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Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - UPSC MCQ


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Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 1

Consider the following pairs :

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 1
  • Silambam is a popular variant of martial arts which is performed with the aid of some specific weapons, primarily bamboo sticks. It is widely performed in the regions of Tamil Nadu (India) which is also the birthplace of the game. The Tamil Sangam literature has the early records of Silambam. Hence pair 1 is correctly matched.
    • The primary focus of the fighters is to use the bamboo stick as a weapon to defeat the opponents. The length of the weapon stick depends on the height of the fighters. In the battle, the fighter holds the weapon by stretching the arms around 3-quarters full.
    • In the era of 1760-1799, during Pulidevan's and Veera Pandiya Kattabomman's time, the art was reformed to fight against the Britishers. Post that, Silambam went popular throughout the country and its native state. But being a furious act, the Britishers banned the sport. The ban was lifted in India after independence.
  • Gatka is a traditional form of martial arts, which is historically associated with Sikh Gurus and is popular among the masses as a Sikh martial art.
    • It is a style of stick fighting between two or more practitioners, with wooden sticks intended to simulate swords. Hence pair 2 is correctly matched.
    • It was one of the basic techniques of self-defense for Sikh warriors during the martial period of the great Sikh Gurus.
    • Creating an amalgamation between acrobatics and swords fight, Gatka was introduced as a means of warfare when the Sikhs were fighting the Mughal Empire during the late 17th century.
  • Thoda is a martial art form of Himachal Pradesh that relies on one's archery prowess. This martial art has its origin in Kullu. Hence pair 3 is not correctly matched.
  • Thoda, the name is derived, from the round piece of wood fixed to the head of the arrow, which is used to blunt its wounding potential.
  • The equipment required for Thoda are bows and arrows. Wooden bows measuring 1.5m to 2m, to suit the height of the archer and wooden arrows in proportion to the length of the bow, are prepared by skilled and traditional artisans.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 2

In the context of medieval India, the 'batai' and 'nasaq' were

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 2
  • Akbar used different kinds of land revenue and land measurement systems to improvise the older systems and enhance the revenue without hurting the peasants.
  • In 1580, Akbar instituted a new land revenue system called dahsala. Under this system, the average produce of different crops as well as average prices prevailing over the last ten (dah) years were calculated. One- third of the average share was state's share.
  • Akbar also followed the old batai or ghalla-bakshi system. In this system, the produce was divided between peasants and the state in a fixed proportion. The crop was divided after it has been thrashed, or when it has been cut and tied in stacks, or while it was standing in the field.
  • A third system used under Akbar's reign was nasaq. It meant a rough calculation of the amount payable by the peasant on the basis of what he has been paying in the past.
  • Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
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Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 3

With reference to the Rashtrakuta dynasty, consider the following statements:
1. The rulers of the dynasty were strict followers of Shaivism and prohibited the practice of any other religion.
2. Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty built the Kailasha temple dedicated to Lord Shiv at Ellora.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 3
  • In the south, Dantidurga was the founder of the dynasty called, the Rashtrakuta dynasty (8th AD).
  • The capital of the Rastrakutas was Manyakheta or Malkhed near Sholapur.
  • It was under the king Dhruva that the Rashtrakutas turned towards north India in a bid to control Kannauj, then the imperial city and it led to the beginning of the ‘Tripartite struggle’.
  • One of the important kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Krishna I. He built the famous Kailasha temple at Ellora (near Aurangabad, Maharastra). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is monolithic i.e. made of one single piece of rock. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The Arab accounts inform us that the Rashtrakutas were quite friendly with the Arab traders who visited their empire. These traders were allowed to build mosques and follow their religion without any hindrance. It testifies to the liberal attitude of the Rashtrakuta kings and also to their desire to draw economic benefit from the growing sea trade conducted by the Arabs at that time. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
    • The Rashtrakuta kings presented an excellent example of religious tolerance and gave patronage to all the faiths such as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Islam. They did not kill anyone for his or her religious beliefs. Toleration was also shown between the members of the different sects. The hope that religious charity will earn divine favour became a funding source to religious and socio-religious activities.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 4

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 4
  • Philosophy in Medieval India
    • The major religious movements were brought about by the mystics. They contributed to the religious ideas and beliefs. Bhakti saints like Vallabhacharya, Ramanuja, Nimbaraka brought about new philosophical thinking which had its origin in Shankaracharya’s advaita (non-dualism) philosophy.
    • Vishistadvaita of Ramanujacharya: Vïshistadvaita means modified monism. The ultimate reality according to this philosophy is Brahman (God) and matter and soul are his qualities.
    • Sivadvaita of Srikanthacharya: According to this philosophy, the ultimate Brahman is Shiva, endowed with Shakti. Shiva exists in this world as well as beyond it.
    • Dvaita of Madhavacharya: The literal meaning of dvaita is the dualism that stands in opposition to the non-dualism and monism of Shankaracharya. He believed that the world is not an illusion (maya) but a reality full of differences. Hence pair 3 is correctly matched.
    • Dvaitadvaita of Nimbaraka: Dvaitadvaita means dualistic monism. According to this philosophy, God transformed himself into the world and soul. This world and soul are different from God (Brahman). They could survive with the support of God only. They are separate but dependent. Hence pair 1 is correctly matched
    • Suddhadvaita of Vallabhacharya: Vallabhacharya wrote commentaries on Vedanta Sutra and Bhagavad Gita. For him. Brahman (God) was Sri Krishna who manifested himself as souls and matter. God and soul are not distinct, but one. The stress was on pure non-dualism. His philosophy came to be known as Pushtimarga (the path of grace) and the school was called Rudrasampradaya. Hence pair 2 is not correctly matched
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 5

The rock shelters on the banks of the River Suyal at Lakhudiyar, Uttarakhand, bear prehistoric paintings. In this context, which of the following are the characteristics of the Lakhudiyar cave paintings?
1. Hand-linked dancing human figures 
2. Absence of animal motifs
3. Humans represented in a stick-like form
4. Use of only white and black colors
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 5
  • Remnants of rock paintings have been found on the walls of the caves situated in several districts of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Bihar.
  • Some paintings have been reported from the Kumaon hills in Uttarakhand also. The rock shelters on banks of the River Suyal at Lakhudiyar, about twenty kilometres on the Almora– Barechina road, bear these prehistoric paintings.
    • Lakhudiyar literally means one lakh caves.
    • The paintings here can be divided into three categories: man, animal and geometric patterns in white, black and red ochre.
    • Humans are represented in stick-like forms.
    • A long-snouted animal, a fox and a multiple legged lizard are the main animal motifs.
    • Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots can also be seen here.
    • One of the interesting scenes depicted here is of hand-linked dancing human figures.
    • There is some superimposition of paintings. The earliest are in black; over these are red ochre paintings and the last group comprises white paintings.
  • Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 6

Consider the following events in Indian History:
1. Ahmad Nagar in the Deccan had declared independence under Malik Ambar
2. Englishmen got consent to establish an English factory in India
3. Mughals captured Golkonda by defeating Abul Hasan
Which of the above events happened during the reign of Jahangir ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 6
  • Malik Ambar was brought as an enslaved person from Ethiopia to India; Malik Ambar changed several hands before landing at the hands of the Prime Minister of Ahmad nagar named, Chengiz Khan. Malik Ambar learned about statecraft, military and administrative affairs from Chengiz Khan. After the death of Chengiz Khan, his wife set Malik Ambar free. In the Deccan, Muslims and Marathas had united to resist Mughal hegemony to preserve their distinct regional and political identity. In 1608 Ahmad Nagar in the Deccan had declared independence under Malik Ambar. So, Statement 1 is correct.
  • Jahangir's reign witnessed the visit of two Englishmen – William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe. While the former could not get the consent of the Emperor to establish an English factory in India, the latter, sent as ambassador by King James I, succeeded in securing permission to establish a British factory in  Surat. The British East India Company came to India for trade in spices, an important commodity in Europe back then and as it was used to preserve meat. By this concession, the English established factories at Surat, Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach within the next four years. So, Statement 2 is correct.
  • In January 1687, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb led his large Mughal army and defeated Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, the eighth and final king of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. He won due to the betrayal of Sarandaz Khan, a military official in the Qutb Shahi dynasty's army. Thus, the Mughals defeated Abul Hasan Qutb Shah during the reign of Aurangzeb, not in Jahangir's reign. So, Statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 7

With reference to Mughals architecture, the marble tomb of Rabia ud daurani was built during thereign of :

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 7

Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shahjahan. He was the most magnificent builder among the Mughals. Architecture seems to have reached into his blood. Hence he could build wonderful buildings. He made extensive use of white marble in his buildings. He had made use of the skills of the jeweler and the painter in making his buildings, and hence they come out to be the best specimens of architecture. Aurangzeb’s reign witnessed the construction of Badshahi mosque in Lahore and the marble tomb of Rabia ud daurani, known as Bibi-ka-maqbara (Tomb of the Lady) at Aurangabad. This tomb, built in 1678, is the most well-known building in the city. It was built by Prince Azam Shah in memory of Rabia Durani, wife of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (reign. 1658-1707). It was designed by the architect Ata Aula as an imitation on a reduced scale of the Taj Mahal at Agra. So, Option (d) is correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 8

