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Test: Current Affairs- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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50 Questions MCQ Test - Test: Current Affairs- 2

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Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 1

Consider the following statements regarding Vidya Samiksha Kendras (VSKs).

  1. Vidya Samiksha Kendras (VSKs) are data repositories under the National Digital Education Architecture.
  2. These centres will collect data from various educational schemes run by the Ministry of Education.
  3. They are managed by National Informatics Centre and aligned with the National Education Policy of 2020.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 1

Statement 3 is incorrect.

  • The Ministry of Education is urging states to establish Vidya Samiksha Kendras (VSKs), which are data repositories under the National Digital Education Architecture.
  • These centres will collect data from various educational schemes run by the Ministry of Education, including mid-day meal programs, teacher training, textbook content, school attendance, students’ learning outcomes, and performance grading.
  • Currently, a central VSK centre is managed by Ernst and Young, and it operates on open-source C-Qube software. Data is manually input and accessible in downloadable Excel format, but the plan is to shift to automatic data integration using Application Programming Interface (API) integration. This aligns with the National Education Policy of 2020, aiming to make data open source.
  • VSKs are also intended to map school locations and population data to assess the Gross Access Ratio, aiding in the planning of new schools, industry clusters, skilling requirements, and higher education institutions based on demand and future scenarios.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 2

Consider the following statements regarding Paris Agreement.

  1. It is a legally binding international treaty on climate change.
  2. Its primary goal is to limit the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
  3. It includes a mechanism known as the Global Stocktake (GST), which aims to assess the global response to the climate crisis every five years.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 2

About the Paris Agreement:

It is a legally binding international treaty on climate change that was adopted by 196 countries. Its primary goal is to limit the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. It includes a mechanism known as the Global Stocktake (GST), which aims to assess the global response to the climate crisis every five years.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 3

Consider the following statements regarding Financial Stability Board (FSB).

  1. The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system.
  2. It was established after the G20 London summit as a successor to the Financial Stability Forum (FSF).
  3. Hosted and funded by the Bank for International Settlements, the board is based in Basel, Switzerland.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 3

The Financial Stability Board (founded in 2009; HQ: Basel, Switzerland) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system. It was established after the G20 London summit (2009) as a successor to the Financial Stability Forum.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 4

Consider the following statements.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies are natural proteins that mimic the behaviour of antibodies produced by the immune system.
  2. Monoclonal antibodies are designed to target certain antigens.
  3. Glycoproteins are one of the major components of viruses that cause diseases in humans.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 4

Statement 1 is incorrect.

  • Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the behaviour of antibodies produced by the immune system to protect against diseases and foreign substances.
  • An antibody attaches itself to an antigen – a foreign substance, usually a disease-causing molecule – and helps the immune system eliminate it from the body.
  • Monoclonal antibodies are specifically designed to target certain antigens.
  • Glycoproteins are one of the major components of viruses that cause diseases in humans. 
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 5

‘MATSYA 6000’, recently seen in news is a 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 5
  • Indian scientists are gearing up for an ambitious project called Samudrayaan, which involves sending three people 6,000 meters underwater in a domestically developed submersible named Matsya 6000.
  • This mission aims to explore the ocean depths of precious metals and minerals such as cobalt, nickel, and manganese.

    On 31 August 2019, while replying to a query about deep sea mining, the then director of NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology) Dr. M.A. Atmanand,[7] who was at the facility of Titagarh Wagons to inaugurate coastal research vessel Sagar Anveshika,[8][9] said that in line with the Gaganyaan mission of ISRO, NIOT was proposing a project to send a submersible vehicle with three persons to a depth of about 6000 metres to carry out deep underwater studies. He further added that the success of the Samudrayaan mission will help India join the league of developed nations in exploration of minerals from oceans.[10]

    The project was supposed to get final approval from the Ministry of Finance in October 2019, but the final approval was delayed and was granted on 16 June 2021.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 6

Consider the following statements.

  1. Morocco is situated in an area where the Eurasian and African tectonic plates converge.
  2. The Atlas Mountains are actively rising due to the convergence of two large tectonic plates.
  3. Reverse fault is a geological phenomenon that can lead to earthquake.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 6
  • The earthquake in Morocco resulted from a geological phenomenon known as a “reverse fault.”
  • Tectonic Plate Interaction: Morocco is situated in an area where the Eurasian and African tectonic plates converge.
  • Plate Boundary Activity: The Atlas Mountains, where the earthquake occurred, are actively rising due to the convergence of these two large tectonic plates
  • Seismic Stress Accumulation: Although the region had not experienced major recorded earthquakes before, stress had been accumulating underground for an extended period due to the slow movement of tectonic plates.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 7

Consider the following statements regarding Lab-grown diamonds (LGDs).

