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History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Class 11 MCQ


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30 Questions MCQ Test - History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11

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History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1

Eichler divided plant kingdom in :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 1
Eichler divided the plant kingdom into five divisions:
- Thallophyta: This division includes algae, fungi, and lichens. These plants lack true roots, stems, and leaves and reproduce through spores.
- Bryophyta: This division includes mosses and liverworts. They are small, non-vascular plants that reproduce through spores.
- Pteridophyta: This division includes ferns and horsetails. They are vascular plants that reproduce through spores.
- Gymnosperms: This division includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgo. They are vascular plants that produce seeds, but the seeds are not enclosed in fruits.
- Angiosperms: This division includes flowering plants. They are vascular plants that produce seeds enclosed in fruits.
Eichler's classification system is based on the evolutionary relationships and characteristics of plants. It provides a way to categorize and study the diverse plant species found in the plant kingdom.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2

Embryophyta includes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 2
Embryophyta includes:
- Angiosperms: Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds within a protective enclosure called the ovary. They are the most diverse group of plants, with over 300,000 known species. Examples include roses, sunflowers, and oak trees.
- Algae and fungi: Algae and fungi are not included in the Embryophyta group. Algae are photosynthetic organisms that can be found in various aquatic environments, while fungi are non-photosynthetic organisms that obtain nutrients by decomposing organic matter.
- Bryophyta & Pteridophyta: Bryophyta and Pteridophyta are two plant groups that are included in the Embryophyta. Bryophyta, also known as mosses, are non-vascular plants that lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Pteridophyta, which includes ferns and horsetails, are vascular plants that have true roots, stems, and leaves.
- All plants except thallophyta: Thallophyta is a group of plants that includes algae, fungi, and lichens. Embryophyta includes all plants except for thallophyta, so it encompasses a wide range of plant groups including mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.
In conclusion, Embryophyta includes all plants except thallophyta, and this includes angiosperms, bryophyta, and pteridophyta.
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History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3

According to Tippo, BGA are included in :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 3
According to Tippo, BGA are included in Chlorophyta

Tippo, an American botanist, classified blue-green algae (BGA) within the phylum Chlorophyta. Here is a detailed explanation:



  • Tippo's Classification: Tippo's classification system, based on morphological characteristics, placed BGA within the phylum Chlorophyta.

  • BGA: Blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms that possess both photosynthetic pigments and the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

  • Chlorophyta: Chlorophyta, commonly known as green algae, is a phylum of algae that contains various photosynthetic organisms. These organisms possess chlorophylls a and b, as well as other accessory pigments.

  • Synonymous Usage: Tippo's classification system considers blue-green algae and green algae as synonymous, hence including BGA within the phylum Chlorophyta.

  • Characteristics: Both blue-green algae and green algae exhibit similar characteristics like the presence of chlorophylls, photosynthetic abilities, and the capability to live in various aquatic environments.

  • Further Research: It's important to note that scientific classifications are subject to change as new information and research emerge. Different taxonomists may have different opinions and classifications based on various factors.


Therefore, according to Tippo's classification, blue-green algae (BGA) are included in the phylum Chlorophyta.

History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4

Oswald Tippo placed slime molds in :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 4
Explanation:
The correct answer is D: Myxomycophyta.
- Oswald Tippo placed slime molds in the phylum Myxomycophyta.
- Myxomycophyta is a group of organisms commonly known as slime molds.
- Slime molds are not classified under Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, or Phaeophyta.
- Cyanophyta, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic bacteria.
- Chlorophyta refers to green algae, a group of photosynthetic eukaryotes.
- Phaeophyta, or brown algae, are large multicellular marine algae.
In summary, Oswald Tippo placed slime molds in the phylum Myxomycophyta, which is different from Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Phaeophyta.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5

"Genera Plantarum" was written by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 5
Explanation:
The book "Genera Plantarum" was written by Bentham & Hooker.
- This book is a taxonomic work on plant classification and was published in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.
- The authors of the book are George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker.
- George Bentham was an English botanist and a leading authority on the classification of plants. He worked extensively on the Flora of Australia.
- Joseph Dalton Hooker was a British botanist and explorer, known for his travels to different parts of the world, including Antarctica and India. He also served as the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
- Bentham and Hooker collaborated on various botanical projects and their most significant work together is "Genera Plantarum."
- This book provided a comprehensive classification system for plants, based on their morphological characteristics.
- It served as a foundation for modern plant taxonomy and was a crucial reference for botanists for many years.
- The book is still considered a valuable resource in the field of plant classification.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Bentham & Hooker.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6