Consider the following pairs with reference to the Mughals administration :

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?
 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 8
  • Mughal Empire’s territorial divisions are well expressed in Ain-i Akbari also reflect how the Mughal empire was divided into subas/sarkars/parganas. The Parganas had a varying number of villages. In the Mughal administration, the basic unit was the village headed by muqaddam or chaudhri (privileged village headman). Panch (Muqaddam) formed a collective body known as panchayat. The Panch was responsible for collecting and maintaining accounts at the village level. The Panch allotted the unoccupied lands of the village to artisans, menials and servants for their service to the village. So, Pair 1 is correct.
  • Madad-i-Mash (or) Suyurghal is a type of land grant given to many classes of people- including officials, artists, scholars, theologians, etc. Especially the scholars and religious divines etc., from the Mughal emperor, local rulers and zamindars during the Mughal period. A separate department under the charge of the sadr-us-sudur looked after these grants. If the aid was given in cash, it was known as wazifa. There were certain categories of people who were qualified to receive madad-i-maash. These grants did not invest the grantee with any right over land but were entitled to the prescribed revenue from its produce. Akbar put the ceiling of such land grants to 100 bighas per person. So, Pair 2 is not correct.
  • Under the Surs and the Mughals, the village was the smallest unit of administration. A group of villages constituted a pargana and a few Parganas a shiqq which was equivalent to a Mughal Sarkar. The village-head was known as Muqaddam who was the sole link between the government and the village. Though he was not a government servant, he was responsible for maintaining law and order in his village. Patwari is a village record-keeper and he maintains and updates it. The Patwari usually has ways of measuring agricultural fields. The Patwari was also responsible for organizing the collection of land revenue from the farmers and providing information to the government about the crops grown in his area. So, Pair 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 9

Who among the following is the author of the Hastyayurveda ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 9

Although there may have been several different systems of medicine in ancient India, the texts and traditions of only the Ayurveda system have survived for posterity. Ayurveda literally means ‘knowledge for longevity.’ The notable creations on medicine include Charaka Samhitaa and Sushruta Samhitaa. The Hastyayurveda by Maharshi Palakapya is the first systematic and meticulous exposition of veterinary science, consisting of 160 chapters written in Sanskrit language. It extensively deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the major diseases of elephants through medication and surgery. So, Option (a) is correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 10

Consider the following statements :
1. It is the capital city of the Ghauri Dynasty, founded by Hoshang Shah.
2. It is a typical representation of the medieval provincial style of art and architecture.
3. The Hindola Mahal, which looks like a railway viaduct bridge, is located here.
The above statements are about ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 10

The city of Mandu is located sixty miles from Indore, at an elevation of over 2000 feet and overlooks the Malwa Plateau to the north and the Narmada valley to the south. The city Mandu's natural defence encouraged consistent habitations by Parmara Rajputs, Afghans and Mughals. Mandu is the capital city of the Ghauri Dynasty (1401–1561), founded by Hoshang Shah. Mandu is a typical representation of the medieval provincial style of art and architecture. It was a complex mix of official and residential-cum-pleasure palaces, pavilions, mosques, artificial reservoirs, baolis, and embattlements. The size or monumentality and the structure of the mandu were very close to nature, designed in the style of arched pavilions, light and airy so that these buildings did not retain heat, and it is a fine example of architectural adaptation to the environment. Hindola Mahal means a swing palace due to its sloping side walls. The Jama Masjid, Hindola Mahal and Jahaz Mahal in the city of Mandu were built. The Hindola Mahal looks like a railway viaduct bridge with its disproportionately large buttresses supporting the walls. This was Sultan's audience hall and the place where he showed himself to his subjects. The batter was used effectively to give an impression of swinging (Hindola) walls. So, Option (a) is correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 11

In the context of the economic conditions of the Gupta Empire, consider the following statements:
1. The period witnessed an increase in taxes on trade and commerce, while the land taxes were decreased.
2. Villagers were subjected to forced labor by the royal army and officials.
3. Daily transactions by the people residing in the empire were done through the dinars (gold coins).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 11
  • Though agriculture was the mainstay of the economy during the Gupta period, there were other occupations as well such as commerce and the production of crafts. Different social groups were engaged in these occupations.
  • Certain changes were witnessed in the agrarian society at this time. The land system became more complex. Grants of land were being made to religious and ritual specialists or to officers. In those cases when the land granted to Brahmanas was a wetland or forest, the donees took on the role of a pioneer in introducing agriculture. The Brahmanas became proficient in supervising agrarian activities, helped by manuals on agriculture, such as Krishiparashara, which may be dated to this or the subsequent period. In the Gupta period, land taxes increased in number, and those on trade and commerce decreased. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • Probably the king collected taxes varying from one-fourth to one-sixth of the produce. In addition, whenever the royal army passed through the countryside, the local people had to feed it. The peasants had also to supply animals, food grains, furniture, etc., for the maintenance of royal officers on duty in rural areas. In central and western India, the villagers were also subjected to forced labour called vishti by the royal army and officials. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • For the smooth function of transactions in the economy, various types of coins were issued by different rulers. In ancient India, the Guptas were known for issuing a good number of gold coins, which were called dinars in their inscriptions. However, in gold content, the Gupta coins are not as pure as the Kushana ones and most probably not used by ordinary peoples in their daily transactions. Daily transactions mostly were done in copper coins or other modes of currency. But in contrast to those of the Kushanas, the Gupta copper coins are very few. Thus, it seems that commercial activities in this period were not as flourishing as they were in the Kushana period. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 12

Consider the following statements with respect to Mahayana Buddhism:
1. Its ultimate goal is 'spiritual upliftment'.
2. The school is more liberal and believes in the heavenliness of Buddha.
3. Its scholars predominantly used Pali as a language.
4. Emperor Kanishka patronized the Mahayana sect of Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 12
  • Mahayana Buddhism:
    • It means the greater vehicle.
    • The school is more liberal and believes in the heavenliness of Buddha and Bodhisattvas embodying Buddha Nature. Hence statement 2 is correct.
    • The ultimate goal under Mahayana is “spiritual upliftment”. The Mahayana followers believe in idol or image worship of Buddha. Hence statement 1 is correct.
    • The concept of Bodhisattva is the result of Mahayana Buddhism. Mahayana is also called “Bodhisattvayana”, or the “Bodhisattva Vehicle. That is to say, the followers believe in Bodhisattva concept of the salvation of all conscious individual. In other words, they believe in universal liberation from the suffering of all beings.
    • A bodhisattva seeks complete enlightenment for the benefit of all beings. A bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a Samyaksaṃbuddha.
    • Prominent Mahayana texts include Lotus Sutra, Mahavamsa, etc.
    • As per Lotus Sutra, the Mahayana school believes in six perfections (or paramitas) to be followed by an individual:
      • Dana (generosity)
      • Sila (virtue, morality, discipline and proper conduct)
      • Kṣanti (patience, tolerance, acceptance)
      • Virya (energy, diligence, vigor, effort)
      • Dhyana (one-pointed concentration)
      • Prajna (wisdom and insight)
    • As per scholars, one of the sub-sects of Mahayana being developed in the later periods was Vajrayana.
    • The Mahayana scholars predominantly used Sanskrit as a language. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
    • Emperor Kaniska convened the fourth great Buddhist council in Kashmir, which marked the beginnings of Mahayana Buddhism (as Hinayana and Mahayana sects of Buddhism diverged after this council). He patronized the new Mahayana sect of Buddhism which led to its popularity. Hence statement 4 is correct.
    • Presently, the majority of the Buddhist followers in the world belong to Mahayana sect. (around 53.2% as per 2010 report) o Other countries following it includes Nepal, Bangladesh, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Mongolia, China, Bhutan, Tibet, etc.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 13

In the context of medieval India, the Tulugma System of warfare was used by 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 13
  • Babur introduced a new warfare method known as the Tulguma system, in the first battle of Panipat. Tulughma meant dividing the whole army into various units, viz. the Left, the Right, and the Centre.
    • The Left and Right divisions were further subdivided into forwarding and Rear divisions. The Centre Forward division was then provided with carts (araba) which were placed in rows facing the enemy and tied to each other with animal hide ropes.
    • Behind them were placed cannons protected and supported by mantelets which could be used to easily maneuver the canons.
  • This introduction of a new mode of warfare led to the popularization of gunpowder, cavalry, and artillery in India. However, gunpowder was known earlier in India, but its use for artillery became common in north India with the advent of Babur. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
  • Facts about the other three battles:
    • Battle of Samugarh (1658): The battle of Samugarh was fought between Shahjahan's sons Dara Shikoh (the eldest son and heir apparent) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh (third and fourth sons of Shah Jahan) to decide who will be the heir of the throne after their father.
    • Battle of Haldighati (1576): The Battle of Haldighati was a battle fought on 18 June 1576 between the Mewar forces led by Maharana Pratap and the Mughal forces led by Man Singh I of Amber. Akbar was the Mughal Emperor at the time.
    • Sultana Chand Bibi: Sultana Chand Bibi (1550–1599 CE) was an Indian ruler and warrior. She acted as the Regent of Bijapur Sultanate during the minority of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in 1580-1590, and regent of Ahmednagar Sultanate during the minority of her great nephew Bahadur Shah in 1595-1600. Chand Bibi is best known for defending Ahmednagar against the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar in 1595.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 14

