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History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Class 11 MCQ


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29 Questions MCQ Test - History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11

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History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1

First plant classification was given by :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1
Theophrastus was the first person to give plant classification. He was a Greek philosopher and botanist who lived from 371-287 BCE. He is often referred to as the "Father of Botany" due to his extensive work in the field. Theophrastus classified plants based on their morphology and characteristics. His classification system included categories such as trees, shrubs, and herbs. He also described various plant parts, such as leaves, flowers, and fruits. Theophrastus' work laid the foundation for future plant classification systems, including the influential system developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Linnaeus, however, is often credited with formalizing and popularizing the system of plant classification, which is still widely used today. So, although Linnaeus is well-known for his contributions to plant classification, Theophrastus was the first person to develop a systematic approach to categorizing plants.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2

Division "Tracheophyta" includes :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2
Division "Tracheophyta" includes:

  • Bryophyta

  • All vascular plants

  • All non-vascular plants

  • All non-vascular and vascular plants


The correct answer is B: All vascular plants.


Explanation:

The division "Tracheophyta" is a taxonomic division in the plant kingdom. It is also known as the vascular plants division. Vascular plants are plants that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and nutrients throughout their bodies.


Here is a breakdown of the options:



  • Bryophyta: Bryophyta is a separate division of plants that includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. They are non-vascular plants and are not included in the division "Tracheophyta".

  • All vascular plants: This is the correct answer. Tracheophyta includes all vascular plants, which have xylem and phloem tissues for transporting fluids.

  • All non-vascular plants: This is incorrect. Tracheophyta does not include non-vascular plants like mosses and liverworts.

  • All non-vascular and vascular plants: This is incorrect. Tracheophyta only includes vascular plants and does not include non-vascular plants.


Therefore, the correct answer is B: All vascular plants.

History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3

Which group of plant have embryo but not vascular tissue :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3
The group of plants that have embryos but not vascular tissue is:
- Bryophyta
Explanation:
- Bryophyta is a group of plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
- These plants have a well-developed embryo, which is a characteristic of all land plants.
- However, they lack vascular tissue, which means they do not have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.
- Without vascular tissue, bryophytes rely on diffusion and osmosis for the movement of water and nutrients within their cells.
- The absence of vascular tissue limits the size and complexity of bryophytes, and they are usually small and low-growing.
- Bryophytes are found in moist habitats, such as forests, bogs, and wetlands, where they can readily absorb water from their surroundings.
- Examples of bryophytes include mosses, which are commonly seen covering rocks and tree trunks, and liverworts, which often form dense mats on the ground.
In conclusion, the correct answer is C: Bryophyta.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4

According to Benthum & Hooker total families of real flowering plants :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4
According to Benthum & Hooker, the total families of real flowering plants are 199.

Given:
- According to Benthum & Hooker, the total families of real flowering plants are 199.
To find:
- The total families of real flowering plants according to Benthum & Hooker.
Solution Steps:
1. Identify the given information.
- According to Benthum & Hooker, the total families of real flowering plants are 199.
2. Use the given information to answer the question.
- The total families of real flowering plants according to Benthum & Hooker is 199.
3. Write the answer.
- Answer: B (199).
Summary:
According to Benthum & Hooker, the total families of real flowering plants is 199.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5

Who gave importance of serology in taxonomy :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5
Importance of Serology in Taxonomy:
Serology, the study of antibodies and antigens in blood serum, has played a significant role in taxonomy. It has helped in identifying and classifying organisms based on their serological characteristics. Karl Menz, a renowned scientist, gave importance to serology in taxonomy.
Here are the reasons why serology is important in taxonomy:
1. Identification of Species: Serological techniques can help identify and differentiate between different species based on the presence or absence of specific antibodies or antigens in their blood serum.
2. Determination of Relationships: Serology provides valuable information about the evolutionary relationships between organisms. By comparing their serological profiles, scientists can determine the degree of similarity or relatedness between different species or groups.
3. Classification and Taxonomic Hierarchy: Serological analysis can aid in the classification of organisms into various taxonomic categories. It helps determine the placement of species within a taxonomic hierarchy, such as family, order, or class.
4. Identification of Hybridization: Serology can be used to identify hybridization events between different species. By examining the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in hybrid individuals, scientists can determine the genetic exchange between species.
5. Conservation Efforts: Serological studies can contribute to conservation efforts by identifying and understanding the genetic diversity within species. This information allows scientists to develop effective strategies for the conservation and management of endangered species.
In conclusion, Karl Menz recognized the importance of serology in taxonomy. Serological techniques have proven to be valuable tools in identifying species, determining relationships, classifying organisms, identifying hybridization, and aiding conservation efforts.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6