Angiosperms (dicotyledons) were distinguished into archichlamydae and metachlamydae by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 6
Angiosperms (dicotyledons) were distinguished into archichlamydae and metachlamydae by Engler and Prantl.
The classification of angiosperms into archichlamydae and metachlamydae was proposed by Engler and Prantl, two renowned botanists. This classification was based on the study of various characteristics of angiosperms, including floral morphology and anatomy. The main purpose of this classification was to better understand the evolutionary relationships and diversity within angiosperms.
Engler and Prantl:
Engler and Prantl were German botanists who collaborated on the development of a comprehensive system of plant classification. They proposed a hierarchical system of plant classification based on evolutionary relationships and shared characteristics.
Archichlamydae and Metachlamydae:
1. Archichlamydae: This group includes the majority of dicotyledonous angiosperms. They are characterized by having a superior ovary (where the ovary is positioned above the attachment point of the other floral parts), a well-developed perianth (the outermost whorl of a flower consisting of sepals and petals), and a corolla (the whorl of petals) that is often differentiated into distinct petals.
2. Metachlamydae: This group includes a smaller number of dicotyledonous angiosperms. They are characterized by having an inferior ovary (where the ovary is positioned below the attachment point of the other floral parts), reduced or absent perianth, and petals that are often fused together.
Significance of the classification:
1. Engler and Prantl's classification provided a framework for understanding the diversity and relationships within dicotyledonous angiosperms.
2. It helped in identifying common characteristics and grouping plants based on their evolutionary history.
3. The classification system provided a basis for further research and study in the field of plant taxonomy and evolution.
In conclusion, Engler and Prantl distinguished dicotyledonous angiosperms into archichlamydae and metachlamydae based on their floral morphology and anatomy. This classification system provided a valuable tool for understanding the evolutionary relationships and diversity within this group of plants.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7

Chief merit of Bentham and Hooker's classification is that :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 7
Chief merit of Bentham and Hooker's classification:
C: The description of the taxa are based on actual observation of the specimen
- Bentham and Hooker's classification system is based on the actual observation of plant specimens.
- This means that the descriptions of the taxa are directly derived from the characteristics observed in the plants themselves.
- By relying on real specimens, the classification system ensures a more accurate and reliable classification of plants.
- This approach helps to avoid subjective interpretations or biases that may arise from relying solely on theoretical or hypothetical concepts.
Other possible merits:
- While the given answer focuses on the observation-based nature of Bentham and Hooker's classification, there are other potential merits of their system as well.
- It is a natural system of classification that aims to group plants based on their natural affinities and similarities.
- The classification system also considers phylogenetic aspects, which means it takes into account the evolutionary relationships between different plant groups.
- Bentham and Hooker's classification system provides a comprehensive classification of all groups of plants, ensuring that no group is left out or overlooked.
- The system is well-structured and organized, making it easier to navigate and understand the relationships between different plant taxa.
In conclusion, the chief merit of Bentham and Hooker's classification system is that it is based on the actual observation of plant specimens, ensuring accuracy and reliability in the classification process. However, there are other notable merits such as its natural system of classification, consideration of phylogenetic aspects, and comprehensive coverage of all plant groups.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

Bantham and Hooker classified dicots into :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 8

The classification of dicots by Bantham and Hooker is as follows:
Polypetalae:
- This group includes dicots that have separate petals.
- The petals are not fused or joined together.
- Examples of plants in this group include roses, daisies, and buttercups.
Gamopetalae:
- This group includes dicots that have fused or joined petals.
- The petals are united to form a tube or a cup shape.
- Examples of plants in this group include morning glories, petunias, and tomatoes.
Monochlamydae:
- This group includes dicots that have only one whorl of perianth.
- The perianth refers to the outer part of the flower, including the sepals and petals.
- Examples of plants in this group include magnolias, water lilies, and tulips.
Therefore, the correct answer is B: Polypetalae, gamopetalae, and monochlamydae.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9

Zoodiogama includes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 9
Zoodiogama includes:
- Bryophyta and pteridophyta: Zoodiogama includes both bryophytes and pteridophytes. Bryophytes are non-vascular plants, which include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Pteridophytes are vascular plants that reproduce via spores, and include ferns, horsetails, and clubmosses.
Explanation:
Zoodiogama is a term used to describe the reproductive system in plants. It refers to the type of reproduction where male gametes are motile and move towards the female gametes for fertilization. This type of reproduction is commonly found in bryophytes and pteridophytes.
- Bryophyta: Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that reproduce through spores. They do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are examples of bryophytes. Bryophytes have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, meaning that the gametophyte stage is the dominant stage in their life cycle.
- Pteridophyta: Pteridophytes are vascular plants that reproduce through spores. They have true roots, stems, and leaves. Ferns, horsetails, and clubmosses are examples of pteridophytes. Pteridophytes have a sporophyte-dominant life cycle, meaning that the sporophyte stage is the dominant stage in their life cycle.
Therefore, the correct answer is option C: Bryophyta and pteridophyta. Zoodiogama includes both these groups of plants that reproduce through motile male gametes.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10