Consider the following statements with reference to the Maratha Administration :
1. Walkia-Nawis maintained the records of the king’s activities and the proceedings in the court
2. Summant was responsible for civil and military justice
3. Sari Naubat was in charge of religion, ceremonies and charities
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 14
  • The Marathas played a major role in the decline of Mughal power under the dynamic leadership of Shivaji, and they posed a strong challenge to Mughal power during the 1670s. In Maratha administration, Shivaji was a great warrior and a good administrator, and he had an advisory council to assist him in his day-to-day administration. The Maratha administration was divided into eight departments headed by ministers, sometimes called Ashta Pradhan and functions were advisory. The Walkia-Nawis or Mantri maintained the records of the king's activities and the proceedings in the court. So, Statement 1 is correct.
  • Summant (or) Dabir (or) Foreign secretary, was to advise the king on all matters of war and peace and to receive ambassadors and envoys from other countries. Nyayadhish, or chief justice, was responsible for civil and military justice. Therefore, Summant was not responsible for civil and military justice. So, Statement 2 is not correct.
  • Pandit Rao, Danadhyaksha, Sadar, and Muhtasib or ecclesiastical head, was in charge of religion, ceremonies, and charities. He was the judge of canon law and censor of public morals. Sari Naubat, commander-in-chief, was in charge of the Army's recruitment, organization and discipline. Therefore, Sari Naubatwas not in charge of religion, ceremonies and charities. So, Statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 15

Which one of the following is the correct chronological order of the later Mughal rulers ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 15

Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719)

  • After killing Jahandar Shah with the help of Sayyid brothers—Abdulla Khan and Hussain Ali (known as 'King Makers'), Farrukhsiyar became the new emperor. He followed a policy of religious tolerance by abolishing Jaziya and the pilgrimage tax. In 1717, he gave farmans to the British. In 1719, the Sayyid brothers, with the help of Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, dethroned Farrukhsiyar. Later, he was blinded and killed. It was the first time in Mughal history that an emperor was killed by his nobles.

Ahmad Shah (1748-1754)

  • Ahmad Shah was an incompetent ruler who left state affairs in the hands of Udham Bai, the 'Queen Mother.' Udham Bai, given the title of Qibla-i-Alam, was a lady of poor intellect who ruled with the help of her paramour, Javid Khan.

Alamgir II (1754-1758)

  • Alamgir II was a grandson of Jahandar Shah. Ahmed Shah Abdali, the Iranian invader, reached Delhi in January 1757. During his reign, the Battle of Plassey was fought in June 1757.

Shah Alam II (1759-1806)

  • His reign saw two decisive battles—the Third Battle of Panipat (1761) and the Battle of Buxar (1764). In 1765, according to the terms of the Treaty of Allahabad (August 1765), he was taken under the East India Company's protection and resided at Allahabad. He also issued a farman granting to the Company in perpetuity the Diwani (the right to collect revenue) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In 1772, the Marathas took him to Delhi, where he lived till 1803. In 1803, he again accepted the protection of the English after the defeat of Daulat Rao Scindia by the English. Afterward, the Mughal emperors became the pensioners of the English. So, Option (b) is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 16

Consider the following pairs :

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 16
  • Tikuli is a type of hand painting, and its history is over 800 years. With its modern evolution and varied manifestations, the painting finds its origin in Patna, Bihar.
  • Tikuli is the term that is locally used for bindis, which are essentially colorful dots that women wear as accessories between their eyebrows.
  • The basic raw materials used in Tikuli craft are the Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) board and colors. This is a unique product handcrafted by artisans. These crafts provide livelihood support to about 300-500 artisans' families regularly in Digha, Danapur and Gai Ghat mahallas of Patna town of Bihar. So, Pair (1) is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 17

Consider the following statements :
1. Thang Ta is the exclusive martial dance form of Sikkim.
2. Bhuta Aradhana is a ritualistic theatre of Karnataka.
3. Singhi Chham is a popular mask dance of Manipur.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 17
  • Thang Ta--"The Art of the Sword and Spear"- is the traditional martial art of Manipur in Northeast India. It integrates various external weapons - the sword, spear, dagger, etc. - with the internal practice of physical control through soft movements coordinated with the rhythms of breathing. It is part of the great heroic tradition of Manipur. So, Statement 1 is not correct.
  • Bhoota Aradhana, or spirit worship, is a religion-cultural ritual practiced in Udupi and South Canara districts on the west coast of Karnataka. The ritual is prevalent mainly among the Tulu-speaking people of this state. The bhootas are considered to be benevolent Gods or guardian spirits by the people. A small pedestal is set up for these spirit gods inside houses. In public spaces, shrines are dedicated to these gods, known as bhoota staanas. The bhoota may be represented by a stone, a mask, metal objects or finely sculpted wooden or metal idols. The bhootas can also be manifestations of animals like the five-faced Nandigona, the bull spirit or the mother goddess-like Ullalthi. So, Statement 2 is correct.
  • Singhi Chham Folk Dance is also known as Kanchendzonga Dance. It is a folk dance native to Sikkim Region. The word 'Singhi Dance' means the 'Lion Dance'. This masked dance is performed during the worship of the snowy range of Kanchenjunga. And People use this majestic dance as a way to display their cultural symbol. Singhi Chham is performed exclusively by men. The dancers wear esoteric masks, flashing silks, opulent brocades and embroidered boots. Performed exclusively by the citizens of the state, it is held in the month of September. So, Statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 18

Foreign traveler Visited during the reign of

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 18
  • Abdur Razzaq was a Persian, Timurid chronicler and scholar who visited the Vijayanagara Kingdom during the period of Deva Raya II (1422–1446 CE). He gave an account of the reign of Deva Raya II. He came to the court of King Zamorin of Calicut as an ambassador of King Shahrukh (the Timurid Dynasty Ruler of Persia) in 1442. He wrote a 45-page narrative of this mission to India. It appears as a chapter in his book Matla- us-Sadain-wa-Majma-ul-Bahrain. So, Pair (1) is not correct.
  • Domingo Paes was a Portuguese merchant, writer and explorer who visited India between 1520– 1522AD and gave the most detailed account among all other historical descriptions of the ancient city of Hampi under the reign of King Krishnadeva Raya of Tuluva Dynasty under the Vijayanagara Empire. He recorded his journey in his book named "Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga", where he provided in- depth information about Vijayanagara Empire. So, Pair (2) is correct.
  • Fernao Nuniz, a Portuguese horse trader, composed his account around 1536-37. He was in the capital during the reign of Achyutaraya and may have been present at earlier battles fought by Krishnadevaraya. This visitor was particularly interested in the history of Vijayanagara, especially the city's foundation, the subsequent careers of three dynasties of rulers, and the battles they fought with the Deccan sultans and Odishan Rayas. Nunez also gives details of the Mahanavami festival, noting admiringly the extravagant jewels worn by the courtly women and the thousands of women in the king's service. So, Pair (3) is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 19

Consider the following statements with reference to the Coins of Indo-Greeks :
1. They followed an Indian weight standard
2. They had bilingual inscriptions in Greek and Kharoshthi
3. They contain motifs of religious symbols of Indian deities
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 19

The Indo-Greek coins circulated to the south of the Hindu Kush were made of silver and copper and were often square. They had bilingual inscriptions in Greek and Kharoshthi (more rarely, Brahmi) and followed an Indian weight standard. Royal portraits occur on the obverse, but the motifs on the reverse include religious symbols that were Indian rather than Greek in inspiration. An interesting coin series was that of king Agathocles, which depicted the god Samkarshana Balarama on the obverse and Vasudeva Krishna on the reverse. So, Statements 1, 2, & 3 are correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 20

Consider the following statements with reference to Kanishka :
1. His empire extended from Central Asia to north India and included Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh.
2. He convened the fourth Buddhist Council at Purushpura.
3. The Buddhist scholar, Ashvaghosha lived in his court.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 20
  • Under the reign of Kanishka, the Kushana empire reached its maximum territorial limits. The empire extended from Central Asia to northern India, including Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in the Uttar Pradesh region. It expanded further east into the Ganga valley and southwards into the Malwa region. Kushana influence was felt in western and central India as well, where the Shaka kshatrapas acknowledged the overlordship of their Kushana overlords. Buddhist sources record that he conquered Magadha, Kashmir, and Khotan in Sinkiang. So, Statement 1 is correct.
  • Kanishka was an ardent follower of Buddhism and hosted the fourth Buddhist maha sangha or council at Kundalvana, Kashmir (72 AD) (the third council had been held in Pataliputra during Ashoka's reign). By now, Mahayana Buddhism had become the dominant sect, and Kanishka supported the missions sent to China to preach Buddhism. So, Statement 2 is not correct.
  • Kanishka is said to have patronized Buddhist scholars such as Ashvaghosha and Vasumitra. Ashvaghosha wrote the Buddhacharitra, which is the biography of the Buddha. He also wrote Saundarananda, which is a fine example of Sanskrit poetry. The philosopher rose to the position of spiritual counselor in Kanishka's court at Peshawar. A brilliant orator, Ashvaghosha spoke at length on Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) Buddhist doctrine at the fourth Buddhist council, which he helped organize. So, Statement 3 is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 21