The word Cryptogamia was coined by :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6
The word Cryptogamia was coined by Linnaeus.
Explanation:
Cryptogamia is a term used in botany to refer to a group of plants that reproduce by means of spores and do not produce flowers or seeds. The word Cryptogamia was first introduced by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus.
Here are the reasons why the correct answer is Linnaeus:
1. Linnaeus: Carl Linnaeus (also known as Carl von Linné) was a renowned Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who is considered the father of modern taxonomy. He developed the binomial nomenclature system, which is still used today to name and classify organisms. Linnaeus coined the term Cryptogamia to describe the group of non-flowering plants.
2. Theophrastus: Theophrastus was an ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist who is often regarded as the father of botany. While he made significant contributions to the field of botany and plant classification, he did not specifically coin the term Cryptogamia.
3. Benthum & Hooker: George Bentham and Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker were botanists who collaborated on the classification and description of plants. However, they did not coin the term Cryptogamia.
4. John-Ray: John Ray, also known as John Wray, was an English naturalist who made significant contributions to the fields of botany and zoology. However, he did not coin the term Cryptogamia.
In conclusion, the correct answer is b. Linnaeus, as he coined the term Cryptogamia to describe non-flowering plants.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7

Siphonogama includes :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7

The correct answer is c. Gymnosperm & angiosperm.
Explanation:
Siphonogama refers to the group of plants that produce seeds. It includes two major groups of plants - gymnosperms and angiosperms. Let's break down the options and understand why the correct answer is c.
A: Bryophyta and thallophyta
- Bryophyta refers to the group of non-vascular plants such as mosses and liverworts.
- Thallophyta refers to the group of plants that lack differentiation into stems, roots, and leaves, such as algae and fungi.
- Neither of these groups belong to Siphonogama, so option A is incorrect.
B: Pteridophyta & Bryophyta
- Pteridophyta refers to the group of vascular plants that reproduce using spores, such as ferns and horsetails.
- Bryophyta refers to non-vascular plants.
- Again, neither group belongs to Siphonogama, so option B is incorrect.
C: Gymnosperm & angiosperm
- Gymnosperms are a group of plants that produce naked seeds, such as conifers and cycads.
- Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in fruits.
- Both gymnosperms and angiosperms belong to Siphonogama, so option C is correct.
D: Thallophyta and gymnosperm
- Thallophyta refers to a group of plants that lack differentiation into stems, roots, and leaves.
- Gymnosperms belong to Siphonogama, but thallophyta does not.
- Therefore, option D is incorrect.
In conclusion, Siphonogama includes gymnosperms and angiosperms. These are the two groups of plants that produce seeds and belong to the Siphonogama category.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

The phylogenetic relation ship among organisms can be established by the technique :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

To establish the phylogenetic relationship among organisms, the technique used is serology. Here is a detailed explanation:
What is serology?
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. It involves the analysis of antibodies, antigens, and their interactions, which can provide valuable information about the evolutionary relationships between different organisms.
How does serology establish phylogenetic relationships?
Serology techniques, such as immunological assays, can be used to compare the presence or absence of specific antigens or antibodies in different organisms. Based on these comparisons, similarities and differences can be identified, which help establish the phylogenetic relationships.
Steps involved in serological analysis:
1. Sample collection: Samples of serum or other bodily fluids are collected from different organisms.
2. Antibody or antigen extraction: The samples are processed to extract the antibodies or antigens of interest.
3. Immunoassays: Various immunological techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blotting, are used to analyze the extracted antibodies or antigens.
4. Comparison: The results of the immunoassays are compared among different organisms to determine the presence or absence of specific antibodies or antigens.
5. Interpretation: Based on the similarities and differences in the serological profiles, the phylogenetic relationships among the organisms can be inferred.
Advantages of serology:
- Serology is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique.
- It can be applied to a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to animals.
- It provides valuable information about the evolutionary relationships between organisms.
Limitations of serology:
- Serological analysis relies on the specificity of antibodies or antigens, which can sometimes lead to false-positive or false-negative results.
- It may not be applicable for organisms that do not produce antibodies or antigens in response to infection or other stimuli.
In conclusion, serology is a technique used to establish the phylogenetic relationship among organisms. It involves the analysis of antibodies and antigens to compare the serological profiles of different organisms and infer their evolutionary relationships.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9