Four kingdom system of classification was proposed by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 10
Four Kingdom System of Classification
The four kingdom system of classification was proposed by Copeland. This system was developed as an extension of the three kingdom system proposed by Linnaeus. Here is a detailed explanation of the four kingdom system:
1. Monera
- Monera is the first kingdom in the four kingdom system.
- It consists of prokaryotic organisms, which are single-celled and lack a nucleus.
- Examples of organisms in this kingdom include bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
2. Protista
- Protista is the second kingdom in the four kingdom system.
- It consists of eukaryotic organisms, which have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Organisms in this kingdom are primarily unicellular, but some may be colonial or multicellular.
- Examples of organisms in this kingdom include protozoans, algae, and slime molds.
3. Fungi
- Fungi is the third kingdom in the four kingdom system.
- It consists of eukaryotic organisms that obtain nutrients by absorbing them from their surroundings.
- Most fungi are multicellular, but some are unicellular.
- Examples of organisms in this kingdom include mushrooms, yeasts, and molds.
4. Plantae
- Plantae is the fourth kingdom in the four kingdom system.
- It consists of eukaryotic organisms that are multicellular and have cell walls made of cellulose.
- Organisms in this kingdom are autotrophic, meaning they can produce their own food through photosynthesis.
- Examples of organisms in this kingdom include flowering plants, mosses, and ferns.
Conclusion
The four kingdom system of classification proposed by Copeland expanded upon the three kingdom system proposed by Linnaeus by adding the kingdom Monera. This system provides a framework for categorizing organisms based on their cellular structure, mode of nutrition, and other characteristics. It has been widely used in biological classification, although more recent systems have further divided and classified organisms into additional kingdoms and domains.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11

The system of classification porposed by Bentham and Hooker is :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 11
The system of classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker is known as the "Natural System of Classification". Let's break down the classification system and its key features:
Natural System of Classification:
- The Natural system of classification is based on the natural affinities or relationships between organisms.
- It groups organisms based on their similarities in structure, form, and function.
- This system aims to reflect the evolutionary relationships and the process of descent with modification.
- The classification is hierarchical, with organisms being grouped into categories or taxa based on their similarities.
- The taxa are organized into a hierarchical order, from broader categories to more specific ones.
- The system emphasizes the importance of using multiple characteristics or traits to classify organisms accurately.
- The Natural system of classification is dynamic and subject to change as new information and understanding of relationships between organisms emerge.
In contrast to the Natural system, other classification systems include:
Artificial System of Classification:
- The Artificial system of classification is based on selected characteristics or traits chosen for convenience.
- It does not reflect the natural relationships between organisms.
- Organisms are grouped based on a limited number of selected features, such as habitat or economic importance.
- This system is often used for practical purposes, such as identification or categorization of economically important plants or animals.
Phylogenetic System of Classification:
- The Phylogenetic system of classification is based on evolutionary relationships and common ancestry.
- It groups organisms based on their shared derived characteristics or traits.
- It aims to depict the evolutionary history and branching pattern of organisms.
- This system is often based on genetic and molecular data, as well as morphological and anatomical features.
Numerical System of Classification:
- The Numerical system of classification is based on quantitative data analysis.
- It involves assigning numerical values to various characteristics or traits and using mathematical algorithms to analyze and classify organisms.
- This system is often used in fields such as ecology and biodiversity studies.
Therefore, the system of classification proposed by Bentham and Hooker is the Natural system of classification, which emphasizes the natural relationships and affinities between organisms.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12

The classification of Linnaeus was mainly based on :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 12
Classification of Linnaeus based on Stamens:
- Stamens are the male reproductive parts of a flower.
- Linnaeus classified plants based on the number, arrangement, and structure of stamens.
- He used the stamens as a key characteristic to differentiate and categorize different plant species.
- Linnaeus observed that the number and arrangement of stamens were consistent within a species but varied among different species.
- By studying the stamens, Linnaeus was able to classify plants into various groups and establish a systematic way of organizing them.
- He classified plants based on the number of stamens, whether they were fused or separate, and the attachment of stamens to other flower parts.
- This classification system based on stamens provided a foundation for understanding and identifying different plant species.
- It allowed scientists and botanists to classify and name plants in a standardized manner, facilitating communication and research in the field of botany.
- Linnaeus' classification system based on stamens laid the groundwork for future developments in plant taxonomy and classification.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13

