. Pharmacognosy:
- Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants.
- It involves the identification, isolation, and characterization of bioactive compounds present in plants.
- Pharmacognosy helps in understanding the traditional uses of plants in treating various diseases and ailments.
B. Ethnobotany:
- Ethnobotany is the scientific study of how different cultures and societies use plants.
- It focuses on the relationship between humans and plants, including their traditional uses for food, medicine, clothing, shelter, and rituals.
- Ethnobotany helps in preserving indigenous knowledge about plants and their uses.
C. Eugenics:
- Eugenics is the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics).
- Eugenics is not directly related to the study of folk uses of plants.
D. Sericulture:
- Sericulture is the cultivation of silkworms and the production of silk.
- It involves the rearing of silkworms on mulberry leaves and the extraction of silk from their cocoons.
- Sericulture is not directly related to the study of folk uses of plants.
In conclusion, the correct answer is B. Ethnobotany, as it specifically deals with the study of plants' traditional uses in various cultures and societies.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2

 Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is a famous Indian:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2

Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is a famous Indian:


A: Plant pathologist


B: Ecologist


C: Plant breeder


D: Mycologist


Answer: C


Detailed


Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is a renowned Indian scientist who has made significant contributions to the field of agriculture and plant sciences. He is best known as a plant breeder and has played a crucial role in India's Green Revolution. Here is a detailed explanation:


1. Plant Breeder:



  • Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is primarily known for his work in the field of plant breeding.

  • He has dedicated his career to developing high-yielding and disease-resistant crop varieties.

  • His research and efforts have significantly contributed to increasing agricultural productivity in India.


2. Plant Pathologist:



  • Although Prof. M.S. Swaminathan has not specialized in plant pathology, his work indirectly benefits the field.

  • By developing disease-resistant crop varieties, he has helped combat plant diseases and reduce crop losses.

  • His expertise in plant breeding has made a positive impact on plant pathology.


3. Ecologist:



  • While Prof. M.S. Swaminathan has made significant contributions to sustainable agriculture and conservation, he is not primarily known as an ecologist.

  • His focus has been on improving crop yields and ensuring food security.

  • However, his work does have ecological implications, as it promotes sustainable farming practices and biodiversity conservation.


4. Mycologist:



  • Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is not primarily known as a mycologist, which is a scientist specializing in the study of fungi.

  • While his work may involve studying plant diseases caused by fungi, it does not make him a mycologist.


Overall, Prof. M.S. Swaminathan's notable contributions lie in the field of plant breeding. His efforts have revolutionized agriculture in India and have had a significant impact on global food security.

Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3

Who is regarded as father of taxonomy:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3
Who is regarded as father of taxonomy: Linnaeus
Explanation:
The father of taxonomy is Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist. He is considered the father of modern taxonomy because of his significant contributions to the field.
Key Points:
- Carl Linnaeus was born on May 23, 1707, in Sweden.
- He developed the binomial nomenclature system, which is still used today to give scientific names to plants and animals.
- Linnaeus classified and named thousands of species of plants and animals, organizing them into a hierarchical system based on their similarities and differences.
- His work laid the foundation for the modern classification system used in biology.
- Linnaeus published several influential works, including "Systema Naturae" and "Species Plantarum."
- He also introduced the concept of genus and species in taxonomy, providing a standardized way of naming and categorizing organisms.
- Linnaeus' contributions revolutionized the study of biology and continue to be fundamental in the field of taxonomy.
- He is often referred to as Carolus Linnaeus, using the Latinized version of his name.
- Linnaeus died on January 10, 1778, but his legacy lives on in the field of taxonomy.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4

The father of Indian plant Pathology:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4
The Father of Indian Plant Pathology:
The correct answer is B: E.J. Butler.
Explanation:
E.J. Butler is considered the father of Indian plant pathology. He made significant contributions to the field and laid the foundation for plant pathology research in India. Here are some key points about E.J. Butler and his contributions:
- E.J. Butler was an eminent British plant pathologist who worked in India during the early 20th century.
- He conducted extensive research on various plant diseases and their management strategies.
- Butler's research focused on diseases affecting important crops in India, including rice, wheat, and cotton.
- He studied the etiology, epidemiology, and control measures of several plant diseases, providing valuable insights into their causes and spread.
- Butler also played a crucial role in establishing the Indian Phytopathological Society (IPS) in 1949, which became a platform for plant pathologists to collaborate and share their research.
- His efforts in promoting plant pathology research in India have had a lasting impact on the field and continue to influence plant disease management strategies in the country.
Overall, E.J. Butler's pioneering work and contributions to the field of plant pathology in India make him the father of Indian plant pathology.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5