  1. LGDs have basic properties similar to natural diamonds, including their optical dispersion.
  2. LGDs are most often used for industrial purposes because of their hardness and extra strength.
  3. Like natural diamonds, LGDs do not require any polishing and cutting to provide diamonds their characteristic lustre.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 7

Statement 3 is incorrect.

  • LGDs have basic properties similar to natural diamonds, including their optical dispersion, which provide them the signature diamond sheen. However, since they are created in controlled environments, many of their properties can be enhanced for various purposes.
  • For instance, LGDs are most often used for industrial purposes, in machines and tools. Their hardness and extra strength make them ideal for use as cutters. Furthermore, pure synthetic diamonds have high thermal conductivity, but negligible electrical conductivity. This combination is invaluable for electronics where such diamonds can be used as a heat spreader for high-power laser diodes, laser arrays and high-power transistors.
  • Lastly, as the Earth’s reserves of natural diamonds are depleted, LGDs are slowly replacing the prized gemstone in the jewelry industry. Crucially, like natural diamonds, LGDs undergo similar processes of polishing and cutting that are required to provide diamonds their characteristic lustre.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 8

In economics, which of the following explains Gresham’s law? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 8

Gresham’s Law, named after Thomas Gresham, states that “bad money drives out good” when the government fixes the exchange rate between two currencies at a level different from the market rate.

Impact:

  • This leads to the undervalued currency going out of circulation, while the overvalued currency remains but lacks buyers.
  • The law can result in a currency shortage when demand exceeds supply due to the fixed price.
  • Gresham’s law applies not only to paper currencies but also to commodities. It can cause goods to disappear from the formal market when their prices are forcibly undervalued by governments.
  • Thers’ law, on the other hand, states that “good money drives out bad” when people have the freedom to choose between currencies, and they prefer higher-quality currencies.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 9

Consider the following statements.

  1. India has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  2. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, which adopted a ‘zero rejection policy’, emphasises that “every child with special needs is provided meaningful and quality education”.
  3. Article 21A of the Indian Constitution and the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 outline the fundamental right to education and the right to have free and compulsory education for children aged 6-14 years.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 9
  • Article 21A of the Constitution and the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 outline the fundamental right to education and the right to have free and compulsory education for children aged 6-14 years.
  • The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, which adopted a ‘zero rejection policy’, emphasises that “every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided meaningful and quality education”.
  • India ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Aligning with this commitment, the government launched the Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan) in 2015. An important pillar of this campaign is accessibility to built environment. The government has also been supportive of the principle of Leave No One Behind (LNOB), which is the central, transformative promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 10

Consider the following statements regarding Fraternity.

  1. Fraternity is the principle which gives unity and solidarityto social life.
  2. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution mentions fraternity as one of its objectives.
  3. It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935and was officially adopted in the Lucknow session in 1936.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 10
  • According to Dr. Ambedkar “Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians — of Indians being one people. It is the principle which gives unity and solidarity to social life,”.
  • Fraternity is deeply embedded in political philosophy, emphasizing empowerment and emancipation in politics. It’s a fundamental element of liberal political thought, alongside liberty and equality.
  • It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935 and was officially adopted in the Lucknow session in April 1936 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, who also drafted the Objectives Resolution.
  • The Preamble of the Indian Constitution mentions fraternity as one of its objectives. It ends with “…and to promote among them all fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.”
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 11

Which of the following are the general characteristics of De-globalization?

  1. Expand and strengthen international trade and economic integration.
  2. Make globalization more inclusive, secure, and sustainable.
  3. Promote trade as a solution to challenges like economic inequality and climate change.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 11

Re-globalization vs. de-globalisation:

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 12

Consider the following statements regarding Business Responsibility and Sustainability Reporting.

  1. Business Responsibility and Sustainability Reportingis a framework introduced by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  2. It mandatesthe top 1000 listed companies in India to report their performance on various environmental, social, and governance (ESG) aspects.
  3. This framework is based on the principles of the National Guidelines for Responsible Business Conduct (NGRBC).

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 12

The Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA) and UNICEF jointly organized a workshop on Business Responsibility and Sustainability Reporting (BRSR) in collaboration with the National Stock Exchange (NSE).

What is BRSR?

Business Responsibility and Sustainability Reporting is a framework introduced by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) in 2021. It mandates the top 1000 listed companies in India to report their performance on various environmental, social, and governance (ESG) aspects. This framework is based on the nine principles of the National Guidelines for Responsible Business Conduct (NGRBC).

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 13

Consider the following statements regarding Oblique-Reverse Fault.

  1. An oblique-reverse fault is a geological fault characterized by only horizontal movement along the fault plane.
  2. This type of faulting is common in areas of compressionalong the convergent plate boundaries.
  3. The stress along these fault lines does not induce any earthquakes.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 13

Only statement 2 is correct.