According to four kingdom system of Copeland, the fungi belong to kingdom :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9
The Four Kingdom System of Copeland:
The Four Kingdom System of Copeland is a classification system proposed by American botanist Edwin Copeland in 1938. This system categorizes living organisms into four kingdoms based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
Answer: A: Protista
Explanation:
1. Kingdom Protista: This kingdom includes a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that do not fit into the other three kingdoms. They are primarily unicellular but can also be colonial or multicellular. Protists can be autotrophic (photosynthetic) or heterotrophic (obtain nutrients from other organisms). Fungi are included in this kingdom because they share some similarities with protists, such as the presence of cell walls.
2. Kingdom Mychota: This is not a recognized kingdom in the Four Kingdom System of Copeland. It is not the correct answer.
3. Kingdom Mycota: This is also not a recognized kingdom in the Four Kingdom System of Copeland. It is not the correct answer.
4. Kingdom Plantae: This kingdom includes multicellular, photosynthetic organisms such as plants. Fungi are not classified under this kingdom.
Based on the Four Kingdom System of Copeland, fungi belong to Kingdom Protista. However, it is important to note that the classification of fungi has evolved over time, and modern classification systems may place them in a separate kingdom called Kingdom Fungi.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10

According to Oswald Tippo Angiosperms are placed under:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10
Answer:
Introduction:
Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a diverse group of plants that produce flowers and fruits. They are the most dominant group of plants on Earth and play a crucial role in various ecosystems. Oswald Tippo categorized angiosperms under the division Tracheophyta.
Detailed
Angiosperms are placed under the division Tracheophyta by Oswald Tippo. Here is a detailed explanation of each option:
A. Atracheata:
- Atracheata refers to plants that lack vascular tissues, such as xylem and phloem.
- Angiosperms have well-developed vascular tissues, which transport water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.
- Therefore, angiosperms do not fall under Atracheata.
B. Thallophyta:
- Thallophyta includes plants with a thallus-like body structure, such as algae and fungi.
- Angiosperms have a complex body structure with roots, stems, and leaves, which is characteristic of higher plants.
- Hence, angiosperms do not belong to Thallophyta.
C. Tracheophyta:
- Tracheophyta is the division that includes plants with well-developed vascular tissues.
- Angiosperms possess xylem and phloem, which allow them to transport water, minerals, and sugars.
- Therefore, angiosperms are categorized under Tracheophyta.
D. Spermatophyta:
- Spermatophyta refers to plants that produce seeds.
- Angiosperms are seed-producing plants, which means they fall under Spermatophyta.
- However, the more specific classification for angiosperms is the division Tracheophyta.
Conclusion:
According to Oswald Tippo, angiosperms are placed under the division Tracheophyta. This division includes plants with well-developed vascular tissues, such as xylem and phloem. Angiosperms are also categorized under Spermatophyta as they produce seeds. However, the more specific classification for angiosperms is Tracheophyta.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11