In which branch of botany, the knowledge of geology is must :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5
Branch of Botany where knowledge of Geology is must: Palaeobotany
Palaeobotany is the branch of botany that studies fossil plants and their relationships with the geological past. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines botany and geology to understand the evolution of plants and their interactions with the Earth's environment over time. In this branch of botany, knowledge of geology is essential for several reasons:
1. Fossil identification: Palaeobotanists study fossilized plant remains, such as pollen, spores, seeds, and plant parts. They need to be able to identify these fossils and distinguish them from other geological materials.
2. Stratigraphy: Palaeobotanists use stratigraphy, which is the study of rock layers and their sequence, to determine the age and geological context of fossil plants. Understanding the principles of stratigraphy allows them to interpret the fossil record accurately.
3. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction: By examining the fossilized plants and the sediments in which they are preserved, palaeobotanists can reconstruct past environments. This includes determining factors such as climate, vegetation types, and ecological interactions.
4. Evolutionary studies: Fossil plants provide valuable information about the evolution of plant life on Earth. Palaeobotanists analyze the morphological, anatomical, and reproductive characteristics of fossil plants to understand their evolutionary relationships and the processes that led to the diversity of plant life we see today.
In conclusion, Palaeobotany is the branch of botany that requires knowledge of geology to study and interpret the fossil record of plants. Understanding geological concepts and techniques is crucial for identifying fossils, determining their age and geological context, reconstructing past environments, and studying plant evolution.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6

Science which deals with the preservation of dead bodies in liquid by chemicals is called :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6
The correct answer is not A: Urobiology, but rather B: Cryobiology.
Definition: Cryobiology is a branch of science that deals with the study of biological materials at low temperatures and the preservation of biological systems in a frozen state.
Explanation: The preservation of dead bodies in liquid by chemicals is a specific application of cryobiology known as cryonics.
Process of Cryonics: Cryonics involves the following steps:
1. Cooling: The body is rapidly cooled to a very low temperature, usually around -196°C (-320.8°F), using cryoprotectants and a process called vitrification.
2. Preservation: The body is then stored in liquid nitrogen at this low temperature to prevent decay and preserve it for potential future revival.
3. Future Revival: The hope is that in the future, advanced medical technologies will be able to repair the damage caused by the freezing process and revive the preserved individual.
Importance of Cryonics: Cryonics is a controversial field that holds the potential for extending human life by preserving individuals who have died of incurable diseases or conditions until a time when medical advancements can provide a cure.
Other Options:
- A: Urobiology: This term refers to the study of biology related to the urinary system and its functions. It is not related to the preservation of dead bodies in liquid by chemicals.
- C: Actinobiology: This term refers to the study of the effects of radiation on living organisms. It is also unrelated to the preservation of dead bodies.
- D: Histochemistry: This term refers to the study of the chemical composition and reactions of cells and tissues. While it involves the analysis of biological samples, it does not specifically deal with the preservation of dead bodies in liquid by chemicals.
In conclusion, the correct answer is B: Cryobiology, as it specifically deals with the preservation of dead bodies in liquid by chemicals through the process of cryonics.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7

The branch of biology that is concerned with the comparative study of organisms and all relation ships among them is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7
The branch of biology that is concerned with the comparative study of organisms and all relationships among them is called Systematics.
Systematics is a field of biology that focuses on understanding the diversity of life on Earth and the relationships between different organisms. It involves the study of the classification, evolution, and distribution of organisms.
Here are some key points about Systematics:
1. Definition: Systematics is the scientific discipline that aims to classify, describe, and organize living organisms based on their evolutionary relationships.
2. Comparative Study: Systematics involves the comparative study of different organisms, including their morphological, genetic, and ecological characteristics.
3. Classification: One of the primary goals of systematics is to develop a hierarchical classification system that reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms. This helps in organizing and naming species, genera, families, and other taxonomic groups.
4. Evolutionary Relationships: Systematics uses various methods, such as phylogenetic analysis, to determine the evolutionary relationships between organisms. This involves analyzing similarities and differences in traits to construct evolutionary trees or cladograms.
5. Taxonomy: Systematics is closely related to taxonomy, which is the science of naming and classifying organisms. Taxonomists use the principles of systematics to assign organisms to different taxonomic groups based on their evolutionary relationships.
6. Importance: Systematics plays a crucial role in understanding the history of life on Earth, unraveling the patterns of biodiversity, and providing a foundation for other biological disciplines such as ecology, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology.
Overall, systematics provides a framework for organizing and studying the immense diversity of life on our planet. It helps scientists understand the evolutionary history and relationships among organisms, contributing to our knowledge of the natural world.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

The science dealing with vegetable culture is :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8
The science dealing with vegetable culture is Olericulture.
Olericulture is the branch of horticulture that deals with the cultivation of vegetables. It involves the study and practice of growing, harvesting, and managing vegetable crops for food production. Here are some key points about olericulture:
1. Definition: Olericulture is derived from the Latin word "oleris," which means vegetable garden or kitchen garden. It focuses on the science and art of growing vegetables for human consumption.
2. Vegetable crops: Olericulture encompasses a wide range of vegetable crops, including leafy greens (lettuce, spinach), root vegetables (carrots, radishes), bulb vegetables (onions, garlic), cole crops (cabbage, broccoli), and solanaceous vegetables (tomatoes, peppers).
3. Plant propagation: Olericulture involves techniques for propagating vegetable plants, such as seeds, cuttings, grafting, and tissue culture. It also covers aspects of seed selection, germination, and nursery management.
4. Crop management: Olericulture includes the study of soil preparation, irrigation, fertilization, and pest control for vegetable crops. It focuses on optimizing plant growth, yield, and quality through proper cultural practices.
5. Harvesting and post-harvest handling: Olericulture deals with the timing and methods of vegetable harvest to ensure maximum freshness and quality. It also covers post-harvest treatments, storage, and transportation of vegetables to minimize spoilage and maintain nutritional value.
6. Research and innovation: Olericulture is a constantly evolving field, with ongoing research to improve vegetable varieties, cultivation techniques, and sustainable production practices. It aims to enhance crop productivity, disease resistance, and nutritional value of vegetables.
Olericulture plays a crucial role in ensuring a steady supply of nutritious and diverse vegetables for human consumption. It combines scientific knowledge, practical skills, and innovative approaches to meet the increasing demand for fresh and healthy vegetables.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9