  • An oblique-reverse fault is a geological fault characterized by both horizontal and vertical movements along the fault plane. This type of faulting is common in areas of compression along the convergent plate boundaries. The stress along these fault lines can induce earthquakes as rocks abruptly shift to release accumulated stress.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 14

Plants prepare Glucose in the process of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 14

In contrast to humans and other animals, plants can produce glucose through a process known as photosynthesis. The green parts of plants use sunlight, water, and the gas carbon dioxide from the air to produce glucose and oxygen.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 15

Consider the following statements regarding Black Carbon.

  1. Black carbon is a component of fine particulate matter, formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass.
  2. In the tropics, black carbon in soils significantly contributes to the soil fertility.
  3. Black carbon significantly increases the albedo when deposited on snow and ice.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 15

Statement 3 is incorrect.

  • Black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter. Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. Black carbon causes human morbidity and premature mortality.
  • In climatology, black carbon is a climate forcing agent. Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing sunlight and heating the atmosphere and by reducing albedo when deposited on snow and ice.
  • In the tropics, black carbon in soils significantly contributes to fertility as it is able to absorb important plant nutrients.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 16

Consider the following statements regarding Paris Agenda for People and the Planet.

  1. Paris Agenda for People and the Planet is a United Nations initiative aimed at eliminating poverty, preserving the environment, and enhancing the resilience of vulnerable countries to climate change.
  2. It focuses on leveraging various sources of finance, including official development assistance, domestic resources, and private investment.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 16

The Paris Agenda for People and the Planet (held in June this year) is a global initiative aimed at eliminating poverty, preserving the environment, and enhancing the resilience of vulnerable countries to climate change and conflicts.

The focus of the Summit: It focuses on leveraging various sources of finance, including official development assistance, domestic resources, and private investment, to achieve these goals.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 17

The Konkan belt extends throughout the coasts of

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Kerala
  3. Karnataka
  4. Goa
  5. Tamil Nadu

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 17

About the Konkan belt:

It is a coastal plain in western India that extends along the western coasts of Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka. The Konkan is a narrow lowland that’s only about 50 km wide. It’s bounded by the Western Ghats mountain range to the east, the Arabian Sea to the west, the Daman Ganga River to the north, and the River Aghanashini to the south.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 18

Consider the following statements regarding National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG).

  1. National Judicial Data Grid is a database of orders, judgments and case details of District and subordinate Courts.
  2. Supreme Court of India is not part of the National Judicial Data Grid.
  3. The NJDG was built as part of Phase II of the e-Courts project.
  4. NJDG aims to manage & reduce pendency of cases.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 18

Statement 2 is incorrect.

  • Supreme Court of India has now joined the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) portal, which serves as a national repository of case-related data from courts across the country.
  • NJDG is a database of orders, judgments and case details of 18,735 District and subordinate Courts and High Courts created as an online platform under the eCourts Project. Its key feature is that the data is updated in real-time and has granular data up to the Taluka level.
  • The NJDG was built as part of Phase II of the e-Courts project, which is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. With over 18,735 courts computerised across the country, the data is integrated with the NJDG. The platform has been developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) in close coordination with the in-house software development team of the Computer Cell, Registry of the Supreme Court with an interactive interface and analytics dashboard.
  • NJDG works as a monitoring tool to identify, manage & reduce pendency of cases. Take, for instance, the Supreme Court data.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 19

Consider the following statements regarding Red fire ants.

  1. Red fire ants mainly originate from South America.
  2. They are invasive species that are ranked as one of world’s costliest species to combat.
  3. Their painful stings can cause allergies and even fatal anaphylactic shock.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 19
  • Red fire ants, known scientifically as Solenopsis invicta and originating from South America,have invaded Europe.
  • These invasive ants are ranked as the world’s fifth-costliest species to combat.
  • Their painful stings can cause pustules, allergies, and even fatal anaphylactic shock. The researchers believe that climate change may facilitate their further spread in Europe.
  • Invasive species: drive plant and animal extinctions, threaten food security and exacerbate environmental catastrophes.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 20

Indexation is a method that use can be associated with which of the following? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 20
  • Indexation means adjusting a price, wage, or other value based on the changes in another price or composite indicator of prices.
  • Indexation can be done to adjust for the effects of inflation, cost of living, or input prices over time, or to adjust for different prices and costs in different geographic areas.
  • Indexation is often used to escalate wages in inflationary environments where failure to negotiate regular wage increases would lead to ongoing real wage cuts for workers.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 21

Consider the following statements.