"Systema Naturae" book was written by:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11
Systema Naturae book was written by Linnaeus.
- Carl Linnaeus: Carl Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician. He is best known for his work in taxonomy and his development of the binomial nomenclature system for naming species.
- Systema Naturae: Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus, first published in 1735. It is considered one of the most significant works in the history of biology and laid the foundation for modern taxonomy.
- Content of the book: Systema Naturae classified and described thousands of plants, animals, and minerals. It introduced the hierarchical classification system, where species are grouped into genera, genera into families, families into orders, and so on. Linnaeus used Latin names to describe and differentiate species, which is still widely used in modern taxonomy.
- Importance and impact: Systema Naturae revolutionized the way organisms were classified and provided a standardized system for naming and categorizing species. It formed the basis for the modern classification system used by biologists today. Linnaeus' work greatly influenced the development of natural history, biology, and other scientific disciplines.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12

According to Eichler cryptogamia includes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12
Eichler Cryptogamia
Cryptogamia is a term used to describe non-flowering plants, which reproduce by means of spores. Eichler Cryptogamia refers to the classification system developed by August Wilhelm Eichler, a German botanist. According to Eichler, cryptogamia includes Thallophyta, Bryophyta, and Pteridophyta. Let's break it down:
Thallophyta:
- Thallophyta includes plants that lack true roots, stems, and leaves. They are typically found in aquatic or damp environments.
- Examples of Thallophyta include algae, fungi, and lichens.
Bryophyta:
- Bryophyta refers to the group of plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
- They are small, non-vascular plants that require moist environments to survive.
Pteridophyta:
- Pteridophyta includes ferns, horsetails, and club mosses.
- These plants have vascular tissues that allow them to transport water and nutrients throughout their bodies.
So, based on the Eichler classification system, cryptogamia includes Thallophyta, Bryophyta, and Pteridophyta. Gymnosperms and angiosperms, which are seed-bearing plants, are not included in cryptogamia according to Eichler.
Summary:
- Eichler cryptogamia includes Thallophyta, Bryophyta, and Pteridophyta.
- Thallophyta includes algae, fungi, and lichens.
- Bryophyta includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
- Pteridophyta includes ferns, horsetails, and club mosses.
- Gymnosperms and angiosperms are not included in Eichler cryptogamia.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13

According to Whittaker kingdom monera includes:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13
Kingdom Monera includes:
- Prokaryotes: Monera is the kingdom that includes prokaryotic organisms, which are characterized by the absence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
- Unicellular Eukaryotes: Monera does not include unicellular eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are organisms that have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
- Slime Molds & Protozoa: Monera does not include slime molds and protozoa. These organisms belong to other kingdoms, such as Protista or Fungi.
- Multicellular & Eukaryotes: Monera does not include multicellular eukaryotes. Multicellular organisms are found in other kingdoms, such as Animalia or Plantae.
Conclusion: Kingdom Monera includes prokaryotes, which are unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. It does not include unicellular eukaryotes, slime molds, protozoa, or multicellular eukaryotes.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14

"Cellular plants" and "Vascular plants" are the groups created by:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14
Explanation:
The groups "Cellular plants" and "Vascular plants" were created by De Candolle.
Here is a detailed explanation:
1. De Candolle:
- De Candolle, also known as Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, was a Swiss botanist and one of the most influential plant taxonomists of the 19th century.
- He is credited with creating various plant classification systems and introducing important concepts in plant taxonomy.
- De Candolle proposed the division of plants into two major groups: Cryptogamia (later known as Cellular plants) and Phanerogamia (later known as Vascular plants).
2. Cellular plants:
- Cellular plants, also known as Cryptogamia, include plants that do not have true vascular tissues for the transport of water and nutrients.
- They reproduce using spores and do not produce seeds or flowers.
- Examples of cellular plants include algae, fungi, mosses, and liverworts.
3. Vascular plants:
- Vascular plants, also known as Phanerogamia, include plants that have vascular tissues specialized for the transport of water, nutrients, and sugars.
- They reproduce using seeds and can be further classified into two main groups: gymnosperms and angiosperms.
- Gymnosperms are plants that produce naked seeds, such as conifers and cycads.
- Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in fruits, such as roses, sunflowers, and oak trees.
Therefore, it was De Candolle who created the groups "Cellular plants" and "Vascular plants".
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15