Pomology is the study of :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9
Pomology is the study of fruits.
Some key points about pomology are:
- Pomology is a branch of horticulture that focuses on the scientific study of fruits.
- It involves the cultivation, production, and post-harvest management of fruits.
- Pomologists study various aspects of fruits, including their growth, development, nutrition, diseases, and pests.
- They also research techniques for improving fruit quality, yield, and storage.
- Pomology plays a crucial role in the development of new fruit varieties through breeding and genetic research.
- It helps in understanding the physiological processes involved in fruit production and ripening.
- Pomologists work closely with fruit growers and farmers to provide guidance and recommendations for optimal fruit production.
- The knowledge gained from pomology research contributes to the improvement of fruit crops and the development of sustainable fruit production practices.
- Overall, pomology plays a vital role in ensuring the availability of high-quality and nutritious fruits for consumption.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10

Palynology is concerned with :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10
Palynology is concerned with:

  • Pollen and spores: Palynology is the study of pollen and spores, which are microscopic structures produced by plants. These structures are used for reproduction and dispersal.

  • Fossils: Palynology also involves the study of fossilized pollen and spores found in sedimentary rocks. By analyzing these fossils, scientists can gain insights into past environments and climates.


Explanation:
Palynology is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of pollen and spores. Pollen grains and spores are reproductive structures produced by plants. They play a crucial role in plant reproduction and are responsible for the transfer of genetic material between plants. Palynologists study the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of pollen and spores to understand various aspects of plant biology and ecology.
Pollen and spores are highly resistant to decay and can be preserved in sediments for long periods of time. This has allowed palynologists to examine fossilized pollen and spores found in sedimentary rocks. By analyzing these fossils, scientists can reconstruct past vegetation and climate patterns. This information is valuable for understanding past ecosystems, evolutionary processes, and environmental changes.
Overall, palynology is an interdisciplinary field that combines aspects of biology, geology, and ecology. It provides valuable insights into the past and present plant diversity, environmental changes, and the interactions between plants and their environment.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11

The study of living organisms for human welfare is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11
The study of living organisms for human welfare is called Applied Biology. Here is a detailed explanation:
Applied Biology:
- Applied biology is a branch of biology that focuses on the practical application of biological knowledge for the betterment of human life and the environment.
- It involves the study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment, with the aim of developing solutions for various issues and improving human welfare.
- Applied biology encompasses various fields such as biotechnology, biomedical sciences, agricultural sciences, environmental sciences, and more.
- It involves the application of biological principles, techniques, and technologies to solve problems and create products that benefit humans.
Other options and their explanations:
Cosmology:
- Cosmology is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe.
- It deals with the physical properties of the universe as a whole, including its formation, expansion, and cosmic phenomena such as galaxies, stars, and planets.
Biophysics:
- Biophysics is a discipline that combines the principles of physics and biology to study biological systems and processes.
- It focuses on understanding the physical properties and mechanisms of living organisms at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels.
Biometry:
- Biometry is the application of statistical methods to biological data.
- It involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of biological data to make inferences and draw conclusions about various biological phenomena.
In conclusion, the study of living organisms for human welfare is called Applied Biology. It involves the practical application of biological knowledge and techniques to improve human life and the environment.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12

Exobiology is the study of :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12
Exobiology is the study of life in outer space.
Exobiology, also known as astrobiology, is a multidisciplinary field of science that focuses on the study of life beyond Earth. It explores the possibility of extraterrestrial life and investigates the conditions necessary for life to exist in the universe. Here are some key points to understand about exobiology:
1. Definition:
- Exobiology is the scientific study of life in outer space, including the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
2. Origin of Exobiology:
- Exobiology emerged as a field of study in the mid-20th century when scientists started to speculate about the existence of life on other planets and moons.
3. Interdisciplinary Approach:
- Exobiology combines knowledge and methodologies from various scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science.
4. Search for Extraterrestrial Life:
- One of the primary goals of exobiology is to search for evidence of extraterrestrial life, either in the form of microbial organisms or more complex life forms.
5. Study of Extreme Environments:
- Exobiologists study extreme environments on Earth, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents, polar regions, and deserts, to understand how life can survive in harsh conditions and extrapolate the possibilities for life on other planets.
6. Planetary Habitability:
- Exobiologists investigate the conditions necessary for habitability on other planets, including the presence of water, suitable atmospheric composition, and the stability of planetary environments.
7. Astrobiology Missions:
- NASA and other space agencies have launched missions and space probes to explore the potential for life on other celestial bodies, such as Mars, Europa (a moon of Jupiter), and Enceladus (a moon of Saturn).
8. SETI:
- The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is a branch of exobiology that focuses on detecting signals or signs of intelligent civilizations beyond Earth.
In conclusion, exobiology is the study of life in outer space, encompassing the search for extraterrestrial life, the study of habitability on other planets, and the exploration of extreme environments on Earth. It is an interdisciplinary field that requires collaboration between scientists from various disciplines to unravel the mysteries of life beyond our planet.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13