  1. The mantle is a thick layer of solid rock sandwiched between the Earth’s upper crust and lower core.
  2. Mantle makes up the largest part of Earth.
  3. The viscosity of the rocks in the transition zone between the upper and the lower mantle determines whether a plate sinks below another one through it.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 21

The mantle — a 2,900 km thick layer of solid rock sandwiched between the Earth’s upper crust and lower core.
The mantle makes up the largest part of Earth.

  • The mantle’s viscous properties govern convection — the transfer of heat between areas of different temperatures. This enables plate tectonics.

Mantle convection results in the transport of rocks and heat.

The viscosity of the rocks in the transition zone between the upper and the lower mantle determines whether a plate sinks below another one (subduction) through it.

  • Statement 2 is incorrect.
  • The use of burnt bricks in the Harappan cities is remarkable because in the contemporary buildings of Egypt dried bricks were primarily used. We find the use of baked bricks in contemporary Mesopotamia, but they were used to a much larger extent in the Harappan cities.
  • The Indus people produced wheat, barley, rai, peas, and the like. Two types of wheat and barley were grown. A substantial quantity of barley was discovered at Banawali. In addition, sesamum and mustard were grown.
  • Although the Harappans practised agriculture, animals were raised on a large scale. Oxen, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and pigs were domesticated. Humped bulls were favoured by the Harappans. There is evidence of dogs and cats from the outset, and asses and camels were bred. Elephants were well known to the Harappans, who were also acquainted with the rhinoceros.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 22

Consider the following statements regarding HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

  1. The drugs for HIV suppress the number of CD4 immune cells in the body.
  2. Even when the viral levels are low, the likelihood of a person transmitting the infection is very high.
  3. If left untreated, the virus destroys a person’s immune system and they are said to be in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome stage (AIDS).

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 22

Only Statement 3 is correct.

  • The medicines suppress the replication of the virus within the body, allowing the number of CD4 immune cells to bounce back. Although earlier the drugs were given only to those with low CD4 count under the government’s programme, now the programme supports anyone who has been diagnosed with HIV.
  • The drugs have to be taken for life because the virus continues to persist in reservoirs across the body. If the drugs are stopped, the virus can again start replicating and spreading. When the viral levels are low, the likelihood of a person transmitting the infection is also low.
  • If left untreated, the virus destroys a person’s immune system and they are said to be in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome stage (AIDS) where they get several opportunistic infections that may result in death.
  • Although there is no vaccine for HIV, there are Pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) medicines that can be taken by people at high risk of contracting the infection. PrEP reduces the risk of getting HIV from sex by about 99 per cent.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 23

Consider the following statements regarding Ocean deoxygenation.

  1. Ocean deoxygenation is the maximum reduction of oxygen minimum zones in the world’s oceans as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide.
  2. The areas of Sea water that is depleted of dissolved oxygen is called Anoxic waters.
  3. Oxygen is less soluble in warmer water.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 23

Statement 1 is incorrect.

  • Ocean deoxygenation is the expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the world’s oceans as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The change has been fairly rapid and poses a threat to fish and other types of marine life, as well as to people who depend on marine life for nutrition or livelihood.
  • Ocean deoxygenation poses implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitats.
  • Most of the excess heat from CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions is absorbed by the oceans. Warmer oceans cause deoxygenation both because oxygen is less soluble in warmer water, and through temperature driven stratification of the ocean which inhibits the production of oxygen from photosynthesis.
  • Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 24

Consider the following statements regarding Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM).

  1. Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in India.
  2. The programme includes recharge and reuse through grey water management, water conservation and rain water harvesting.
  3. It is based on a community approach to water and include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission.

How many of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 24

Explanation:

- Statement 1: This statement is correct. The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in India.

- Statement 2: This statement is incorrect. While the programme does include recharge and reuse through grey water management, water conservation, and rainwater harvesting, it does not specifically mention rainwater harvesting in the statement provided.

- Statement 3: This statement is incorrect. The Jal Jeevan Mission is not solely based on a community approach to water; it also focuses on individual household tap connections. Additionally, while Information, Education, and Communication are important components of the mission, the statement does not mention that it is "extensive."

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 25

Consider the following statements regarding Project ‘Mausam’.

  1. Project ‘Mausam’ is an initiative led by the Ministry of Culture and implemented by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA).
  2. It aims to showcase a Transnational Mixed Route on the World Heritage List.
  3. The project explores monsoon patterns and maritime landscapes in the Indian Ocean region.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 25
  • Project ‘Mausam’ is a cultural initiative led by the Ministry of Culture and implemented by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi. It aims to showcase a Transnational Mixed Route (Natural and Cultural Heritage) on the World Heritage List. The project explores monsoon patterns, cultural routes, and maritime landscapes in the Indian Ocean region.
  • Its goals include understanding the historical impact of monsoon winds on interactions, shared knowledge systems, and cultural exchanges among coastal centres.
  • The project fosters cross-cultural linkages with 39 Indian Ocean countries and focuses on cultural routes and maritime landscapes connecting different parts of the Indian Ocean littoral.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 26

Consider the following statements regarding Unified Portal for Agricultural Statistics.