With reference to the Dhokra casting, consider the following statements:
1. It involves casting bronze through the lost wax method.
2. This technique is one of the most prominent metal crafts in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.
3. The metal craftsmen of Bastar are called ghadwas.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 21

Dhokra casting

  • Dhokra is an alloy of brass, nickel and zinc which gives an antique look. The oldest specimen using such a technique was during the Harappan Period (famous Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro).
  • Among the popular sculptural traditions, Dhokra or metal sculptures are made from lost wax or cire perdue technique. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • It is one of the most prominent metal crafts of Bastar, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Midnapore in West Bengal. It involves casting bronze through the lost wax method. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The metal craftsmen of Bastar are called ghadwa. In popular etymology, the term ‘ghadwa’ means the act of shaping and creating. It is probably this that gives the casters their name. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  • Its motifs are mostly drawn from a folk culture which includes animal figures like elephants, horses, gods and goddesses, containers with lids, lamps and lamp stands, and intricate designs in the shape of trees and branches. o NOTE: Lost-wax process or the cire-perdue is a method of metal casting in which molten metal is poured into a mould that has been created by means of a wax model. Once the mould is made, the wax model is melted and drained away. A hollow core is then filled with molten metal which takes the shape of the mould.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 22

Which of the following travellers had visited and written about the Vijayanagara Empire?
1. Domingo Paes
2. Fernão Nuniz
3. Niccolao Manucci
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 22
  • Among the travellers whose writings on Vijayanagar have survived are Niccolo de Conti, a Venetian merchant (1420); Abdur Razzaq Samarqandi, a Persian scholar-envoy (1443); Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese officer (c. 1515); and Domingo Paes (c. 1520) and Fernao Nuniz (1535–37), Portuguese merchant- adventurers.
    • The institution of nayaka was studied in detail by two Portuguese-Fernao Nuniz and Domingo Paes, who visited India during the reigns of Krishnadeva Raya and Achyut Raya of the Tuluva dynasty during the sixteenth century.
    • We get information about foreign trade from the Amuktamalyada of Krishnadeva Raya, Domingo Paes and Nuniz. They have given vivid descriptions of the horse trade.
    • Nicolò de’ Conti did not write about his extensive travels. Our knowledge of him has been filtered through the works of two men to whom he recounted his adventures.
  • Niccolo Manucci (1639-1717) was a Venetian traveller who toured different parts of India including Bengal and left behind a reliable description of the land and people. He wrote accounts of the Mughal Empire.
  • Other travellers who visited the Vijaynagar empire are:
    • Abdur Razzaq: He was a Persian, Timurid chronicler and scholar who visited the Vijaynagar Kingdom at the time of Dev Raya II as an ambassador of Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia.
    • Athanasius Nikitin: He was the first noteworthy traveller from Russia. 
    • Duarte Barbosa: He was a Portuguese Writer, scrivener and explorer who had given a vivid account of Vijaynagara governance under Krishna Deva Raya.

Hence option (a) is the correct answer.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 23

Consider the following statements with reference to Delhi Sultanate:
1. Delhi became the capital of a kingdom for the first time under Qutub-ud-din- Aibak.
2. Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increase during the reign of Qutub-ud- din-Aibak and ended forever during the reign of Iltutmish.
3. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq was the first ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 23
  • Delhi first become the capital of a kingdom under Tomar Rajput, who was defeated in the middle of the 12th Century by the Chauhan of Ajmer. It was found under Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi become an important commercial center. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana and North-East Iran in 1219 and the Delhi Sultanate faced their onslaught again soon after the reign of Alauddin Khaliji (reign: 1296-1316). Their onslaught became more intense and ferocious during the Khilji rule. But Alauddin succeeded in crushing the Mongols. Shams ud-Din Iltutmish or Iltutmish was the third of the Mamluk kings who ruled the former Ghurid territories in northern India. His rule (1211-1236) preceded that of the Khiljis. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • Tughluq Dynasty (1320-1414) was also known as the Quaraunah Turks. Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq was the founder/first ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 24

In the context of the Mughal period, consider the following statements with reference to Ain-i-Akbari:
1. It was a book written by Abul Fazl in Indo-Persian style
2. The book contains both rules and regulations framed and put into effect for proper administration by Akbar and the social conditions that prevailed during his rule.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 24
  • The Akbar Nama was written to provide a detailed description of Akbar’s reign in the traditional diachronic sense of recording politically significant events across time, as well as in the more novel sense of giving a synchronic picture of all aspects of Akbar’s empire – geographic, social, administrative and cultural – without reference to chronology. • Abu’l Fazl wrote in a language that was ornate and which attached importance to diction and rhythm, as texts were often read aloud. This Indo- Persian style was patronized at court, and there were a large number of writers who wanted to write like Abu’l Fazl. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The Akbar Nama is divided into three books of which the first two are chronicles. The third book is Ain-i Akbari. The first volume contains the history of mankind from Adam to one celestial cycle of Akbar’s life (30 years). The second volume closes in the forty-sixth regnal year (1601) of Akbar. The very next year Abu’l Fazl fell victim to a conspiracy hatched by Prince Salim and was murdered by his accomplice, Bir Singh Bundela.
  • In the Ain-i Akbari, the Mughal Empire is presented as having a diverse population consisting of Hindus, Jainas, Buddhists, and Muslims and a composite culture.Ain-i-Akbari embodies Ains or rules and regulations framed and put into effect for proper administration by Akbar. It is regarded as an administrative manual and is like a modern gazetteer. The regulations embodied in the Ain-i-Akbari provide information about Akbar's government, several departments, its different ranks, etc.
  • Abul Fazl also discusses in this book the social condition, literary activities, and study of law and philosophy not only of Muslims but also of local Hindus, Jains, and other communities. There are, in addition, chapters on distinguished travelers, Muslim saints, and sufis. Hence statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 25

Which of the following statements are correct regarding the Mughal paintings?
1. During the reign of Akbar, apart from  depicting scenes from the Persian text of Mahabharata, the painters even drew
Persian fables and manuscripts.
2. Due to Indian influence on Mughal paintings, the flat two-dimensional effect of the Persian style was replaced by a three-dimensional effect.
3. Foreshortening technique of creating perspective was an indigenous innovation of the Mughal School.
4. As a trend in the Mughal school a single artist was used to commission an entire painting.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 25
  • Statement 1 is correct: During the reign of Akbar, painting was organized in one of the imperial establishments. Large number of painters from all the castes were invited to join. Daswant and Basawan were the famous painters. Apart from illustrating Persian fables, painters were soon assigned the task of illustrating Persian text of Mahabharata, etc. Thus, Indian scenes and themes came into vogue. An illustrated manuscript of the Tuti-nama in the Cleveland Museum of Art (USA) appears to be the first work of the Mughal School. The style of painting in this manuscript shows the Mughal style in its formative stage.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Indian colors like peacock blue, the Indian red, etc. began to be used. Above all the flat effect of the Persian Style began to be replaced by the roundness of Indian brush, giving pictures a three-dimensional effect.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: Under Akbar, European painting was introduced at the court by the Portuguese priests. Under their influence, the principles of foreshortening, whereby near and distant people and things could be placed in perspective was quietly adopted.
  • Statement 4 is not correct: Mughal painting reached climax under the reign of Jahangir who had very discriminating eye. It was a fashion in the Mughal school for the faces, bodies and feet of the people in a single picture to be painted by different artists. Jahangir claims that he could distinguish the work of each artist in the picture. Apart from painting hunting, battle, and court scenes, under Jahangir special progress was made in portrait paintings and painting animals. It is of an high aesthetic merit. It is primarily aristocratic and secular. Following the example of the Mughal Emperor the courtiers and the provincial officers also patronised painting. They engaged artists trained in the Mughal technique of painting. But the artists available to them were of inferior merit, those who could not seek employment in the Imperial Atelier which required only first-rate artists.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 26

Consider the following pairs with reference to the cultural History of India :

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 26
  • Mrichchhakatika is a ten-act Sanskrit drama attributed to Sudraka and is generally thought to have lived sometime between the 2nd century BC and the 5th century AD. The play is set in the ancient city of Ujjain during the reign of king Pataka. The main story is that of a noble that a young Brahmin Charudatta falls in love with a wealthy courtesan, vasantasena. So, Pair (1) is not correct.
  • Mahakavi Kalidasa is a great Indian poet of the 5th century AD. He was one of the greatest Sanskrit poets in the world. He belonged to the Gupta period. He had written three plays, i.e., Malavikagnimitra, Abhigyanashakuntalam and Vikramorvasiyam. These three plays became so famous that they made Kalidasa one of the legends. He has also written some epic poems, i.e., Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava. Some of the other poems of Kalidasa are Ritusamhara and Meghaduta. So, Pair (2) is correct.
  • Vishakhadatta, the author of a rare semi-historical play called Mudrarakshasa, apparently was a courtier at the Gupta court. Mudrarakshasa is a political drama that narrates the ascent of king Chandragupta Maurya to power in India. His play dramatizes the political principles expounded in the book Arthasastra by Kauᒷilya, who appears as the play's hero. So, Pair (3) is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 27