The branch of science dealing with development & utilisation of forests is :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13
The branch of science dealing with development & utilization of forests is Silviculture.
Silviculture is the practice of growing and managing forests to meet various needs and objectives. It involves the scientific and sustainable management of forests for timber production, wildlife habitat conservation, biodiversity preservation, and environmental benefits. Here are some key points about silviculture:
1. Definition: Silviculture is the branch of forestry that focuses on the establishment, growth, and care of forest stands.
2. Objectives: Silviculture aims to achieve various objectives, including:
- Sustainable timber production: Silviculture techniques are used to maximize the growth and quality of timber resources.
- Ecosystem management: Silviculture practices help in maintaining the health and diversity of forest ecosystems.
- Wildlife habitat conservation: Silviculture considers the habitat requirements of various wildlife species and promotes their conservation.
- Carbon sequestration: Forests play a crucial role in carbon sequestration, and silviculture practices can enhance this process.
- Watershed protection: Well-managed forests can help in preserving water quality and regulating water flow.
3. Techniques: Silviculture involves various techniques and practices, such as:
- Tree planting: It includes selecting appropriate tree species, preparing the site, and planting trees in a planned manner.
- Thinning: Thinning involves removing a certain number of trees to improve the growth and health of the remaining ones.
- Pruning: Pruning is the removal of lower branches to enhance the quality and value of timber.
- Regeneration: Silviculture ensures the successful establishment of new tree seedlings or saplings to maintain continuous forest cover.
4. Sustainability: Silviculture practices are based on sustainable principles, aiming to ensure the long-term health and productivity of forests while minimizing negative impacts on the environment.
In conclusion, silviculture is a vital branch of science that focuses on the development and utilization of forests. It encompasses a range of practices and techniques aimed at achieving sustainable forest management, timber production, biodiversity conservation, and environmental benefits.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14

The branch of biology which deals with bacteria, viruses and fungi is known as :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14
Branch of Biology
- The branch of biology that deals with bacteria, viruses, and fungi is known as microbiology.
Different Fields
- Microbiology encompasses various subfields that focus on different aspects of microorganisms.
- These subfields include bacteriology, virology, and mycology.
Bacteriology
- Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.
- Bacteriologists investigate the characteristics, structure, and behavior of bacteria.
- They study bacterial growth, reproduction, metabolism, and interactions with other organisms.
Virology
- Virology is the study of viruses.
- Virologists research the structure, classification, and replication of viruses.
- They study how viruses infect host cells, cause diseases, and interact with the immune system.
Mycology
- Mycology is the study of fungi.
- Mycologists examine the characteristics, classification, and life cycles of fungi.
- They study fungal growth, reproduction, and interactions with other organisms.
Microbiology
- Microbiology is the broader field that encompasses the study of bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
- Microbiologists investigate the characteristics, diversity, and ecological roles of microorganisms.
- They study the interactions between microorganisms and their environments, as well as their impact on human health, agriculture, and industry.
Conclusion
- The branch of biology that deals with bacteria, viruses, and fungi is known as microbiology.
- Within microbiology, there are specialized fields such as bacteriology, virology, and mycology that focus on specific types of microorganisms.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15

Pollination, microsporogenesis, and embryo development are studied under which branch of Botany:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15
Branch of Botany: Plant Embryology
Explanation:
Pollination, microsporogenesis, and embryo development are studied under the branch of plant embryology. Here is a detailed explanation of each concept:
1. Pollination: Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther (male reproductive organ) to the stigma (female reproductive organ) of a flower. It is an essential step in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. The study of pollination involves understanding the various mechanisms and agents involved in pollen transfer, such as wind, insects, birds, and other animals.
2. Microsporogenesis: Microsporogenesis is the process of microspore development in the anthers of flowering plants. It involves the formation of microspores through meiosis, which later develop into pollen grains. The study of microsporogenesis helps in understanding the reproductive biology of plants and the factors influencing pollen production and viability.
3. Embryo development: Embryo development refers to the growth and differentiation of the zygote into an embryo within the seed. It includes various stages such as the formation of the proembryo, globular embryo, heart-shaped embryo, and mature embryo. The study of embryo development provides insights into the early stages of plant growth and development.
Conclusion: Pollination, microsporogenesis, and embryo development are important aspects of plant reproductive biology, which are studied under the branch of plant embryology.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16

a - taxonomy includes the study of:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with the classification, identification, and naming of organisms. It involves studying various aspects of organisms to categorize them into different groups. Here are the main aspects included in the study of taxonomy:
1. Characters of Morphology
- Morphology refers to the study of the form and structure of organisms.
- Taxonomy examines the external and internal characteristics of organisms, such as their shape, size, color, and anatomical features.
- By analyzing these morphological characters, taxonomists can classify organisms into different taxonomic groups.
2. Characters of Origin
- Taxonomy also takes into account the origin of organisms.
- This includes studying the evolutionary relationships between different species.
- By analyzing genetic and fossil evidence, taxonomists can determine the evolutionary history of organisms and their relationships to other species.
3. Characters of Evolution
- Evolutionary characters play a crucial role in taxonomy.
- Taxonomists study the evolutionary changes that have occurred in different organisms over time.
- This includes analyzing genetic variations, adaptation to the environment, and the development of new traits.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, taxonomy involves the study of various aspects of organisms, including their morphology, origin, and evolution. By understanding these characters, taxonomists can classify organisms into different taxonomic groups and establish their relationships within the natural world.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17