Kingdom monera comprises the :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 13
Kingdom Monera and its composition:
The Kingdom Monera is a taxonomic category that includes a diverse group of organisms. It is composed of prokaryotic organisms, which are characterized by the absence of a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Let's take a closer look at the composition of Kingdom Monera:
1. Prokaryotic organisms:
- Kingdom Monera consists of bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).
- Bacteria are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are found in various habitats and play important roles in nutrient cycling, decomposition, and symbiotic relationships.
- Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a group of photosynthetic bacteria that can perform oxygenic photosynthesis. They are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and are found in diverse environments, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats.
2. Not plants:
- Monera does not include plants. Plants belong to the Kingdom Plantae, which is a separate taxonomic category.
3. Thallophyta group:
- The Thallophyta group, which includes algae, fungi, and lichens, is not exclusively part of Kingdom Monera. Algae, which are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms, belong to various kingdoms, including Protista, Plantae, and Chromista. Fungi and lichens are classified under the Kingdom Fungi.
4. Economic importance:
- While some bacteria have economic importance, the Kingdom Monera as a whole is not defined by its economic significance. Bacteria have both positive and negative impacts on human activities, such as in medicine, agriculture, food production, and biotechnology.
In conclusion, Kingdom Monera comprises prokaryotic organisms, specifically bacteria and cyanobacteria. It does not include plants, all plants studied in botany, or the Thallophyta group. While bacteria have economic importance, this is not the defining characteristic of Kingdom Monera.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14

Embryophyta includes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 14
Embryophyta includes:
Embryophyta, also known as land plants, is a division of plants that includes various groups such as algae, fungi, and bryophytes. Let's break down the options and see which ones are included in the Embryophyta group:
Option A: Algae
- Algae are a diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that can be found in aquatic environments.
- While some algae share similarities with land plants, they are not considered part of the Embryophyta group.
- Therefore, algae are not included in Embryophyta.
Option B: Fungi
- Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that obtain nutrients through absorption.
- They include various types such as mushrooms, molds, and yeasts.
- Fungi are not part of the Embryophyta group.
- Therefore, fungi are not included in Embryophyta.
Option C: Bryophyta
- Bryophyta, also known as mosses, are a group of non-vascular plants.
- They are small, herbaceous plants that typically grow in moist environments.
- Bryophyta is indeed included in the Embryophyta group.
- Therefore, Bryophyta is part of Embryophyta.
Option D: All of these
- This option suggests that all the mentioned groups (algae, fungi, and Bryophyta) are included in Embryophyta.
- However, as discussed earlier, algae and fungi are not part of the Embryophyta group.
- Therefore, option D is incorrect.
Conclusion:
Embryophyta includes bryophyta (mosses) but not algae or fungi. Therefore, the correct answer is option C: Bryophyta.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15

Whittaker is famous for :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 15
Whittaker is famous for Five kingdom classification:
- The Five kingdom classification, proposed by Robert H. Whittaker in 1969, is a system of classifying living organisms into five distinct kingdoms based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
- This classification system recognizes five major groups or kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
- Each kingdom is defined by specific characteristics and functions:
1. Monera: Consists of prokaryotic organisms, including bacteria and blue-green algae.
2. Protista: Contains eukaryotic organisms that are mostly unicellular, such as protozoans and algae.
3. Fungi: Comprises organisms that are heterotrophic and obtain nutrients by absorption. This includes molds, yeasts, and mushrooms.
4. Plantae: Includes multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic and possess cell walls made of cellulose. This kingdom consists of plants.
5. Animalia: Comprises multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic and lack cell walls. This kingdom encompasses animals.
Whittaker's Five kingdom classification is significant because:
- It recognized the diversity of organisms and provided a more comprehensive system for classification.
- It emphasized evolutionary relationships and allowed for a better understanding of the relationships between different groups of organisms.
- It helped bridge the gap between traditional two kingdom classification systems (plants and animals) and the emerging knowledge of microorganisms.
- The Five kingdom classification system has been widely adopted and serves as the foundation for further classifications and studies in the field of biology.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16

First phylogenetic system of plant classification was given by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 16
First Phylogenetic System of Plant Classification: Eichler
Eichler's System
- The first phylogenetic system of plant classification was given by August Wilhelm Eichler, a German botanist, in his book "Systematische Blätter" published in 1883.
- Eichler's system aimed to classify plants based on their evolutionary relationships, taking into account their morphological and anatomical characteristics.
- This system was a departure from earlier artificial systems of classification, which grouped plants based on superficial similarities.
- Eichler proposed a natural system of classification, where plants were classified into groups based on their common descent and evolutionary history.
Key Features of Eichler's System
- Eichler divided the plant kingdom into two main groups: Cryptogams (non-flowering plants) and Phanerogams (flowering plants).
- Cryptogams were further divided into Thallophytes (algae and fungi) and Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts).
- Phanerogams were classified into Gymnosperms (naked-seeded plants) and Angiosperms (flowering plants).
- Angiosperms were further divided into Monocotyledons (plants with one seed leaf) and Dicotyledons (plants with two seed leaves).
- Eichler's system also considered other characteristics such as the arrangement of floral parts, the position of ovules, and the number of cotyledons.
Significance of Eichler's System
- Eichler's system laid the foundation for modern phylogenetic classification of plants.
- It emphasized the importance of evolutionary relationships and common ancestry in classifying plants.
- Eichler's system provided a framework for further research and study in the field of plant taxonomy.
- Although Eichler's system has been modified and updated over time, it remains an important milestone in the history of plant classification.
Overall, Eichler's phylogenetic system of plant classification was a significant contribution to the field, as it introduced the concept of evolutionary relationships and paved the way for more comprehensive and accurate classification systems.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17