Consider the following statements regarding the reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban of Delhi Sultanate:
1. He promoted people to important positions based on merit without discrimination between Turkish nobles and Indian Muslims.
2. He appointed spies to keep himself well informed.
3. He established the Diwan-i-amir-i-kohi (Department of Agriculture).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 27
  • Statement 1 is not correct: Balban stood forth as the champion of Turkish nobility. He refused to entertain for important government posts anyone who did not belong to a noble family. He excluded Indian Muslims from all positions of power and authority.
    • To emphasise that the nobles were not his equals, he insisted on the ceremony of sijada and paibos. These ceremonies were Iranian in origin and were considered un-Islamic.
  • Statement 2 is correct: To keep himself well informed, Balban appointed spies in every department. He also organized a strong centralized army, both to deal with internal disturbances, and to repel the Mongols who had entrenched themselves in Punjab and posed a serious danger to the Delhi Sultanat.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: Muhammad bin Tughlaq launched a scheme to extend and improve cultivation in the doab. He set up a separate department called diwan-i-amir-i-kohi. The area was divided into development blocs headed by an official whose job was to extend cultivation by giving loans to the cultivators and to induce them to cultivate superior crops—wheat in place of barley, sugarcane in place of wheat, grapes and dates in place of sugarcane,etc.
    • Balban organised a strong centralized army, both to deal with internal disturbances and to repel the Mongols. For this purpose, he reorganized the military department (diwan-i-arz) and pensioned off those soldiers who were no longer fit for service.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 28

Consider the following statements regarding the Nagara style of temple architecture:
1. In the Latina style of temple architecture the buildings are shorter and show a gentle rise as compared to phamsana type.
2. In many Nagara-style temples both phamsana and latina types of shikhara can be seen for manadapa and garbhagriha of a same temple respectively.
3. In the Vallabhi type of architecture buildings have a rectangular roof and are also known as wagon vaulted roofs.
Which of the above statements are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 28
  • Statement 1 is not correct: 'Latina' or the rekha-prasada type buildings have simple shikhara which is square at the base and whose walls curve or slope inward to a point on top. Another major type of architectural form in the nagara order is the phamsana. Phamsana buildings tend to be broader and shorter than latina ones. Their roofs are composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the centre of the building, unlike the latina ones which look like sharply rising tall towers.
  • Statement 2 is correct: In many North Indian temples you will notice that the phamsana design is used for the mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a latina building. Later on, the latina buildings grew complex, and instead of appearing like a single tall tower, the temple began to support many smaller towers, which were clustered together like rising mountain-peaks with the tallest one being in the centre, and this was the one which was always above the garbhagriha.
  • Statement 3 is correct: These are rectangular buildings with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber. The edge of this vaulted chamber is rounded, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times. They are usually called ‘wagon- vaulted buildings’.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 29

In the context of the cultural heritage of India, which of the following items enjoy Geographical Indication status in India?
1. Aranmula Kannadi
2. Mysore Agarbathi
3. Hmaram
4. Dindigul Locks
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 29
  • A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place
    • Under Articles 1 (2) and 10 of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, geographical indications are covered as an element of IPRs. They are also covered under Articles 22 to 24 of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement.
  • In December 1999, the Parliament passed the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,1999. This Act seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India.
    • The Act is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks- who is the Registrar of Geographical Indications. The Geographical Indications Registry is located at Chennai. The Act has come into force with effect from 15th September 2003.
  • Aranmula Kannadi (literally meaning Aranmula mirror) is a handmade metal-alloy mirror, unlike the usual glass mirror. Aranmula Kannadi is an extraordinary traditional handmade metal mirror which is famous for bringing prosperity, luck and wealth into life.
    • What’s unique about this front surface reflection mirror is that it eliminates secondary reflections that you typically see in back surface mirrors. Born out of Kerala’s rich culture and its inclination towards metallurgical articles, the mirror is said to have tremendous spiritual value and brings good luck.
    • In 2004, this rare craft belonging to a small town in Kerala was given worldwide recognition when a 45-centimeter tall Aranmula mirror was placed in London’s British Museum and awarded a geographical indication (GI) tag.
    • Owing to the unmatched splendor and religious significance of Aranmula Kannadi, Aranmula was declared a heritage village by Kerala Tourism in order to draw tourists’ attention to this dying craft.
  • The making of Mysore Agarbathi became an organized industry in Bangalore during the 1900s. The incense sticks are locally known as oodabathies (blowing fumes). Herbs, flowers, essential oils, barks, roots and charcoal are ground into a smooth paste, then rolled onto bamboo sticks and dried in the sun.
    • The key ingredients Sandalwood and Ailanthus malabaricum (which yields halmadi) are indigenous to the forests of Karnataka, thus earning the product its GI tag status.
  • The Hmaram was and is a popular article of clothing for Mizoram women. It is a handmade shawl and is worn like a short skirt by being wrapped around the waist and tucked in on one side. It is worn with a white blouse for ceremonies, festivals, or special events. It is made of cotton and dyed with natural indigo. It enjoys a GI tag status.
  • The Lock manufacturing industry in Dindigul is hundreds of years old. Dindigul locks can guarantee aspects like quality, full safety & key facilities, most importantly they are attractive and unique in design.
    • The popular kinds of locks that are manufactured in Dindigul are Mango lock, Door Lock, Trick Lock, Bell Lock, Drawer Lock, Shutter Lock & Book Shutter Lock.
    • Dindigul Locks are specifically purchased for Temples. Government institutions and business places because of its foolproof Safety.
    • Dindigul lock manufacturers claim that the precision lever mechanism in their locks is manually assembled with a unique key code and shackles are meticulous in design that gives greater resistance to anyone who tries to break in.
    • Dindigul locks enjoy GI tag status.

Hence option (d) is the correct answer.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 30

With reference to Medieval texts, which of the following is/are not an autobiography ?
1. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri
2. Ain-e Akbari
3. Qanun-i-Humayuni
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 30
  • Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, (or) Jahangir-nama, the memoirs of Jahangir, tells about his great interest in arts and his efforts to achieve scientific correctness in rendering flora and fauna that interested the Emperor the most. It was written in the Persian language. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri is an Autobiography of Jahangir. So, Option (1) is not correct.
  • The Ain-i-Akbari, or the "Administration of Akbar," is a 16th-century detailed document recording the administration of the Mughal Empire under Emperor Akbar, written by his court historian, Abul Fazl, in the Persian language. The main purpose of Ain-i-Akbari was to record information about the people and society during the Mughal regime and to give detailed accounts of the organisation of the court, administration and army. Abul Fazl wrote a three-volume history of Akbar’s reign, titled Akbar Nama.
    • The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors,
    • The second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign and
    • The third volume is the Ain-i Akbari. It deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, revenues and the geography of his empire. It also provides rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. The most interesting aspect of the Ain-i Akbari is its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crops, yields, prices, wages and revenues. In the Ain-i Akbari, the Mughal Empire is presented as having a diverse population consisting of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Muslims and a composite culture. So, Option (2) is correct.
  • Qanun –i-Humayuni was composed in 1534 CE by Khvandamir, one of the officials under Humayun's patronage. It is about the Work on the Rules and Ordinances Established by the Emperor Humayun and on Some Buildings Erected by His Order. It is not an Autobiography. So, Option (3) is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 31

Which one of the following statements is not correct with reference to the Boddhisattvas under Buddhism ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 31
  • Vajrapani, or Sakra, has a twofold role. In the Hinayana texts, he is an attendant of Buddha; in the Mahayana iconography, he is a Dhyani Bodhisattva and an emanation of Akshobhya, with his Sakti being Lochana. With his thunderbolt, he appears as a constant attendant of Buddha to crust every enemy. Vajrapani is contemplated to manifest all the powers of Buddha and the power of all five tathagatas, namely Vairocana, Akshobhya, Amitabha, Ratnasambhava and Amoghasiddhi. So, Option (a) is correct.
  • Manjusri, one of the most important Bodhisattvas of the Mahayana pantheon, bears a sword for destroying ignorance and holds the Prajnaparamita book that symbolizes transcendental knowledge. Manjusri is best known for his wisdom and intellect, and he frequently occurs in the Dunhuang Art. So, Option (b) is correct.
  • The origin of the Samantabhadra cult is not known. The Chinese pilgrims visiting various Buddhist countries seldom mention him. He became prominent in the fifth century after translating the Cheng F-Hua-Ching (Dharmaraksha’s version of the Lotus). In iconography, he wears not only a crown but is also dressed up in princely attire. In Japan, he is known as Fu-gen. He is a very popular figure in Chinese and Japanese art. Samantabhadra, a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation. So, Option (c) is correct.
  • Vasudhara is a Sanskrit word that means the stream of gems. The Buddhist deity, Vasudhara, is a female bodhisattva of wealth, prosperity, and abundance. She has strong followers among the Buddhist Newars of Kathmandu valley. Sometimes she is related to the Hindu goddess Lakshmi. So, Option (d) is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 32