A person who studies about the origin evolution, variation and classification of plants is referred as:-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17
The correct answer is C: Classical taxonomist.
Explanation:
A taxonomist is a scientist who studies the classification, identification, and naming of organisms. In the case of plants, a taxonomist specializes in studying the origin, evolution, variation, and classification of plants. Here is a breakdown of the different options and their meanings:
A: Taxonomist:
- A taxonomist is a general term for a scientist who studies the classification of organisms.
- While this option is broad and can include the study of plants, it does not specifically focus on plants.
B: Herbal taxonomist:
- A herbal taxonomist is a scientist who specializes in the classification and identification of medicinal plants.
- This option is more specific and focused on the classification of medicinal plants, rather than all plants.
C: Classical taxonomist:
- A classical taxonomist is a scientist who studies the origin, evolution, variation, and classification of plants using traditional taxonomic methods.
- This option accurately describes a person who studies the classification of plants in a comprehensive manner.
D: Omega taxonomist:
- There is no such term as "Omega taxonomist" in the field of plant classification.
- This option is not a recognized term and does not accurately describe a person who studies plant taxonomy.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Classical taxonomist, as it best describes a person who studies the origin, evolution, variation, and classification of plants.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18

Father of medicine :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18
Father of Medicine:
The father of medicine is a title given to the person who is considered to be the founder or pioneer of the field of medicine. There are several individuals who are often credited with this title, but the most widely recognized and influential figure in the history of medicine is Hippocrates.
Hippocrates:
- Hippocrates was a Greek physician who lived from 460 BC to 370 BC.
- He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine" due to his significant contributions to the field.
- Hippocrates is best known for his development of the Hippocratic Oath, a code of ethics for physicians that is still followed today.
- He also made important observations and discoveries in the areas of anatomy, physiology, and disease.
- Hippocrates believed in the importance of studying the human body and its functions in order to understand and treat diseases.
- His approach to medicine emphasized the natural healing powers of the body and the importance of diet and lifestyle in maintaining health.
Other notable figures in the history of medicine include:
Charak:
- Charak was an ancient Indian physician who is often considered the father of Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine.
- He lived during the 1st century AD and wrote the Charaka Samhita, an influential text on Ayurvedic medicine.
- Charak's work focused on understanding the causes of diseases and developing treatments based on natural remedies and lifestyle changes.
Aristotle:
- Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who made significant contributions to many fields, including medicine.
- While he is not considered the father of medicine, his writings on biology and anatomy laid the foundation for later medical advancements.
- Aristotle's work emphasized the importance of observation and empirical evidence in understanding the natural world, including the human body.
Bauhin:
- Bauhin was a Swiss botanist and physician who lived during the 16th and 17th centuries.
- While he made important contributions to the field of botany, he is not considered the father of medicine.
In conclusion, while there are several individuals who have made significant contributions to the field of medicine, Hippocrates is widely recognized as the father of medicine due to his pioneering work and lasting impact on the field.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19

Science of exceptions is :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19
Science of exceptions
The science of exceptions refers to the study of organisms or phenomena that do not conform to the general patterns or rules observed in a particular field of science. It involves investigating and understanding the reasons behind these exceptions and the implications they may have on our understanding of the natural world. In this case, the question asks which scientific discipline is specifically concerned with studying exceptions.
Answer: D. Biology
Here is a detailed explanation of why biology is the correct answer:
1. Biology as a broad field: Biology is the branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms, their structure, function, growth, evolution, and distribution. It encompasses a wide range of sub-disciplines, including botany and zoology, which focus on specific aspects of the living world.
2. Exceptions in biology: Within the field of biology, there are numerous examples of exceptions that challenge our understanding of how living organisms function. These exceptions can occur at various levels, including genetics, physiology, behavior, and ecology.
3. Genetic exceptions: Genetic mutations can lead to exceptions in organisms' physical characteristics or traits. For example, individuals with genetic disorders such as albinism or dwarfism exhibit traits that deviate from the norm.
4. Physiological exceptions: Some organisms may exhibit physiological adaptations or variations that go against the general patterns observed in their species. These exceptions can include unique metabolic processes, unusual anatomical structures, or specialized physiological functions.
5. Behavioral exceptions: Certain animal behaviors may deviate from the typical patterns observed within their species. For instance, some animals may exhibit exceptional intelligence, problem-solving abilities, or complex social behaviors that are not commonly observed.
6. Ecological exceptions: Ecological studies often involve understanding the interactions between organisms and their environment. Exceptions in ecology can include rare or unique ecological niches, endangered or threatened species, or unusual ecological relationships.
In conclusion, the science of exceptions is an integral part of biology as it involves studying and understanding the organisms or phenomena that do not conform to the general patterns observed in the natural world.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20