System of classification proposed by Linnaeus was:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 17
System of classification proposed by Linnaeus:
The system of classification proposed by Linnaeus is known as binomial nomenclature. It involves assigning a two-part scientific name to each species based on their characteristics and relationships. Linnaeus classified organisms into hierarchical categories, which are still used in modern taxonomy.
Types of classification proposed by Linnaeus:
1. Artificial classification: This type of classification is based on a few easily observable and distinctive characteristics of organisms. It does not take into account the evolutionary relationships between species. Linnaeus initially used this method to classify plants based on their sexual organs.
2. Natural classification: This type of classification is based on the overall similarities and relationships between organisms. It takes into account the evolutionary history and common ancestry of species. Linnaeus later shifted towards a more natural system of classification, where he grouped organisms based on their shared characteristics.
3. Sexual classification: This type of classification is based on the reproductive organs and modes of reproduction in organisms. Linnaeus classified plants based on their sexual organs, such as the number of stamens and pistils.
Linnaeus's classification:
- Linnaeus proposed a hierarchical system of classification, where organisms are grouped into different categories based on their similarities and relationships.
- The highest category is the Kingdom, followed by Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
- Each species is given a unique two-part scientific name, consisting of the genus name and the species name. For example, Homo sapiens is the scientific name for humans, where Homo is the genus and sapiens is the species.
- Linnaeus's classification system is still widely used today, although there have been modifications and additions to accommodate new discoveries and advancements in scientific knowledge.
In conclusion, the system of classification proposed by Linnaeus is known as binomial nomenclature, and it involves assigning a two-part scientific name to each species. Linnaeus initially used an artificial classification based on easily observable characteristics but later shifted towards a more natural classification system. He also considered the sexual organs and modes of reproduction in his classification. His hierarchical system of classification, along with the use of scientific names, is still influential in modern taxonomy.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18

"Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien" wrote by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 18
Answer:
The book "Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien" was written by Engler and Prantl. Here is a detailed explanation:
- The book "Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien" is a botanical work that focuses on the classification and description of plant families.
- It was written in German and was published in the late 19th century.
- The authors of the book are Adolf Engler and Karl Anton Eugen Prantl.
- Adolf Engler was a German botanist who is known for his extensive research in plant taxonomy and systematics. He also developed the Engler system, a widely used plant classification system.
- Karl Anton Eugen Prantl was an Austrian botanist who made significant contributions to the field of plant anatomy and morphology.
- Engler and Prantl collaborated on several botanical projects, including the publication of "Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien."
- The book provides a comprehensive overview of plant families, their characteristics, and their classification.
- It is considered a valuable resource for botanists and plant enthusiasts interested in studying plant taxonomy and systematics.
In conclusion, the book "Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien" was written by Engler and Prantl, two prominent botanists who made significant contributions to the field of plant classification and systematics.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19

In which of the following systems, plants are classified in geneological order :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 19
Plants Classification in Genealogical Order
In the classification of plants, the genealogical order refers to the arrangement of plants based on their evolutionary relationships and common ancestry. This classification system aims to group plants into categories that reflect their evolutionary history. Among the given options, the correct answer is C: Phylogenetic.
Here is a detailed explanation of the given options and why phylogenetic classification is the appropriate choice:
1. Artificial:
- Artificial classification refers to the organization of plants based on easily observable characteristics or specific criteria determined by humans.
- It does not consider evolutionary relationships or genetic similarities.
- This type of classification is often used for practical purposes or for grouping plants based on their uses, such as medicinal plants or ornamental plants.
2. Natural:
- Natural classification is based on the overall similarities and differences among plants, considering their morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics.
- It aims to reflect the natural relationships and evolutionary history of plants.
- However, natural classification may not always align perfectly with phylogenetic relationships, as some similarities may be due to convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry.
3. Phylogenetic:
- Phylogenetic classification is the most accurate and scientifically accepted method of classifying plants.
- It is based on the analysis of genetic data, such as DNA sequences, to determine evolutionary relationships.
- This classification system groups plants based on their shared common ancestors and genetic similarities.
- It helps to understand the evolutionary history, diversification, and relationships between different plant species.
4. Nonphylogenetic:
- Nonphylogenetic classification refers to any classification system that does not consider evolutionary relationships.
- It may be based on arbitrary criteria or specific characteristics that are not necessarily related to genetic relatedness.
- Nonphylogenetic classification systems are not commonly used in modern scientific research.
In conclusion, the most appropriate system for classifying plants in genealogical order is the phylogenetic classification system. It takes into account the evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between different plant species, providing a more accurate understanding of their evolutionary history.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20