  1. The UPAg Portal is part of the Digital Public Infrastructure for Agriculture.
  2. The portal aims to provide real-time, reliable, and standardized information, thereby facilitating more responsive and efficient agricultural policies.
  3. It aims to enhance data-driven decision-making for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders in the agriculture domain.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 26
  • The Unified Portal for Agricultural Statistics(UPAg Portal – www.upag.gov.in) was officially launched recently.
  • The portal aims to provide real-time, reliable, and standardized information, empowering stakeholders and facilitating more responsive and efficient agricultural policies.
  • The UPAg Portal is part of the Digital Public Infrastructure for Agriculture, focusing on harnessing data for growth, transparency, and agility in India’s agriculture sector.
  • This initiative aligns with e-governance principles and aims to enhance data-driven decision-making for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders in the agriculture domain.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 27

Recently which of the following state organized a campaign called “Amrit Brikshya Andolan” aimed at increasing the state’s green cover by planting one crore saplings, primarily of commercial trees. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 27
  • The Assam Government organized a campaign called “Amrit Brikshya Andolan” aimed at increasing the state’s green cover by planting saplings, primarily of commercial trees.
  • The campaign set out to achieve nine world records during this massive tree-planting drive.
  • The primary objective of the campaign was to plant one crore saplings across Assam, involving thousands of people from various regions of the state. Assam government intends to plant eight crore saplings in 2024 and an additional 10 crore saplings in 2025.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 28

Consider the following statements.

  1. Sometimes record-high temperatures observed globally can be due to underwater volcanic eruption.
  2. Most volcanic eruptions release a significant amount of water vapour and Sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, which is a natural greenhouse gas that traps heat.
  3. Tonga island is part of a volcanic arc formed due to the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Indo-Australian Plate.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 28

Statement 2 is incorrect.

  • In 2023, record-high temperatures have been observed globally. Scientists attribute this unusual heat to various factors, including an underwater volcanic eruption off Tonga in the South Pacific in January 2022.
  • While most volcanic eruptions typically cool the planetdue to sun-dimming particles, this eruption released a significant amount of water vapour and Sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, a natural greenhouse gas that traps heat.
  • The volcano is located in the Tonga island of the South Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Tonga–Kermadec Islands volcanic arcformed due to the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Indo-Australian Plate.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 29

Consider the following statements regarding Hoysala architecture.

  1. It was developed between the 11th and 14th centuries in southern Karnataka.
  2. It has a unique style of blending elements of Dravida and Nagara architectures.
  3. ‘Hoysala Temple’ form includes multiple shrines around a central pillared hall in a star-shaped layout.
  4. They typically used Red Sandstone that allowed intricate carving of sculptures.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 29

Statement 4 is incorrect.

  • Hoysala architecture, developed between the 11th and 14th centuries in southern Karnataka under the Hoysala Empire, is characterized by:
  • A unique style blending elements of Dravida and Nagara architectures.
  • Influences from Bhumija, Nagara, and Karntata Dravida architectural traditions.
  • Distinctive ‘Hoysala Temple’ form with multiple shrines around a central pillared hall in a star-shaped layout.
  • The use of soapstone, allowed intricate carving of sculptures, especially in the jewelry adorning temple walls.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 30

Consider the following statements.

  1. World Ozone Day is celebrated every year to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol.
  2. Montreal Protocol and its amendments are successful in eliminating up to 99% of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
  3. India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) aims to address refrigerant transition, energy efficiency, and technology advancement in cooling systems.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 30
  • World Ozone Day is celebrated on 16th September each year to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol, an international environmental treaty for phasing out of production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, that came into force on this day in 1987.
  • Montreal Protocol and its amendmentsare successful in eliminating up to 99% of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) (long-lived man-made chemicals which destroy the protective ozone layer).
  • India has been proactive in implementing the Montreal Protocol, phasing out harmful substances and achieving reductions.
  • India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) to address refrigerant transition, energy efficiency, and technology advancement in cooling systems.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 31

Consider the following statements regarding Front-running.

  1. Front-running refers to buying or selling securities ahead of a large order so as to benefit from the subsequent price move.
  2. SEBI allows the practice of Front-running only for institutional investors and not for individual investors, so as to protect them from volatile price movements.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 31

Front-running refers to buying or selling securities ahead of a large order so as to benefit from the subsequent price move. Under this illegal trading practice, a broker’s or analyst’s use of nonpublic information to acquire securities or enter into options or futures contracts for his or her own benefit, knowing that when the information becomes public, the price of the securities will change in a predictable manner.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 32

Consider the following statements regarding CPGRAMS.