The science "Biology" was first started by or who first started studying living beings :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20
The History of Biology:
- The study of living beings, or biology, has a long and rich history. It is important to note that the development of biology as a scientific discipline was a gradual process, with contributions from various cultures and individuals over time.
- While it is difficult to pinpoint a single individual or culture as the sole originator of biology, the ancient Greek philosophers made significant contributions to the field and are often credited with laying the foundation for modern biology.
- Greek philosophers such as Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Hippocrates (460-370 BCE) were among the first to systematically study and classify living organisms and explore the principles underlying their structure and function.
- Aristotle, in particular, is known for his work in taxonomy, the classification of organisms, and his observations on animal behavior.
- Additionally, early civilizations such as ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China also had their own herbalists and healers who possessed knowledge about plants and animals. However, their understanding of living organisms was often intertwined with religious beliefs and superstitions.
- It was during the Renaissance period in Europe that the study of biology began to emerge as a distinct scientific discipline. Prominent figures such as Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed systems for naming and classifying organisms, while others like Robert Hooke (1635-1703) and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made important discoveries using microscopes.
- The field of biology continued to evolve and expand throughout the centuries, with advancements in genetics, cell biology, evolution, and ecology. Today, biology encompasses a wide range of sub-disciplines and continues to be a vibrant and ever-evolving field of study.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21

Carolus linnaeus was a native of :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21
Carolus Linnaeus was a native of Sweden.
Explanation:

  • Carolus Linnaeus, also known as Carl Linnaeus, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist.

  • He was born on May 23, 1707, in Råshult, Sweden.

  • Linnaeus is famous for developing the binomial nomenclature system for naming species, which is still widely used in biology today.

  • He made significant contributions to the field of taxonomy and is often referred to as the "father of modern taxonomy."

  • Linnaeus studied at Uppsala University in Sweden, where he later became a professor.

  • He published several influential works, including "Systema Naturae," which classified and described thousands of plant and animal species.

  • Linnaeus's contributions revolutionized the way species were classified and organized, providing a systematic approach to understanding and categorizing the natural world.

  • He died on January 10, 1778, in Uppsala, Sweden, leaving a lasting legacy in the field of biology.

Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22

Study of life in caves is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22
Study of life in caves is called:

  • Answer: Speleology


The study of life in caves is known as speleology. This field of study focuses on exploring and understanding the unique ecosystems found within caves. Here are some key points to know about speleology:



  • Definition: Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other underground environments.

  • Interdisciplinary Field: Speleology combines elements of geology, biology, hydrology, and ecology to investigate caves and the organisms that inhabit them.

  • Cave Formation: Speleologists study the formation of caves, including the processes of erosion, dissolution, and deposition that shape cave systems.

  • Biological Study: One important aspect of speleology is the study of cave-dwelling organisms, which are specially adapted to survive in the dark and often harsh conditions of caves.

  • Exploration and Mapping: Speleologists explore and map caves to document their features, including passages, chambers, and underground water systems.

  • Conservation: Speleologists also play a crucial role in cave conservation, as they study the impact of human activities on cave ecosystems and work towards their preservation.


Overall, speleology is a fascinating field that helps us understand and appreciate the hidden world of caves and the life forms that inhabit them.

Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23

Father of green revolution in world is :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23
Answer:
The father of the Green Revolution in the world is Norman Borlaug. Here is a detailed explanation:
What is the Green Revolution?
The Green Revolution refers to a series of initiatives and advancements in agriculture that took place in the mid-20th century. It aimed to increase agricultural productivity and improve food security through the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, modern farming techniques, and the use of fertilizers and pesticides.
Who is Norman Borlaug?
Norman Borlaug was an American agronomist and plant scientist who is widely regarded as the father of the Green Revolution. He was born on March 25, 1914, in Cresco, Iowa, and passed away on September 12, 2009. Borlaug dedicated his life to combating hunger and poverty by developing high-yielding wheat varieties.
Contributions of Norman Borlaug:
- Borlaug developed semi-dwarf wheat varieties that had shorter stems and could produce higher yields. These varieties were resistant to diseases, had improved drought tolerance, and responded well to the application of fertilizers.
- His work in wheat breeding and research helped to significantly increase crop yields in countries like India, Mexico, and Pakistan, leading to a substantial increase in food production and averted widespread famine.
- Borlaug's efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his contributions to world peace through increasing food supply.
- He also established the World Food Prize in 1986 to recognize individuals who have made significant achievements in improving the quality, quantity, and availability of food in the world.
Conclusion:
Norman Borlaug's groundbreaking work in developing high-yielding crop varieties and promoting modern farming techniques played a crucial role in the Green Revolution. His contributions have had a lasting impact on global agriculture and continue to shape the way we approach food production today.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24