Which book is the starting point for phylogenetic system :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 20
Answer:
The starting point for phylogenetic system is "Origin of Species" by Charles Darwin.
Explanation:
- Origin of Species: This book, written by Charles Darwin in 1859, laid the foundation for the theory of evolution and introduced the concept of common ancestry. It presented evidence for the gradual evolution of species through natural selection. The book discussed the idea that all living organisms share a common ancestor and highlighted the importance of studying the relationships between different species.
- Die Naturlichen Pflanzen familien: This book, written by Adolf Engler and Karl Prantl, is a comprehensive work on plant taxonomy. While it contributed to the field of plant classification, it is not specifically focused on phylogenetics.
- The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants: This book by Arthur Cronquist is an important work in the field of plant classification and taxonomy. However, it is not the starting point for phylogenetic system as it builds upon the foundations laid by Darwin's "Origin of Species".
- Historia plantarum: This book, written by Theophrastus in ancient Greece, is one of the earliest known works on plants. While it provided valuable insights into plant morphology and classification, it predates the development of the phylogenetic system and does not specifically focus on evolutionary relationships.
In conclusion, the starting point for phylogenetic system is Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species" as it introduced the concept of common ancestry and evolution through natural selection.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21

Which of the following taxonomists first employed the characteristics of vascular tissue in taxonomy:-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 21
Answer:
The taxonomist who first employed the characteristics of vascular tissue in taxonomy is A.P. de Candolle.
Explanation:
A.P. de Candolle, a Swiss botanist, was the taxonomist who first utilized the characteristics of vascular tissue in taxonomy. Here is a detailed explanation of the options provided:
- Option A: Tippo is not known for employing the characteristics of vascular tissue in taxonomy.
- Option B: Engler and Prantl are famous for their work on plant classification, but they did not specifically employ the characteristics of vascular tissue in taxonomy.
- Option C: Takhtajan is a renowned Russian botanist, but he did not introduce the use of vascular tissue characteristics in taxonomy.
- Option D: A.P. de Candolle is recognized for his significant contributions to plant taxonomy, including the incorporation of vascular tissue characteristics for classification.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D, A.P. de Candolle.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22

The group "Pteropsida" proposed by Oswald Tippo includes :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 22
Pteropsida Group Proposed by Oswald Tippo
The group "Pteropsida" proposed by Oswald Tippo includes:
1. Ferns:
- Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and do not produce flowers or seeds.
- They have a unique life cycle with two distinct stages: the sporophyte stage and the gametophyte stage.
- Ferns are characterized by their large, compound leaves called fronds and reproduce by releasing spores from structures called sporangia.
2. Gymnosperms:
- Gymnosperms are a group of plants that bear naked seeds, meaning the seeds are not enclosed in a fruit.
- They include conifers, cycads, ginkgos, and gnetophytes.
- Gymnosperms have vascular tissues and produce cones instead of flowers.
- They are adapted to various environments and have evolved unique reproductive strategies.
3. Angiosperms:
- Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are the most diverse group of land plants.
- They have flowers and produce seeds enclosed within a fruit.
- Angiosperms have a complex reproductive system, utilizing pollination by insects, birds, or other animals.
- They are the dominant group of plants on Earth and play crucial roles in ecosystems and human societies.
4. All the above:
- The correct answer to the question is option D, as the Pteropsida group proposed by Oswald Tippo includes all of the above-mentioned plant groups: ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.
- These plants share certain characteristics related to their vascular system and reproductive structures.
In conclusion, the Pteropsida group proposed by Oswald Tippo includes ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. These plant groups have their unique characteristics and play important roles in various ecosystems.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23

In Whittaker's five kingdom classification, eucaryotes were assigned to :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 23
Whittaker's five kingdom classification:
Whittaker's five kingdom classification is a system of classifying living organisms into five distinct kingdoms based on their characteristics. The five kingdoms are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Eucaryotes in Whittaker's classification:
In this classification system, eucaryotes, which are organisms with complex cells containing a true nucleus, were assigned to only four of the five kingdoms.
The assignment of eucaryotes:
Eucaryotes were assigned to the following kingdoms in Whittaker's classification:
- Kingdom Protista: This kingdom includes eucaryotic organisms that are mostly unicellular (e.g. protozoa and algae). Many of these organisms have complex internal structures and organelles.
- Kingdom Fungi: This kingdom includes eucaryotic organisms that are multicellular (e.g. mushrooms and molds). Fungi obtain nutrients by absorption and play important roles in decomposition and nutrient cycling.
- Kingdom Plantae: This kingdom includes eucaryotic organisms that are multicellular and photosynthetic (e.g. plants). They have complex cellular structures and are capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis.
- Kingdom Animalia: This kingdom includes eucaryotic organisms that are multicellular and heterotrophic (e.g. animals). They have complex organ systems and obtain nutrients by consuming other organisms.
Conclusion:
In Whittaker's five kingdom classification, eucaryotes were assigned to four of the five kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. The assignment was based on the characteristics and cellular structures of these organisms.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24