  1. CPGRAMS is an online platform available to the citizens 24×7 to lodge their grievances to the public authorities on any subject related to public service delivery.
  2. It is the initiative of Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG).
  3. It does not provide any appeal facility to the citizens if they are not satisfied with the resolution.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 32

Statement 3 is incorrect.

  • Centralised Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS) is an online platform available to the citizens 24×7 to lodge their grievances to the public authorities on any subject related to service delivery. It is a single portal connected to all the Ministries/Departments of Government of India and States.
  • The status of the grievance filed in CPGRAMS can be tracked with the unique registration ID provided at the time of registration of the complainant. CPGRAMS also provides appeal facility to the citizens if they are not satisfied with the resolution by the Grievance Officer.
  • The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) informed the parliamentary panel that in 2016, all Ministries, organisations and departments were requested to regularly examine the grievances column of newspapers to pick up the cases coming under their purview and take expeditious action to redress them in a time bound manner.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 33

Consider the following statements.

  1. The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
  2. The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) has jurisdiction over disputes related to conservation and management of the living resources of the sea, protection and preservation of the marine environment and marine scientific research.
  3. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea also established the International Seabed Authority, with responsibility for the regulation of seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 33
  • The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an independent judicial body established by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It has jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, and over all matters specifically provided for in any other agreement which confers jurisdiction on the Tribunal. Disputes relating to the Convention may concern the delimitation of maritime zones, navigation, conservation and management of the living resources of the sea, protection and preservation of the marine environment and marine scientific research.
  • The Tribunal is based in Hamburg, Germany. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea also established the International Seabed Authority, with responsibility for the regulation of seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is beyond the limits of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone and the continental shelf.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 34

Consider the following statements regarding Wildlife Crime Control Bureau.

  1. Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is a statutory body under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change that is especially meant to combat organised wildlife crime in the country.
  2. It assists and advises the customs authorities in the inspection of the consignments of flora and fauna.
  3. It is headed by the Prime Minister of India.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 34

Statement 3 is incorrect.

  • In India, apart from the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is a statutory body under the Ministry that is especially meant to combat organised wildlife crime in the country. It assists and advises the customs authorities in the inspection of the consignments of flora and fauna as per the provisions of the Wild Life Protection Act of 1972, CITES and the export and import policy governing items.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 35

Consider the following statements regarding solid-state battery.

  1. A solid-state battery uses solid electrodes and a solid electrolyte, instead of the liquid electrolytes found in lithium-ion batteries.
  2. Energy density in lithium-ion battery is higher than solid-state battery.
  3. Solid-state batteries are used in pacemakers, RFID and wearable devices.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 35

Statement 2 is incorrect.

  • A solid-state battery is a battery technology that uses solid electrodes and a solid electrolyte, instead of the liquid or polymer gel electrolytes found in lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries.
  • Solid-state batteries have found use in pacemakers, RFID and wearable devices. They are potentially safer, with higher energy densities, but at a much higher cost.
  • A solid-state battery can increase energy density per unit area since only a small number of batteries are needed. For that reason, a solid-state battery is perfect to make an EV battery system of module and pack, which needs high capacity.
  • Challenges to widespread adoption include energy and power density, durability, material costs, sensitivity and stability.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 36

Consider the following statements regarding the newly launched Kisan Rin Portal and Weather Information Network Data Systems (WINDS) portal.

  1. The Kisan Rin Portal is not part of the Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme.
  2. The Kisan Rin Portal acts as a digital platform that offers a comprehensive view of farmer data on agriculture credit.
  3. WINDS leverages advanced weather data analytics to provide actionable insights for informed weather-related decisions in agriculture.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 36

Statement 1 is incorrect.

  • The Indian government has launched the “Kisan Rin Portal” as part of the Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme to revolutionize the agriculture sector.
  • Additionally, the government launched the Weather Information Network Data Systems (WINDS) portal and initiated a door-to-door KCC campaign.
  • The Kisan Rin digital platform will offer a comprehensive view of farmer data, scheme utilization progress, loan disbursement specifics, and interest subvention claims, enhancing integration with banks for more efficient agriculture credit.
  • WINDS leverage advanced weather data analytics to provide stakeholders with actionable insights for informed weather-related decisions in agriculture.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 37

Consider the following statements regarding Supra Thermal and Energetic Particle Spectrometer.

  1. Supra Thermal and Energetic Particle Spectrometer is a sub-system onboard India’s Aditya-L1 spacecraft.
  2. It is designed to measure fast-moving charged particles generated by processes within the Sun.
  3. It helps scientists analyse the behaviour of solar particles surrounding Earth.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 37

India’s first solar mission, Aditya-L1, has begun collecting data using the Supra Thermal and Energetic Particle Spectrometer (STEPS) sub-system, one of the seven instruments on board.