Pedology is the study of :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24
Answer:
Pedology is the study of soil.
Pedology is a branch of soil science that focuses on the formation, classification, and distribution of soils. It involves studying the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils and their relationship to plant and animal life. Here are some key points to understand pedology:
- Definition: Pedology is the scientific study of soils in their natural environment. It involves examining the factors that influence soil formation, such as climate, parent material, organisms, topography, and time.
- Soil Formation: Pedologists study how soils are formed through weathering of rocks and minerals, deposition of organic matter, and the interaction of various soil-forming processes. These processes give rise to different soil horizons or layers in the soil profile.
- Soil Classification: Pedologists classify soils based on their properties, such as color, texture, structure, organic matter content, and pH. This classification system helps in understanding soil variability and identifying suitable land uses and management practices.
- Soil Mapping: Pedologists create soil maps that show the spatial distribution of different soil types in a given area. These maps are essential for land-use planning, agriculture, forestry, environmental management, and other applications.
- Soil Health and Fertility: Pedologists assess soil health and fertility by analyzing soil samples for nutrient content, pH, organic matter, and microbial activity. This information helps in determining soil management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, and erosion control.
- Soil Conservation: Pedologists play a crucial role in soil conservation efforts by studying soil erosion processes, developing erosion control measures, and promoting sustainable land management practices to prevent soil degradation.
In conclusion, pedology is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of soils, including their formation, classification, and distribution. It provides valuable insights into soil properties, health, and management, which are vital for sustainable agriculture, ecosystem functioning, and environmental protection.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25

Improvement of human race through improvement of human environment is called :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25
The improvement of the human race through the improvement of the human environment is called Eugenics.
Eugenics is a concept that focuses on improving the genetic quality of the human population by promoting certain desirable traits and reducing the occurrence of undesirable traits. It aims to achieve this by controlling reproduction and selectively breeding individuals with desirable traits.
Key points regarding Eugenics:
- Eugenics is based on the idea that human heredity can be improved through selective breeding.
- It seeks to eliminate genetic diseases, disabilities, and other undesirable traits from the human population.
- Eugenics can be categorized into positive eugenics, which encourages reproduction among individuals with desirable traits, and negative eugenics, which discourages or prevents reproduction among individuals with undesirable traits.
- The eugenics movement gained popularity in the early 20th century, particularly in the Western world, but it faced significant criticism and ethical concerns due to its association with forced sterilization and discriminatory practices.
- The idea of eugenics has been largely discredited and rejected due to its unethical implications and the violation of individual autonomy and human rights.
- However, advancements in medical genetics and reproductive technologies have brought about new ethical debates and considerations surrounding genetic screening, gene editing, and assisted reproductive technologies.
It is important to note that:
- Euthenics refers to the improvement of the human environment to enhance human well-being and overall quality of life.
- Euphenics refers to the improvement of individual genetic traits through external modifications or interventions, such as medication or lifestyle changes.
- Genetic engineering involves the deliberate manipulation or modification of an organism's genetic material to achieve desired traits or outcomes.
In conclusion, while eugenics was once considered a means to improve the human race through selective breeding, it is now widely discredited due to its ethical implications. The focus has shifted towards promoting equal rights, diversity, and inclusivity, while also considering the ethical implications of advancements in genetic science and technology.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26

Taxonomy which is based on number of affinities is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26
Taxonomy based on number of affinities:


The taxonomy which is based on the number of affinities refers to the classification of organisms based on their overall similarity or dissimilarity in terms of various characteristics. This type of taxonomy is known as numerical taxonomy.


Characteristics of numerical taxonomy:


Numerical taxonomy involves the following characteristics:


1. Quantitative analysis: Numerical taxonomy relies on quantitative data, such as measurements and counts, to assess the overall similarity between organisms.
2. Similarity coefficients: Similarity coefficients are used to determine the degree of similarity between organisms based on the presence or absence of specific traits or characteristics.
3. Multivariate analysis: Numerical taxonomy utilizes multivariate statistical techniques to analyze and interpret the data, allowing for the identification of patterns and relationships among different organisms.
4. Clustering techniques: Clustering techniques, such as hierarchical clustering or principal component analysis, are commonly used in numerical taxonomy to group organisms based on their similarities.
5. Objective classification: Numerical taxonomy aims to provide an objective classification system by quantifying the similarities between organisms, reducing subjective biases that may arise in other forms of taxonomy.
6. Computer-based analysis: The large amount of data involved in numerical taxonomy necessitates the use of computer-based analysis and statistical software to handle the calculations and generate meaningful results.
Examples of numerical taxonomy:


Some examples of numerical taxonomy include:
- DNA fingerprinting: DNA fingerprinting techniques can be used to compare the genetic profiles of organisms and determine their overall similarity.
- Protein profiling: Protein profiling involves comparing the patterns of proteins produced by different organisms to assess their similarities and differences.
- Biogeographical analysis: Biogeographical analysis examines the distribution patterns of organisms and their affinity to different geographic regions to classify them.
- Cluster analysis: Cluster analysis is a common technique used in numerical taxonomy to group organisms based on their overall similarity or dissimilarity.
In conclusion, numerical taxonomy is a classification method that is based on the number of affinities between organisms. It involves quantitative analysis, similarity coefficients, multivariate analysis, clustering techniques, and computer-based analysis to provide an objective classification system. Examples of numerical taxonomy include DNA fingerprinting, protein profiling, biogeographical analysis, and cluster analysis.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27