According to Copeland the "Red algae" belongs to :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15
According to Copeland, the "Red algae" belongs to the kingdom Protista.
Explanation:
- Copeland is referring to the classification system proposed by Herbert Copeland, an American biologist.
- The classification system consists of five kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
- Red algae, also known as Rhodophyta, are a group of photosynthetic organisms that are mostly marine and have a red pigment called phycoerythrin.
- They are multicellular and have complex life cycles.
- Red algae are not classified under Monera because Monera consists of prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria, and red algae are eukaryotic.
- Red algae are also not classified under Plantae because they lack certain characteristics of plants, such as true roots, stems, and leaves.
- Red algae are classified under Protista because they are eukaryotic, mostly unicellular or multicellular, and have complex cell structures.
- They are also capable of photosynthesis, but their pigments differ from those found in plants.
- Therefore, the correct answer is B: Protista.
Note: The classification of organisms may vary over time as new discoveries are made and new information is obtained through scientific research.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16

Linnaeus proposed an outline of plant classification in :

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16
Linnaeus proposed an outline of plant classification in Systema Naturae.
Explanation:
Linnaeus, also known as Carl Linnaeus, was a Swedish botanist who is considered the father of modern taxonomy. He developed a system of naming and classifying organisms that is still used today.
The proposed outline of plant classification by Linnaeus can be found in his book called "Systema Naturae." This book was first published in 1735 and was later expanded in subsequent editions.
Here are some key points about Linnaeus's classification system and his book "Systema Naturae":
- "Systema Naturae" is a comprehensive work that presents Linnaeus's classification system for plants, animals, and minerals. It is considered one of the most influential scientific books in history.
- Linnaeus's classification system is based on the hierarchical structure of organisms, from broad categories to more specific ones. It includes the use of binomial nomenclature, where each species is given a unique two-part scientific name.
- Linnaeus's plant classification system is based on the reproductive organs of plants, particularly their flowers and fruits. He divided plants into classes, orders, genera, and species.
- Linnaeus's work laid the foundation for the modern field of taxonomy and greatly contributed to our understanding of the diversity and relationships among organisms.
- The classification system proposed by Linnaeus in "Systema Naturae" revolutionized the study of plants and provided a standardized way of organizing and naming them.
In conclusion, Linnaeus proposed an outline of plant classification in his book "Systema Naturae," which is considered a landmark work in the field of taxonomy.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17

Who classified the Embryophyta on the basis of fertilization -

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17
Embryophyta Classification on the Basis of Fertilization
The classification of Embryophyta on the basis of fertilization was done by Engler & Prantl. Here is a detailed explanation:
Engler & Prantl:
- Engler & Prantl were German botanists who worked on plant systematics and classification.
- They proposed a classification system for plants known as the Engler-Prantl system.
- The Engler-Prantl system is based on various characteristics of plants, including their reproductive features such as fertilization.
- Engler & Prantl classified the plant kingdom into several divisions, one of which is the division Embryophyta.
- The division Embryophyta includes all land plants, which are characterized by the presence of an embryo that develops from a fertilized egg.
- Embryophyta is further divided into various classes, orders, families, and genera based on additional characteristics and features.
Other Options:
- Eichler, Tippo, and Takhtajan are not associated with the classification of Embryophyta based on fertilization.
- Eichler, also known as August Wilhelm Eichler, was a German botanist who worked on plant morphology and classification.
- Tippo and Takhtajan are not well-known botanists in the context of Embryophyta classification.
Therefore, the correct answer is D: Engler & Prantl
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18

The earliest serious efforts to classify the living things were made by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18
The earliest efforts to classify living things were made by Greek philosophers.

  • Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato were among the first to attempt a systematic classification of living organisms.

  • They observed and categorized plants and animals based on their characteristics and similarities.

  • Aristotle, in particular, classified animals based on their habitat and physical characteristics.

  • He also developed the concept of a hierarchical classification system, organizing organisms into groups based on their shared characteristics.

  • His work laid the foundation for future taxonomic systems.

  • The Greek philosopher Theophrastus further expanded on Aristotle's work by studying and classifying plants.

  • He is often referred to as the father of botany.

  • Although their classification systems were not as comprehensive as modern taxonomies, their efforts paved the way for future scientists to develop more sophisticated systems.