STEPS

  • STEPS stands for Supra Thermal and Energetic Particle Spectrometer. It is a sub-system onboard India’s Aditya-L1 spacecraft and part of the Aditya Solar Wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX) payload. It is designed to measure fast-moving charged particles generated by processes within the Sun. STEPS helps scientists analyze the behaviour of particles surrounding Earth and provides valuable data for solar science and space weather research.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 38

Consider the following statements regarding Narmada River.

  1. The Narmada is the second largest west-flowing river in India.
  2. It flows through Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat before reaching the Gulf of Cambay.
  3. It is situated between the Vindhya and Satpura Ranges.
  4. The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a concrete gravity dam built on the Narmada River.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 38

Statement 1 is incorrect.

  • The Sardar Sarovar Dam (opened 2017) is a concrete gravity dam built on the Narmada River in Navagam near the town of Kevadiya, Narmada District, in the state of Gujarat. The dam was constructed to provide water and electricity to four Indian states: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan
  • The Narmada is the largest west-flowing river, the fifth-largest in India, flowing through Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat before reaching the Gulf of Cambay. It is situated between the Vindhya and Satpura Ranges.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 39

Consider the following statements regarding UNCITRAL.

  1. UNCITRAL is the principal legal entity within the United Nations system dedicated to international trade law.
  2. UNCITRAL is a legal body that has been working for over 50 years with universal membership that specializes in commercial law reform worldwide.
  3. It aims at creating legal frameworks that promote fairness, transparency, and efficiency in cross-border commercial transactions.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 39
  • UNCITRAL stands for the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. It is the principal legal entity within the United Nations system dedicated to international trade law.
  • UNCITRAL is a legal body with universal membership that specializes in commercial law reform worldwide. It has been working for over 50 years to modernize and harmonize rules on international business.
  • UNCITRAL’s primary goal is to facilitate international trade by creating legal frameworks and instruments that promote fairness, transparency, and efficiency in cross-border commercial transactions.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 40

Operation Sajag, that was recently in news was conducted by

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 40
  • The Indian Coast Guard conducted a coastal security drill named ‘Operation Sajag’ along the west coast.
  • This drill aimed to involve all stakeholders in the coastal security system, reaffirm the effectiveness of coastal security measures, and raise awareness among fishermen at sea.
  • To enhance coastal security, several measures have been implemented, including the issuance of biometric cards for fishermen, color-coding of fishing boats according to each state, manned fish landing centres, access control at entry/exit points, coastal mapping, allocation of specific marine band frequencies for security agencies, and training of marine police personnel by the Indian Coast Guard.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 41

Consider the following statements regarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

  1. All animals that are in the wildlife trade are protected by CITES.
  2. If a party violates the convention, CITES can respond with sanctions, which prevent a country from trading in CITES-listed species.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 41

Many animals that are in the wildlife trade are not protected by CITES. If a party violates the convention, CITES can respond with sanctions, which prevent a country from trading in CITES-listed species. But countries are rarely sanctioned.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 42

During heavy exercise, we get muscle cramps due to the accumulation of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 42
  • During heavy exercise, the demand for energy is high but the supply of oxygen to produce energy is limited. Therefore, anaerobic respiration takes places in the muscles cells to fulfil the demand for energy. This anaerobic breakdown of glucose leads to the formation of lactic acid in muscles. The accumulation of lactic acid in muscles leads to muscle cramps. We get relief from cramps after a hot water bath or a massage.
  • Hot water bath or massage improves circulation of blood. As a result, the supply of oxygen to the muscle cells increases. The increase in the supply of oxygen results in the complete breakdown of lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 43

Consider the following statements.

  1. Under Article 105 of the Constitution of India, no Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said in Parliament or any committee thereof.
  2. According to Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha, If the Speaker is of opinion that the words used by MPs in debate are defamatory or unparliamentary, the Speaker may, while exercising discretion order that such words be expunged from the proceedings of the House.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 43
  • Under Article 105(2) of the Constitution, “no Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said…in Parliament or any committee thereof”. However, MPs don’t enjoy the freedom to say whatever they want inside the House.
  • The speech of MPs is subject to the discipline of the Rules of Parliament, “good sense” of its Members, and the control of proceedings by the Speaker. These checks ensure that MPs cannot use “defamatory or indecent or undignified or unparliamentary words” inside the House.
  • Rule 380 (“Expunction”) of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha says: “If the Speaker is of opinion that words have been used in debate which are defamatory or indecent or unparliamentary or undignified, the Speaker may, while exercising discretion order that such words be expunged from the proceedings of the House.”
  • Rule 381 says: “The portion of the proceedings of the House so expunged shall be marked by asterisks and an explanatory footnote shall be inserted in the proceedings as follows: ‘Expunged as ordered by the Chair’.”
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 44

Consider the following statements regarding Prevention of Money Laundering Act.