With reference to Indian History, consider the following pairs :
Historical person Known as

1. Asanga Jaina scholar
2. Gunabhadra Buddhist scholar
3. Nandanar Vaishnava scholar
How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 32
  • Asanga, along with Nagarjuna, Aryadeva and Vasubandhu, were thinkers of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism. Mahayana philosophical ideas were represented in the texts of two major Buddhist schools – Madhyamaka and Yogachara. Asanga (belonging to the 4th century) was a fourth-century Indian adept and philosopher and an important proponent of the Yogachara school. So, Pair 1 is not correct.
  • Gunabhadra is a Jain saint who lived in the 9th century. He, along with Jinasena, wrote the Trishashtilakshana Mahapurana. It has life stories of various Jaina saints, kings, and heroes. It also has sections on topicssuch as life- cycle rituals, the interpretation of dreams, town planning, the duties of a warrior, andhow a king should rule. So, Pair 2 is not correct.
  • The Bhakti saints of the Tamil Bhakti movement came from varied social backgrounds. While a significant portion was Brahmanas, there were also people from other social backgrounds. Two saints, namely the Shaiva saint Nandanar (only Dalit ("untouchable") saint in the Nayanars) and the Vaishnava saint Tiruppan Alvar, are described as ‘untouchables’. So, Pair 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 33

Consider the following statements with respect to the teachings of Jainism:
1. Right faith is the belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira.
2. Right knowledge is the acceptance of the theory that the world has been created by God.
3. Right conduct refers to the observance of the five great vows.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 33
  • In Jainism, the three jewels (also referred to as ratnatraya or tri-ratna) are understood as samyagdarshana ('right faith'), samyagjnana ('right knowledge), and samyakcharitra ('right action').
  • One of the three cannot exist exclusive of the others, and all are required for spiritual liberation i.e. attainment of freedom from worldly bonds.
  • Right faith is the belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Right Knowledge is the acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world has been existing without a creator and that all objects possess a soul. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • Right conduct refers to the observance of the five great vows: - Hence statement 3 is correct.
    • not to injure life
    • not to lie
    • not to steal
    • not to acquire property o
    • not to lead immoral life
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 34

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II of Amber was a great patron of astronomy. In this context, in which of the following places he built astronomical observatories (Jantar Mantar)?
1. Delhi

2. Jaipur
3. Varanasi
4. Ujjain
5. Mathura
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 34
  • Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (1686-1743) was the ruler of the Rajput State of Amber in India. A feudatory of the Mughals, he received the title of 'Sawai' (one and a quarter) from Emperor Aurangzeb, who declared him a quarter superior to his famous forebearer Mirza Raja Jai Singh (d. 1667) after he captured the Fort of Vishalgarh from the Marathas in 1701.
  • After bringing to the Emperor's notice some astronomic discrepancies that possibly affected the timings of Hindu and Muslim holy events and expressing his desire to correct these, Jai Singh also received Imperial backing for building his Astronomy Observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, Ujjain, and Mathura.
    • All except the observatory at Mathura are in existence today.
  • Sawai Jai Singh's ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon.
    • During Jai Singh’s lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī.
    • Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories
  • Jai Singh wrote the astronomical work 'Zij-e-Muhammad-Shahi' (Muhammad Shah's astronomical tables) in 1728. That same year he also built his new, magnificently designed capital Jaipur, about 200 km southwest of Delhi and constructed by combining the aspects of the ancient Hindu treatise on architecture, the Shilpa Shastra, and plans of many European cities of the period with Jai Singh's own ideas.
  • The European travelers of the time, like the Frenchman Louis Rousselet, and the English bishop, Heber, were greatly impressed by Jai Singh's unparalleled excellence in city planning.
  • Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 35

With reference to the administrative system of the Mauryan Empire, consider the following statements:
1. The administrative system involved the division of the empire into provinces each under the direct governance of a Pradeshika.
2. Gopa was responsible for looking after the goods that were manufactured in the empire.
3. The decision of the council of ministers of the Mauryan Empire was final in all respects.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 35
  • The administrative structure of the Mauryan Empire involved a division of the empire into provinces, each under the direct governance of a prince (kumara) or a member of the royal family. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • The inscriptions suggest four such provinces – a southern one with its center at Survarnagiri, a northern province with a capital at Taxila, a western one with its capital at Ujjayini, and an eastern one with its capital at Tosali. Ashokan inscriptions also referred to these governors as kumara, suggesting a continuation of the tradition of appointing royal princes to these important posts.
  • Senior officers called pradeshikas were tasked with touring the empire every five years and performing an audit as well as keeping a check on the provincial administration. In addition, there were judicial officers, rajukas, in both urban and rural areas, whose judicial functions often combined with the assessment of revenue. A well-organized administration was needed for a variety of tasks such as surplus production, extraction of surplus, distribution or expenditure, a strong army to conquer areas, tax collection from traders and agriculturalists, etc.
  • The Arthashastra and even Ashokan edicts mention a Mantri Parishad (council of ministers). It is mentioned in the Arthashastra that the state cannot function without the assistance of ministers. Yet the Council had to report its opinion to the king immediately. The primary role of the Council was advisory in nature. The king’s decision was final in all respects. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
  • As per Megasthanese's Indica, there are numerous references to different committees in the district councils. Panyadhyaksha was responsible to look after trade and commerce and inspect weights and measures. The collection of taxes was the responsibility of Sulkahyaksha and the registration of births and deaths was the work of Gopa. The head of the urban administration was called Nagarika. He was assisted by two subordinate officials-Gopa and Sthanika. Other officials are also mentioned such as Bandhanagaradhyaksha (looked after the jail); Rakshi (i.e. the police; looked after the security of the people); Lohadhyaksha, Sauvarnika (officials who looked after goods that were manufactured in the centers). Hence statement 2 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 36

Which among the following statements best describes the term "Sherpa" ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 36

Recently, the 1st Sherpa Meeting of India's G20 Presidency commenced in Udaipur, Rajasthan. Sherpas are the personal representative of the leader of a member country at an international summit like G7, G20 summits etc., India's G20 Sherpa stressed India's belief that every crisis is an opportunity and leadership is about finding path-breaking solutions amid crisis. He focused on the onerous responsibility of all G20 sherpas to shape a new future. The outcome document of the Sherpa-level meetings eventually forms the basis of the Leaders' Declaration, which will be debated and signed (after and if consensus is reached) at the final New Delhi Summit in September by the Leaders of all G20 member countries. So, Option (b) is correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 37

Consider the following statements with reference to the History of Indian coinage :
1. Kushanas issued many copper coins of low denominational value.
2. The reverse of the Gupta coins has religious symbols.
3. The rulers of Satavahanas banned the circulation of Punch-marked coins.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 37
  • Kushanas were the first dynasty of the Subcontinent to mint large quantities of gold coins, and their silver coins were rare. They also issued many copper coins of low denominational value, which indicates the increasing spread of the money economy in the 1st - 4th centuries CE. Kushana coins have the figure, name, and title of the king on one side, and on the reverse side are deities belonging to the Brahmanical, Buddhist, Greek, Roman, and other pantheons. The legends are either entirely in Greek, or in some cases in Kharoshthi, on the reverse. So, Statement 1 is correct.
  • The imperial Gupta kings issued well-executed die-struck gold coins with metrical legends in Sanskrit known as dinaras. These coins have been mostly found in north India. The obverse depicts the reigning king in various poses, usually martial ones, but there are interesting instances of coins of Samudragupta and Kumaragupta-I showing them playing the vina (a stringed instrument). The reverse of the Gupta coins has religious symbols indicating the kings’religious affiliations. There was a decline in the metallic purity of gold coins in the later part of Skandagupta’s reign. The Guptas also issued silver coins, but their copper coins are rare. So, Statement 2 is correct.
  • In the Deccan, the pre-Satavahana coinage was followed by the copper and silver coins of the Satavahana kings. Rulers of this dynasty also issued coins of small denominational value made of lead and potin. Most Satavahana coins were die-struck, but there are some cast coins, and acombination of techniques was also used. The legends were generally in the Prakrit language and Brahmi script. However, the portrait coins (mostly in silver but also in lead) use a Dravidian language and Brahmi script. Punch-marked coins continued to circulate alongside the Satavahana issues. So, Statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 38

Consider the following pairs :

How many pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 38
  • The middle palaeolithic industry of central and peninsular India is sometimes referred to as the Nevasan industry after the site of Nevasa, where the pioneering archaeologist H. D. Sankalia firstdiscovered middle palaeolithic artefacts in a stratified context. The tools, which include a widevariety of scrapers, are made of smooth, fine-grained stone such as agate, jasper, and chalcedony. Nevasa is situated along the Pravara river in the Godavari river basin not in Tapi river basin. So, Pair 1 is not correct.
  • Patne is located in Tapi valley and not in the Godavari river basin. Patne, the pre-historic site in Jalgaon, has evidence of middle and upper Paleolithic settlements Mesolithic tools. Patne excavation revealed stone tools, bones and even ostrich eggshells, which showed the existence of ostriches in this area around 25,000 to 40,000 years ago. So, Pair 2 is not correct.
  • The transition from a hunting-gathering stage to the beginnings of settled agriculture can be traced to Chopani Mando in the Belan valley. This is based on the discovery of wild rice at Mesolithic levels of this site which was reported from similar levels at Damdama as well. Belan Valley is located in the Ganga river basin in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. So, Pair 3 is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 39