The book genera plantarum which contains the classification of seed plants was wrote by :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 24
The book Genera Plantarum, which contains the classification of seed plants, was written by Bentham and Hooker.
The book Genera Plantarum is an important work in the field of botanical taxonomy. It provides a comprehensive classification system for seed plants. Here is a detailed explanation of the authors and their contributions:
1. Bentham and Hooker:
- The book Genera Plantarum was primarily written by George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker.
- George Bentham was an English botanist and taxonomist who made significant contributions to the classification of plants. He developed the Bentham and Hooker system of plant classification, which is still widely used today.
- Joseph Dalton Hooker was also an English botanist and explorer who worked closely with Charles Darwin. He collaborated with Bentham to complete the book Genera Plantarum after Bentham's death.
2. Other influential botanists:
- While Bentham and Hooker were the primary authors of Genera Plantarum, it is important to acknowledge the contributions of other botanists in the field of plant classification.
- Carl Linnaeus, often referred to as the "father of modern taxonomy," laid the foundation for plant classification with his work Systema Naturae. However, Linnaeus did not write Genera Plantarum.
- Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, a French botanist, developed the natural system of plant classification, which influenced the work of Bentham and Hooker. However, de Jussieu did not directly contribute to the writing of Genera Plantarum.
- August W. Eichler, a German botanist, proposed a plant classification system known as the Eichler system. However, Eichler did not write Genera Plantarum.
In conclusion, the book Genera Plantarum, which contains the classification of seed plants, was written by George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Their work built upon the contributions of earlier botanists like Linnaeus and de Jussieu, and their classification system continues to be influential in the field of botany.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25

"Theorie elementaire de la botanique" is the book of :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 25
Book: "Theorie elementaire de la botanique"
Author: De Candolle
The book "Theorie elementaire de la botanique" was written by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, a Swiss botanist. Here is some information about the book and its author:
About the book:
- "Theorie elementaire de la botanique" is a French book on botany.
- It was first published in 1813.
- The book provides an elementary introduction to the field of botany, covering various aspects such as plant classification, morphology, physiology, and ecology.
About the author:
- Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841) was a prominent Swiss botanist and taxonomist.
- He is known for his significant contributions to the field of botany, particularly in the area of plant classification and taxonomy.
- De Candolle's works had a profound influence on the development of botany as a scientific discipline.
- He also introduced several important concepts and principles in the study of plants, including the theory of natural selection.
Conclusion:
- "Theorie elementaire de la botanique" is a book on botany written by De Candolle.
- De Candolle's contributions to the field of botany have had a lasting impact on the study of plants and plant classification.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26

Carolus Linnaeus classified plant kingdom on the basis of :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 26
Carolus Linnaeus classified plant kingdom on the basis of:



1. Floral morphology:
- Linnaeus classified plants based on the structure and arrangement of flowers.
- He observed the number and arrangement of floral parts such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
- This classification system was based on the belief that plants with similar floral structures would have similar reproductive mechanisms.
- Linnaeus categorized plants into different classes, orders, genera, and species based on their floral morphology.



2. Overall morphology of plants:
- Linnaeus also considered the overall morphology of plants, including their growth habit, stem structure, leaf arrangement, and root system.
- He observed the size, shape, and arrangement of leaves, as well as the presence or absence of flowers and fruits.
- Based on these characteristics, Linnaeus grouped plants into different classes and orders.



3. Type of sexual reproduction:
- Linnaeus also took into account the type of sexual reproduction in plants.
- He classified plants as either monoecious (having separate male and female reproductive structures on the same plant) or dioecious (having separate male and female plants).
- This classification was based on the belief that plants with similar reproductive strategies would be more closely related.



4. Anatomical character:
- While floral morphology was the primary basis for Linnaeus' classification, he also considered anatomical characters to some extent.
- He observed the internal structures of plants, such as the arrangement of vascular tissues and the presence of specific cell types.
- However, anatomical characters were not as extensively used as floral morphology in Linnaeus' classification system.