Therefore, it is correct to say that the earliest serious efforts to classify living things were made by Greek philosophers.

History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19

Classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker is mainly based on :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19
Bentham and Hooker Classification:
The classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker is mainly based on floral characters. Bentham and Hooker were botanists who developed a system of plant classification known as the Bentham and Hooker system. This system is widely used in the field of plant taxonomy.
Explanation:
Floral characters refer to the various characteristics of flowers, such as the structure, arrangement, and number of floral organs. These characters are important in plant classification as they provide valuable information about the evolutionary relationships among different plant species. Bentham and Hooker recognized the significance of floral characters and used them as the basis for their classification system.
The Bentham and Hooker system of classification is a hierarchical system that categorizes plants into various groups based on their similarities and differences in floral characters. The system considers factors such as the number of floral parts, the arrangement of these parts, and the presence or absence of specific structures.
By examining and comparing floral characters, Bentham and Hooker were able to classify plants into different families, genera, and species. This classification system provides a systematic and organized way to identify and study plants.
In conclusion, the classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker is mainly based on floral characters. This approach allows for a detailed and accurate categorization of plants, aiding in the understanding of their evolutionary relationships and facilitating further research in the field of botany.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20

The separation of living beings into five kingdoms is based on :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20
The separation of living beings into five kingdoms is based on:
Complexity of cell structure:
- The cell structure of organisms can vary in complexity, with some having simple cells and others having more complex cells.
- This criterion helps in distinguishing between different types of organisms and grouping them accordingly.
Complexity of organism's body:
- Organisms can vary in their body complexity, with some having simple body structures and others having more complex body structures.
- This criterion helps in categorizing organisms based on their overall body organization and complexity.
Mode nutrition:
- The way organisms obtain their nutrition can vary, with some being autotrophs (able to produce their own food) and others being heterotrophs (relying on external sources for food).
- This criterion helps in classifying organisms based on their mode of obtaining nutrition.
All the above:
- The five-kingdom classification system takes into account all the above factors - complexity of cell structure, complexity of organism's body, and mode of nutrition.
- By considering multiple aspects, this classification system provides a more comprehensive approach to categorizing living beings.
In conclusion, the separation of living beings into five kingdoms is based on the complexity of cell structure, complexity of organism's body, and mode of nutrition. This classification system allows for a more organized and systematic understanding of the diversity of life on Earth.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21

Which of the following organisms were never included in protista :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21
Organisms never included in protista:

  1. Bacteria: Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that are classified into their own domain, separate from the eukaryotic Protista.

  2. Red algae: Red algae, also known as rhodophytes, are eukaryotic organisms that belong to the kingdom Plantae and are not included in the Protista classification.

  3. Slimemolds: Slimemolds, also known as Myxomycetes, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that are classified under the kingdom Fungi. They are not part of the Protista classification.

  4. Mosses: Mosses are small, non-vascular plants that belong to the division Bryophyta. They are eukaryotic organisms and are not included in the Protista classification.


Therefore, the organism that was never included in protista is mosses (option D).
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22

In which book, Linnaeus proposed the principles of nomenclature :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22
Answer:
In the book Philosophia botanica, Linnaeus proposed the principles of nomenclature. Here is a detailed explanation:
Linnaeus:
- Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who is known as the father of modern taxonomy.
- He developed the binomial nomenclature system, which is the scientific naming of organisms using their genus and species names.
Philosophia botanica:
- Philosophia botanica is a book written by Linnaeus in 1751.
- It served as a guidebook for botanists and introduced the fundamental principles of botanical science.
- In this book, Linnaeus proposed the principles of nomenclature, which laid the foundation for the systematic naming of plants.
Principles of nomenclature:
- Linnaeus introduced a standardized system for naming plants, which included the use of Latin names.
- He emphasized the importance of using a two-part naming system, with the genus name followed by the species name.
- This system provided a unique and universal way of identifying and classifying plants.
Other works by Linnaeus:
- Linnaeus also authored several other influential books, including "Species plantarum," "Systema Naturae," and "Flora lapponica."
- "Species plantarum" is considered the starting point for botanical nomenclature, and it listed all known plant species at the time.
- "Systema Naturae" is a comprehensive work that classified and described a vast number of organisms, including plants, animals, and minerals.
- "Flora lapponica" focused on the flora of Lapland, a region in northern Scandinavia.
In conclusion, it was in the book "Philosophia botanica" that Linnaeus proposed the principles of nomenclature, which revolutionized the way plants are named and classified.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23