Study of grasses is called :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27
Study of grasses is called Agrostology
Agrostology is the branch of science that deals with the study of grasses. It involves the scientific study of the structure, classification, distribution, and ecology of grasses. Here is a detailed explanation:
Definition:
- Agrostology is derived from the Greek words "agros" meaning field and "logia" meaning study.
- It is a branch of botany that specifically focuses on the study of grasses, which are members of the Poaceae family.
Characteristics of Agrostology:
- Agrostology involves the identification, classification, and description of various grass species.
- It explores the anatomy, morphology, and reproductive biology of grasses.
- It investigates the ecological role of grasses in various ecosystems.
- Agrostologists study the economic importance of grasses, such as their use as forage for livestock, food crops (such as wheat, rice, and corn), and ornamental plants.
- They also examine the role of grasses in soil conservation, erosion control, and land reclamation.
Importance of Agrostology:
- Grasses are one of the most important plant families, covering vast areas of the earth's surface.
- They play a vital role in various ecosystems as primary producers, providing food and habitat for many organisms.
- Agrostology helps in the development of improved grass varieties for agricultural purposes.
- It contributes to our understanding of grassland ecosystems and their conservation.
- Agrostologists also study the impact of invasive grass species on native plant communities and biodiversity.
In conclusion, agrostology is the scientific study of grasses, encompassing their identification, classification, anatomy, ecology, and economic importance. It is an important field of study that contributes to our understanding of grasses and their significance in various ecosystems.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28

The study of effect of age on living beings is called :–

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28
The study of effect of age on living beings is called Gerontology.
Gerontology is the scientific study of aging and the process of growing old. It encompasses various aspects of aging, including biological, psychological, and social factors. Here is a detailed explanation of Gerontology:
1. Definition: Gerontology is the study of the aging process, including the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people grow older.
2. Scope: Gerontology explores the impact of aging on individuals, families, and societies. It examines the physiological, psychological, and sociological aspects of aging.
3. Subfields: Gerontology is an interdisciplinary field that includes several subfields, such as biological gerontology, social gerontology, and psychological gerontology.
4. Biological Gerontology: This subfield focuses on the biological processes of aging, including the study of genetics, cellular aging, and age-related diseases.
5. Social Gerontology: Social gerontology examines the social aspects of aging, including the study of social relationships, social support systems, and the impact of aging on communities and societies.
6. Psychological Gerontology: This subfield explores the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes that occur with aging. It includes the study of memory, personality, and mental health in older adults.
7. Importance: Gerontology is important because it helps us understand the aging process and develop strategies to promote healthy aging. It also addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with an aging population, such as healthcare needs, retirement planning, and social integration.
In conclusion, Gerontology is the study of the effect of age on living beings. It encompasses various disciplines and provides valuable insights into the aging process and its impact on individuals and society.
Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29

S.A. Waksman isolated Streptomyces griseus from

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29
S.A. Waksman isolated Streptomyces griseus from soil.
Explanation:

  • S.A. Waksman, a Ukrainian-American biochemist and microbiologist, isolated Streptomyces griseus.

  • Streptomyces griseus is a species of bacteria that produces the antibiotic streptomycin.

  • This discovery was significant as streptomycin became the first effective treatment for tuberculosis.

  • Waksman's research on soil microorganisms led to the development of many other antibiotics as well.

  • He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952 for his discoveries in the field of antibiotics.

  • It is important to note that soil is a rich source of microorganisms, including various bacteria and fungi.

  • These microorganisms play a crucial role in decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil fertility.

  • Moreover, many antibiotic-producing bacteria, such as Streptomyces species, are commonly found in soil.

  • By isolating Streptomyces griseus from soil, Waksman laid the foundation for the discovery and development of numerous antibiotics.

Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 30

Ecology of fresh water lake is called :-

Detailed Solution for Branches Of Biology Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 30
Ecology of Freshwater Lake
The ecology of a freshwater lake refers to the study of the interactions between the living organisms and their environment within the lake ecosystem. This field of study is known as limnology. Here is a detailed explanation of the ecology of a freshwater lake:
1. Definition of Limnology:
- Limnology is the scientific study of inland waters, including lakes, ponds, rivers, wetlands, and groundwater.
- It focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.
2. Scope of Limnology:
- Limnology covers a wide range of topics, including the physical characteristics of lakes (such as temperature, light penetration, and water movement), the chemical composition of the water (including nutrients and pollutants), and the biological communities that inhabit the lake.
- It also examines the interactions between these different components and their influence on the overall health and functioning of the lake ecosystem.
3. Importance of Limnology:
- Limnology plays a crucial role in understanding the ecological processes and functions of freshwater lakes.
- It helps in assessing the water quality and identifying potential threats or stressors to the lake ecosystem.
- Limnological studies provide valuable information for the management and conservation of freshwater resources.
4. Key Areas of Study in Limnology:
- Physical Limnology: Focuses on the physical properties of lakes, such as temperature stratification, water circulation patterns, and sediment dynamics.
- Chemical Limnology: Examines the chemical composition of the water, including nutrient cycling, water chemistry, and pollution levels.
- Biological Limnology: Studies the organisms living in freshwater lakes, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, and macroinvertebrates. It explores their interactions, population dynamics, and adaptations to the lake environment.
- Ecological Limnology: Investigates the relationships between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the lake ecosystem. It analyzes food webs, energy flow, and nutrient cycling within the lake.
5. Applications of Limnology:
- Limnology findings are used in water resource management, particularly in assessing the impacts of human activities on lakes and developing strategies for their sustainable use.
- It is crucial in monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of conservation measures and restoration efforts for freshwater ecosystems.
- Limnological research also contributes to our understanding of global climate change and its effects on freshwater systems.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Limnology when referring to the ecology of a freshwater lake.
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