With reference to Retail Direct Scheme, consider the following statements :
1. It is a one-stop solution to facilitate investment in Government Securities by Individual Investors.
2. By enacting it, India becomes the first country to allow its retail investors to participate in the government securities market.
3. Non-Resident retail investors are not eligible to invest in Government securities under this scheme.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 39
  • The Reserve Bank of India’s Retail Direct scheme, a one-stop solution to facilitate investment in Government Securities by individual investors, has been issued. For free, investors can easily open and maintain their government securities accounts online with the RBI. By leveraging technological advancements, the scheme offers a portal avenue to invest in Central government securities, treasury bills, State development loans and sovereign gold bonds. So, Statement 1 is correct.
  • In India, this scheme would expand the scope for investment and improve customer grievance redressal mechanisms. The scheme places India in a list of select few countries offering such a facility. India will only be the third nation in the world, after the United States and Brazil, where retail participants can take direct exposure to the government bond market. So, Statement 2 is not correct.
  • Retail investors, that is, individuals (natural persons), are allowed to open an RDG account. Non-Resident retail investors are eligible to invest in Government Securities under Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999. So, Statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 40

The earliest epigraphic reference to image worship in Jainism is found in :

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 40

The 1st century BCE Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga king Kharavela refers to his retrieving an image of a Jina. This inscription is the earliest epigraphic reference to image worship in Jainism. The Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves in Orissa are among the oldest long-standing centres of Jaina monasticism. A large number of Jaina images and inscriptions from the Mathura area indicate the popularity of Jainism. Kharavela, the Chedi king of Kalinga (in eastern India), claims in his Hathigumpha inscription to have defied a king named Satakarni in his second regnal year. He also claims two years later, he defeated the Rathikas of the Maratha country and the Bhojas of Vidarbha, who seem to have been subordinates of the Satavahanas. A possible indication of Nanda military victories in Kalinga is suggested by the later Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, which mentions a king named Nanda building a canal and either conquering a place or taking away a Jaina shrine or image from Kalinga. So, Option (c) is correct.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 41

The Ashokan inscriptions mark the beginning of Indian epigraphy and are undoubtedly the most significant source of the Mauryan Period. In the context of these inscriptions and edicts, consider the following statements:
1. The Ashokan inscriptions were mainly written in the Prakrit language and Brahmi script.
2. The Maski edict revealed that Ashoka's inscriptions were carved under the name of Ashoka.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 41
  • The most significant source of the Mauryan period is undoubtedly the inscriptions of Ashoka. Ashoka’s inscriptions mark the beginning of Indian epigraphy. What sets Ashoka’s edicts apart is that they are issued in the first person, thereby revealing the voice and ideas of the king himself.
  • The edicts are written in the Prakrit language and Brahmi script, and occasionally in the Kharoshti script (in the northwestern parts of the subcontinent). There are a few inscriptions in Greek and Aramaic as well. A bilingual Greek-Aramaic inscription was found at Shar-iKuna near Kandahar in southeast Afghanistan and one in Taxila. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Ashoka himself had designated these edicts as Dhammalipi (Edicts of Piety). The Maski edict in the Prakrit language, carved in Brahmi script and dated 256 BC, remains a dharma shasana, an edict exhorting people to follow the tenets of Buddhism. The Maski edict clearly told the world that it was Ashoka who had got the inscriptions carved under the name ‘Devanampriya’. The inscription has a mention of ‘Devanampriya Asoka.’ Apart from associating the title ‘Devanampriya’ with Ashoka, the inscription suggests the spread of Mauryan rule up to the Krishna valley of north-eastern Karnataka. Hence statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 42

With reference to the Saka rulers, consider the following statements:
1. The Vikram Samvat is reckoned with the event of the Saka ruler Vikramaditya defeating the ruler of Ujjain.
2. Saka ruler Rudradaman-I held a Buddhist council in Kashmir to finalize the doctrines of the Mahayana form of Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 42
  • •After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, northwest India was constantly under attack by various invaders from Central and West Asia. The Sakas (also written Sakas), alternatively known as Indo-Scythians, invaded northwest India from the first century BC onwards.
  • There were five branches of the Shakas with their seats of power in different parts of India and Afghanistan.
    • One branch of the Shakas settled in Afghanistan. Prominent rulers of this branch were Vonones and Spalirises.
    • The second branch settled in Punjab with Taxila as its capital. Maues was a prominent ruler.
    • The third branch settled in Mathura, where they ruled for about two centuries. Azilises was a prominent ruler.
    • The fourth branch established its hold over western India, where they continued to rule till the 4th century CE.
    • The fifth branch of the Shakas established its power in the upper Deccan.
  • The fourth branch of Sakas ruled for the maximum period owing to a flourishing economy based on the sea-borne trade in Gujarat and also issued a large number of silver coins. One of the famous Shaka rulers was Rudradaman 1 (CE 130-150). He ruled over Sindh, Kutch, and Gujarat and also recovered from the Satavahanas, Kokan, the Narmada valley, Malwa and Kathiawar. He is famous in history because of the repairs he undertook to improve Sudarsana lake in the semi-arid zone of Kathiawar. He was a great lover of Sanskrit and issued the first-ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit.
  • The Shakas did not meet effective resistance from the rulers and the masses of India. The king of Ujjain (around 58 BCE), effectively fought and succeeded in throwing the Shakas out. He called himself Vikramaditya and an era called Vikram-Samvat is reckoned from the event of his victory over the Shakas in 58 BCE. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • From this time onwards, Vikramaditya became a coveted title, and whoever achieved anything great adopted this title, as the Roman emperors adopted the title Caesar in order to emphasize they are a great power.
  • Kanishka, who was a Kushan ruler, extended his whole-hearted patronage to Buddhism. He also convened the fourth Buddhist council to discuss matters relating to Buddhist theology and doctrine. It was held at the Kundalavana monastery near Srinagar (Kashmir) under the presidency of Vasumitra. It was in this council that Buddhism was split into two schools – the Hinayana and the Mahayana. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 43

Cosider the following statements with reference to the Chalcolithic period in India:
1. Milk and dairy products were the main components of the dietary culture of the Chalcolithic culture.
2. Ganeshwar was an urban Chalcolithic site that supplied copper objects to Harappa.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 43
  • The cultures were based on the use of copper and stone implements called Chalcolithic. Technologically, the Chalcolithic stage is applied to the pre-Harappan phase. However, in various parts of India, the Chalcolithic cultures followed the Bronze Age Harappa culture. The Chalcolithic people mostly used stone and copper objects, but they also occasionally used low-grade bronze and even iron.
  • The Chalcolithic people domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats, which were tethered in the courtyard. In all probability, the domesticated animals were slaughtered for food and not used for milk and dairy products. The tribal people, such as the Gonds of Bastar, believe that milk is meant only to feed young animals, and, therefore, they do not milk their cattle. Consequently, the Chalcolithic people were not able to make full use of the animals. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
  • Ganeshwar is a Chalcolithic site in Rajasthan whose deposits are ascribed to 2800–2200 BC, they, by and large, predate the mature Harappan culture. Ganeshwar principally supplied copper objects to Harappa and did not receive much from it. The Ganeshwar people partly lived on agriculture and largely on hunting. Although their principal craft was the manufacture of copper objects, they were unable to urbanize. With its microliths and other stone tools, much of the Ganeshwar culture can be considered a pre-Harappan Chalcolithic culture that contributed to the making of the mature Harappan culture. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 44

In the context of the Mauryan taxation system, consider the following statements:
1. The kingdom attached greater importance to the assessment of taxes than to storage and deposition.
2. Sannidhata was the highest officer in charge of the assessment of taxes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 44
  • The Maurya period constitutes a landmark in the system of taxation in ancient India. Kautilya names many taxes which were collected from peasants, artisans, and traders. This required a strong and efficient machinery for assessment, collection, and storage. The Mauryas attached greater importance to assessment than to storage and deposit. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The samaharta was the highest officer in charge of assessment and collection, and the sannidhata was the chief custodian of the state treasury and storehouse. The assessor- cum-collector was far more important than the chief treasurer. The damage inflicted on the state by the first was thought to be more serious than any inflicted by the second. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • The epigraphic evidence for the existence of rural storehouses shows that taxes were also collected in kind. These granaries were probably also meant to help local people in times of famine, drought, etc.
  • From Ashoka’s inscription at Lumbini, it was inferred that land revenue was of two kinds — Bali and Bhaga. The assessment of the tax varied from region to region, from being on1/6th to a quarter of the produce of the land. 1/4th of the produce was paid in tax by the peasants. They also paid a tribute. Land tax (bhaga) was the main source of revenue. It was levied at 1/6th of the produce. The Lumbini edict of Ashoka says that during his visit to the birthplace of the Buddha, he exempted the village from the payment of bali and reduced the payment of Bhaga to 1/8th.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 45