Which of the two groups include the similar plants

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23
Similar plants in the two groups:

  • Siphonogama

  • Spermatophyta


Differences between the two groups:

  • Zoodiogama is not included in group A

  • Metachlamydae and monochlamydae are not included in group A

  • Polypetalae and gamopetalae are not included in group A


Explanation:
The two groups that include similar plants are Siphonogama and Spermatophyta. This means that the plants belonging to these two groups share certain characteristics or traits. However, it is important to note that the other options mentioned in B, C, and D do not include Siphonogama or Spermatophyta, indicating that these groups do not have similar plants. Therefore, option A is the correct answer as it includes the two groups that have similar plants.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24

In Tippo's classification the group atracheata includes :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24
Tippo's classification and the group atracheata:
Tippo's classification is a system used to categorize plants based on their characteristics. The group atracheata, also known as the non-vascular plants, includes plants that do not have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients. This group is distinct from the vascular plants, which have specialized tissues for conducting fluids.
The correct answer to the question is B: Bryophyta. Bryophyta is a division of plants that includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. These plants belong to the group atracheata because they lack vascular tissues.
Explanation:
1. Tippo's classification: This classification system was proposed by Alfred Francis Tippo, an American botanist. It categorizes plants into different groups based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
2. Group atracheata: Atracheata is a term used in Tippo's classification to refer to plants that do not possess specialized vascular tissues, such as xylem and phloem. These plants cannot transport water and nutrients efficiently throughout their bodies.
3. Examples of atracheata plants: The group atracheata includes various non-vascular plants like mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
4. Bryophyta: Bryophyta is a division of plants that belong to the group atracheata. Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are examples of bryophytes. They lack true roots, stems, and leaves, and their life cycle alternates between a gametophyte and sporophyte stage.
5. Other groups in Tippo's classification: Tippo's classification also includes other groups such as thallophyta (algae and fungi) and the vascular plants (tracheophyta), which are further divided into different subdivisions based on their characteristics.
In conclusion, in Tippo's classification, the group atracheata includes bryophytes such as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. These plants lack specialized vascular tissues and have a distinct life cycle.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25

Phylogenetic relationship of plants can be established by :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25
Phylogenetic relationship of plants can be established by:
A: Plant serum:
- Plant serum does not play a role in establishing phylogenetic relationships of plants.
- It is not a reliable method for determining evolutionary relationships.
B: Animal serum:
- Animal serum can be used to establish phylogenetic relationships of plants.
- By injecting plant extracts into animals and analyzing their immune response, similarities and differences can be identified.
- Antibodies produced in response to the plant extracts can be used to compare the relatedness of different plant species.
C: Chromatography:
- Chromatography is a technique used to separate and analyze chemical compounds in a mixture.
- It can be used to compare the presence and distribution of specific molecules in different plant species.
- This information can help in determining the evolutionary relationships between plants.
D: Autoradiography:
- Autoradiography is a technique used to track the movement of radioactive substances in cells or tissues.
- It can be used to compare the metabolic activity and gene expression patterns in different plant species.
- This information can provide insights into the evolutionary relationships between plants.
Conclusion:
- The correct option for establishing phylogenetic relationships of plants is B: Animal serum.
- By analyzing the immune response of animals injected with plant extracts, similarities and differences between plant species can be identified, helping in determining their evolutionary relationships.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26