Overall, Carolus Linnaeus classified the plant kingdom based on floral morphology, overall plant morphology, type of sexual reproduction, and to some extent, anatomical characters. This classification system provided a foundation for subsequent plant classification systems and laid the groundwork for our understanding of plant diversity.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27

Serology can be used to know the phylogenetic relationship of :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 27
Serology and Phylogenetic Relationship:
Serology is the study of blood serum and other bodily fluids in relation to the immune response. It involves the analysis of antibodies, antigens, and other immune markers to understand the immune system's response to different pathogens. Serological techniques can also be used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among various organisms.
1. Plants:
Serology can be used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among different plant species. By analyzing the presence and characteristics of specific antibodies or antigens, scientists can compare the immune responses of different plant species and infer their evolutionary relationships.
2. Animals:
Similarly, serological techniques can be applied to animals to study their phylogenetic relationship. By comparing the immune responses of different animal species, scientists can gain insights into their evolutionary history and relationships.
3. Both the above:
Serology can be used to study the phylogenetic relationship of both plants and animals. By comparing the immune responses of various plant and animal species, scientists can establish connections and trace their evolutionary pathways.
4. Dinosaurs:
Although not specifically mentioned in the given answer options, it is worth noting that serology cannot be directly used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of dinosaurs. Serological techniques rely on the analysis of antibodies and antigens, which are typically not preserved in fossils of extinct organisms like dinosaurs. Instead, the phylogenetic relationship of dinosaurs is primarily determined through the analysis of their skeletal remains, DNA, and other fossil evidence.
In conclusion, serology can be used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of both plants and animals. However, it is important to note that serological techniques cannot be directly applied to extinct organisms like dinosaurs.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28

Which of the following book was written by Theophrastus :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 28
Theophrastus and His Works
Introduction:
Theophrastus was a Greek philosopher and scientist who lived from 371 to 287 BC. He is often referred to as the "Father of Botany" due to his significant contributions to the field. He wrote several books on plants and their characteristics, which are still influential today.
Works by Theophrastus:
Theophrastus authored several notable works, including:
1. Enquiry into Plants: This book is a comprehensive study of botanical knowledge during ancient times. It describes over 500 plant species and their various properties, including medicinal uses.
2. Causes of Plants: In this work, Theophrastus explores the causes behind the growth and development of plants. He investigates factors such as soil, climate, and cultivation methods, providing valuable insights into the science of botany.
3. Historia Plantarum: This is Theophrastus' most famous work, also known as "The History of Plants." It is a collection of nine volumes that cover a wide range of botanical topics, including plant classification, morphology, and physiology.
The Correct Answer:
The correct answer is D: All the above. Theophrastus wrote all three books mentioned: "Enquiry into Plants," "Causes of Plants," and "Historia Plantarum." These works have had a profound impact on the development of botany as a scientific discipline, and Theophrastus' observations and classifications laid the foundation for future studies in the field.
Conclusion:
Theophrastus was a remarkable ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who made significant contributions to the study of plants. His books, such as "Enquiry into Plants," "Causes of Plants," and "Historia Plantarum," remain influential in botany to this day. Theophrastus' work paved the way for further advancements in plant science and continues to inspire researchers and enthusiasts in their exploration of the natural world.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29

Oswald–Tippo included how many divisions in sub kingdom thallophyta :–

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 29
Sub Kingdom Thallophyta
Thallophyta is a sub kingdom of plants that includes organisms such as algae, fungi, and lichens. Oswald-Tippo is a classification system that is used to categorize these organisms.
The sub kingdom Thallophyta is further divided into several divisions based on various characteristics. Oswald-Tippo included a certain number of divisions in this sub kingdom.
The correct answer is B: 10 divisions.
Here is a breakdown of the divisions included in sub kingdom Thallophyta according to Oswald-Tippo:
1. Algae
2. Euglenophyta (euglenoids)
3. Chrysophyta (golden algae)
4. Pyrrophyta (fire algae)
5. Chlorophyta (green algae)
6. Rhodophyta (red algae)
7. Phaeophyta (brown algae)
8. Myxomycota (slime molds)
9. Oomycota (water molds)
10. Ascomycota (sac fungi)
Each division includes organisms with similar characteristics and structures. This classification system helps scientists in studying and understanding the diversity of thallophytic organisms.
History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 30

Engler and Prantl created metachlamydae to include :-

Detailed Solution for History Of Taxonomy Test - Plant Diversity, Botany, Class 11 - Question 30
Engler and Prantl created metachlamydae to include:
- Polypetalous dicots: These are dicotyledonous plants that have separate petals, meaning that the petals are not fused together at the base.
- Gamopetalous dicots: These are dicotyledonous plants that have fused petals, meaning that the petals are joined together at least partially.
- Gamopetalous monocots: These are monocotyledonous plants that have fused petals.
- Gymnosperms: These are a group of plants that produce naked seeds, meaning that the seeds are not enclosed in a fruit.
Explanation:
Engler and Prantl were botanists who classified plants based on their morphological characteristics. They created the metachlamydae category to encompass plants with certain floral characteristics. This category includes plants with both separate and fused petals, as well as plants with naked seeds. By categorizing plants in this way, Engler and Prantl aimed to provide a systematic framework for understanding and classifying plant diversity.
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