Consider the following pairs :

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 45
  • Paitkar paintings : One of the most ancient schools of painting in the country, Paitkar paintings are a creative expression of the state’s folk art. Popularly known as the scroll paintings of the east, Paitkar paintings are mostly based on themes drawn from Hindu epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana.
    • These traditional paintings tell the stories of the miracles performed by various gods and goddesses like Shiva and Durga. Paitkar painters usually make use of only primary colours like red, yellow and blue with palm leaves acting as a base.
    • The brushes used to paint are made from the hair of squirrels and goats. Most of the painted space in Paitkar paintings is occupied by human characters with elongated eyes, a prime characteristic of the Indian painting style.
    • Located in the eastern part of Jharkhand, Amadubi Village is home to families of talented Paitkar artists. The village is also known as the village of Paitkars and the art form is said to have originated here. The Santhal tribe of the state believes that Paitkar paintings can send wandering souls of dead people to heaven. Hence pair 1 is correctly matched.
  • Phad is an indigenous painting style of the state of Rajasthan, India, that depicts the narratives of the folk deities of the state. This style of painting is the blend of Rajput and Mughal styles of painting. Originated hundreds of years ago, this fabled heritage of Bhilwara is done on a long piece of canvas called Phad. Mostly, the stories of the folk deity Pabuji and the Gurjar Warrior, Devnarayanji are depicted on Phads.
    • Phad paintings are very detailed. Every inch of the canvas is used. Since the ancient stories are depicted in the paintings, Phads have a lot of human figures in them. The size and color of which depends upon the role and position they had. These paintings are done on clothes.
    • A thick fine paste of wheat/rice flour, prepared by boiling the mixture in water, is applied to the cloth which is then dried in sunlight. The cloth is then rubbed with Mohra|(a stone device) to bring out the smoothness and shine it. Now the cloth is ready to be painted. The colors used in Phad are all-natural, obtained from various plants and vegetable extracts. Earthen colors are used to bring the acrylic effect. Hence pair 2 is correctly matched.
  • Orissa Pattachitra is an ancient painting art form of rural Orissa that has been in existence for many centuries. The word pattachitra has evolved from the Sanskrit words ‘Patta’ and ‘Chitra’. In the Sanskrit language, the word Patta means “Canvas” or “A Piece of Cloth”, and Chitra means picture.
    • Orissa Pattachitra (Traditional Indian Painting) is a painting especially inspired by Lord Jagannath and temple tradition, the Puri district.
    • Themes for these paintings range from the events of Krishna’s life and the Avatars of Vishnu to the epic tales of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
    • The method of production for Pattachitra is very long and the entire process is completed in many steps, which include:
      (i) Preparation of Patta
      (ii) Preparation of Pigments
      (iii) Motif Selection and Layout
      (iv) Painting
    • Orissa Pattachitra paintings hold a Geographical Indication tag. Hence pair 3 is not correctly matched.
Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 46

Consider the following statements about Bitumen
1. It is a dense, highly viscous, petroleum-based hydrocarbon.
2. It is obtained as a residue of the distillation of crude oil.
3. It is commonly used to waterproof boats and other marine vessels.
Choose the incorrect statements:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 46

Statement Analysis:
Statement 1 is Correct: 

It is a dense, highly viscous, petroleum-based hydrocarbon.
Composition:

  • It owes its density and viscosity to its chemical composition—mainly large hydrocarbon molecules known as asphaltenes and resins, which are present in lighter oils but are highly concentrated in bitumen.
  • In addition, bitumen frequently has a high content of metals, such as nickel and vanadium, and nonmetallic inorganic elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

Statement 2 is Correct: 
It is found in deposits such as oil sands and pitch lakes(natural bitumen) or is obtained as a residue of the distillation of crude oil.

  • At the temperatures normally encountered in natural deposits, bitumen will not flow. In order to be moved through a pipe, it must be heated and, in some cases, diluted with a lighter oil.
  • Bitumen can deform permanently under heavy loads. Continued stress on the material can result in cracking.

Statement 3 is Correct: 
Uses:

  • Bitumen is known for its waterproofing and adhesive properties and is commonly used in the construction industry, notably for roads and highways.
    • It is commonly used to waterproof boats and other marine vessels.
    • It is also used by companies that create and manufacture roofing products.
    • It is used for sealing and insulating purposes in various building materials such as carpet tile backing and paint.

Context: Goa Power Minister recently said that bitumen used in road construction is a major cause of pollution.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 47

Consider the following statements about District Legal Services Authority
1. It is formed under Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free legal aid and services to the weaker sections of the society.
2. It is a body that shall be constituted by the State Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court.
3. The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 provides that a District Authority requires the district judge as its chairman.
Choose the correct statements:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 47

Statement Analysis:
Statement 1 is Correct:

  • It is formed under Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free legal aid and services to the weaker sections of this society to make sure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen because of economic or other disabilities.
  • It is a statutory body organized at the district level to provide effective monitoring of legal aid programmes and their composition.
  • Legal Services Authorities are statutory bodies that are formed or constituted in the various states of India by the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.

Statement 2 is Correct:
It is a body that shall be constituted by the State Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court.

Statement 3 is Correct:

  • The act provides that a District Authority requires the district judge as its chairman.
  • It shall also consist of a number of other members who have the experience and qualifications as prescribed by the State Government.
  • The members possessing such requirements may be nominated by the Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court.
  • The person to be appointed shall belong to the State Judicial Service not lowers than rank than that of a Subordinate Judge or Civil Judge posted at the seat of the District Judiciary as Secretary of the District Authority.
  • The Assistant Commissioner of the concerned District acts as the Member Secretary of the District Authority.

Context: Recently, under the Department of Justice’s (Ministry of Law and Justice) Nyaya Bandhu, Pro Bono Club, ICFAI Law School, The ICFAI University, Tripura, in association with District Legal Services Authority West Tripura, organized a Door-to-Door Legal Aid Campaign.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 48

Consider the following statements
Statement – I: Inheritance rights of tribal women is neither covered under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 nor under the Indian Succession Act, 1925.
Statement – II: The Scheduled Tribes of India are governed by customary laws in matters of inheritance, marriage and succession.
Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 48

Tribal inheritance Laws

  • Inheritance rights of tribal women is neither covered under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 nor under the Indian Succession Act, 1925.
  • The Scheduled Tribes of India are governed by customary laws in matters of inheritance, marriage and succession.
  • The customary tribal laws continue to discriminate against tribal women in the matter of succession.
  • Hindu Succession Act, 1956 explicitly exempts tribes under section 2(2) of the act.
  • Similarly, the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 are also not applicable to the STs, unless extended by the central government or otherwise directed.
  • The Supreme Court has directed the Centre to examine the issue and consider amending the provisions of the Hindu Succession Act so as to make it applicable to the members of the Scheduled Tribes.

Context: Union govt. considering equal property rights to Scheduled Tribe women

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 49

Consider the following statements about Trimbakeshwar Temple
1. It was constructed by 3rd Peshwa Balaji Bajirao also known as Nana Saheb.
2. The entire temple is built with black stone.
3. The Jyotirlinga here has three faces embodying Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
How many of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 49
  • Location – Shri Trimbakeshwar Temple is located in Nashik City, Maharastra.
  • It is located near the mountain named Brahamagiri from which the river Godavari flows.
  • There are 3 hills surrounding this temple – Brahmagiri, Nilagiri and Kalagiri.
  • History – It was constructed by 3rd Peshwa Balaji Bajirao also known as Nana Saheb, in the mid-18th century (1740-1760).
  • Special features – The entire temple is built with black stone.
  • Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga is only one of the 12 jyotirlingas in India.
  • Trimbakeshwara – It not only honor Lord Shiva but the other two gods in the Holy Trinity – Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma as well.
  • They all exist within the hollow space within the Shivalinga and hence the name Trimbakeshwara (3 Lords).
  • They are covered by a jewelled crown that is believed to date to the era of the Pandavas.
  • Jyotirlinga means column or pillar of light.
  • The stambha symbol represents that there is no beginning or end.

Context: Shri Trimbakeshwar temple in Maharastra witnessed communal tensions for the past 6 months.

Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 50

Which of the following countries have been at loggerheads over the sharing of River Helmand? 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Ancient History and Medieval- 1 - Question 50

River Helmand

  • The Helmand is the Afghanistan’s longest river.
  • It originates near Kabul in the western Hindu Kush Mountain range.
  • It flows in a southwesterly direction through desert areas before emptying into Lake Hamun, which straddles the Afghanistan-Iran border.
  • Lake Hamun – It is the largest freshwater lake in Iran.
  • Fed by the Helmand, it used to be one of the world’s largest wetlands, straddling 4,000 sq.km between Iran and Afghanistan.
  • But it has since dried up, experts blame on drought and the impact of dams and water controls.
  • The lake is of great importance for the regional environment and economy.
  • River Helmand is the primary watershed for the endorheic Sistan Basin.

Context: Afghanistan and Iran have been at loggerheads over the sharing of river water for over a century.

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