Fertilization by zoodiogamy occurs in :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26
Fertilization by zoodiogamy occurs in Cryptogams.
- Zoodiogamy is a type of fertilization in which the male gametes (sperm) are motile and are transferred to the female gametes (eggs) through a medium like water or air.
- Cryptogams are a group of plants that reproduce through spores and do not have flowers or seeds.
- Examples of cryptogams include algae, fungi, mosses, and ferns.
- In these plants, zoodiogamy is the mechanism by which fertilization takes place.
- The male gametes are released into the environment, and they swim or are carried by air currents to reach the female gametes.
- Once the male gametes reach the female gametes, fertilization occurs, resulting in the formation of a zygote.
- Zoodiogamy is an important reproductive strategy in cryptogams as it allows for the exchange of genetic material between individuals and promotes genetic diversity.
- This type of fertilization is not limited to any specific group within the cryptogams, but occurs in various taxa including algae, mosses, and ferns.
- Overall, zoodiogamy is an essential process in the reproductive cycle of cryptogams, enabling the continuation of their species.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27

Swedish botanist who proposed the artificial system of classification on the basis of floral morphology was :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27
Swedish botanist who proposed the artificial system of classification on the basis of floral morphology was Carl von Linne.
Explanation:
- Carl von Linne, also known as Carolus Linnaeus, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist.
- He is considered the father of modern taxonomy and is best known for his work in developing a system of binomial nomenclature for naming species.
- Linnaeus proposed an artificial system of classification based on the morphology of flowers, which he called the "sexual system."
- This system classified plants based on the number, arrangement, and types of reproductive organs in their flowers.
- Linnaeus believed that the sexual organs of plants were the most important features for classification because they were directly related to the process of reproduction.
- His system was artificial because it did not take into account other characteristics of plants, such as their evolutionary relationships or ecological adaptations.
- Despite its limitations, Linnaeus's system of classification was widely adopted and provided a standardized way to name and organize plants.
- Linnaeus's work laid the foundation for modern plant taxonomy and his binomial nomenclature system is still used today.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28

Kingdom of unicellular eucaryotes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28
Kingdom of Unicellular Eukaryotes:
The kingdom of unicellular eukaryotes is called Protista. Let's dive into the details:
A: Monera
- Monera is a kingdom that includes prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria.
- It does not consist of unicellular eukaryotes.
B: Protista
- Protista is a kingdom that includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms.
- It is a diverse group that includes algae, protozoa, and slime molds.
- These organisms have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- They can be found in various habitats, including freshwater, marine, and soil.
C: Fungi
- Fungi is a kingdom that includes multicellular eukaryotic organisms, such as mushrooms and yeasts.
- It does not consist of unicellular eukaryotes.
D: Plantae
- Plantae is a kingdom that includes multicellular eukaryotic organisms, such as trees, flowers, and grasses.
- It does not consist of unicellular eukaryotes.
Therefore, the correct answer is B: Protista as the kingdom of unicellular eukaryotes.
History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29

Who among the following proposed a classification in which plants with one stamen were placed under the classMonandria, with two inDiandria and with many stamens in polyandria:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy MCQ Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29
Linnaeus proposed the classification system in which plants with one stamen were placed under the class Monandria, with two in Diandria, and with many stamens in Polyandria. Here is a detailed explanation of Linnaeus's classification system:
1. Carl Linnaeus: Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist who developed the binomial nomenclature system for naming organisms. He is also known as the "Father of Taxonomy" for his contributions to the classification of plants.
2. Classification system: Linnaeus developed a hierarchical classification system that organizes plants based on their similarities and differences. He used the number of stamens (male reproductive organs) as one of the criteria for classification.
3. Monandria: In Linnaeus's system, plants with one stamen were placed under the class Monandria. This class includes plants such as orchids, ginger, and banana.
4. Diandria: Plants with two stamens were placed under the class Diandria. Examples of plants in this class include barberry, mahogany, and honeysuckle.
5. Polyandria: Plants with many stamens (more than two) were placed under the class Polyandria. This class includes plants such as roses, sunflowers, and hibiscus.
6. Advantages of Linnaeus's classification: Linnaeus's classification system provided a standardized way to name and categorize plants. It allowed scientists to identify and study plants more effectively and facilitated communication among botanists worldwide.
In conclusion, Carl Linnaeus proposed a classification system in which plants with one stamen were placed under the class Monandria, with two in Diandria, and with many stamens in Polyandria. This system revolutionized the field of botany and laid the foundation for modern plant taxonomy.
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