  1. The offence under this law is mainly the laundering of money made through crimes such as terrorism, drug-trafficking and corruption.
  2. The Enforcement Directorate under the PMLA Act is considered as “police” and hence follow the provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) for search, seizure, arrest, attachment of properties.
  3. The cases booked under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act are non-bailable.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 44

Only statement 1 is correct.

  • The offence under this law is mainly the laundering of money made through a crime. It has a three-part schedule of offences (or ‘predicate offences’) listing the various crimes such as terrorism, drug-trafficking, corruption and cheating that give rise to tainted money.
  • The Supreme Court recently upheld the constitutional validity of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002.
  • The Court also upheld the “twin-conditions” for bail in Section 45 of the PMLA Act.
  • The Enforcement Directorate under the PMLA Act is not considered “police” and hence does not follow provisions of the CrPC for search, seizure, arrest, attachment of properties.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 45

Maitri Setu, sometimes seen in news is a bridge between 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 45

Projects in the neighbourhood that have been planned, financed or constructed — some involve major outlays like the railway links to Nepal and Bangladesh, the Mahakali motorable bridge and the Maitri Setu between Tripura and Bangladesh, the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (KMTTP) which includes a 158 km waterway, the Sittwe port project and road to Mizoram.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 46

What kind of control does the Election Commission have over civil servants during an election?

  1. Election Commission monitors both the manner in which civil servants perform their election-related duties, and prevent activities which may be seen as partisan.
  2. Election Commission cannot transfer or suspend officials during election time as they come under the disciplinary purview of the government of India or the State governments.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 46
  • As the superintendence and control over all aspects of the election process is vested in the EC, it exercises direction and control over civil servants deployed for election-related work. This means that bureaucrats engaged in the administrative aspects of elections, including police officers with law and order duties, are also amenable to the EC’s jurisdiction.
  • This power enables the EC to monitor both the manner in which civil servants perform their election-related duties, and prevent activities which may be seen as partisan.
  • The EC often cites its vast powers under Article 324 to transfer or suspend officials during election time, even though they normally come under the disciplinary purview of the government of India or the State governments. There have been instances of the EC transferring not only Returning Officers, but also Commissioners of Police and Superintendents of Police.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 47

Consider the following statements regarding Naari Adalat.

  1. It is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  2. It acts as an alternate grievance redressal mechanism to resolve “petty” disputes at the gram panchayat level.
  3. The scheme is part of the umbrella scheme Mission Shakti.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 47
  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development implements “naari adalat” (women’s courts) led by women’s collectives in the country in a phased manner as an alternate grievance redressal mechanism to resolve “petty” disputes at the gram panchayat level.
  • The scheme is part of the Ministry guidelines for the Mission Shakti umbrella scheme. The umbrella scheme comprises of sub-schemes for women’s safety and empowerment.
  • The naari adalat scheme “will promote gender justice in society and family”. These will resolve “petty cases” such as harassment, curtailment of rights or entitlements.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 48

Which of the following rivers of Africa drains into the Mediterranean Sea? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 48

The Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt.

Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 49

Consider the following statements regarding Historical Background of Women’s Reservation.

  1. The Government of India Act of 1935 provided reservation for women in the legislature.
  2. The issue of women’s reservation was discussed in the Constituent Assembly debates.
  3. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution mandated all State governments to reserve one-third of the seats for women in local bodies.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 49

Statement 1 is incorrect.

  • The Government of India Act of 1935 gave women separate electorates but did not reserve seats for them in the legislature. It marked a step toward political participation for women.
  • The issue of women’s reservation was discussed in the Constituent Assembly debates. However, it was rejected on the grounds that a democracy should provide representation to all groups.
  • The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution, which mandated all State governments to reserve one-third of the seats for women in local bodies.
Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 50

Consider the following statements regarding National Higher Education Qualifications Framework (NHEQF).

  1. The NHEQF which is meant to streamline higher education qualifications, draws heavily from the European Bologna process.
  2. NHEQF coexists with other frameworks, such as the National Credit Framework and the Academic Bank of Credits.
  3. It gives equal importance to disciplines like agriculture, law, medicine, and pharmacy.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Current Affairs- 2 - Question 50

Statement 3 is incorrect.

India has recently introduced a National Higher Education Qualifications Framework (NHEQF) after a prolonged delay.

The NHEQF is meant to streamline higher education qualifications, but it has several shortcomings.

  • NHEQF coexists with other frameworks, such as the National Credit Framework and the Academic Bank of Credits, creating confusion and defeating the purpose of a unified framework.
  • Certain disciplines like agriculture, law, medicine, and pharmacy are not included, despite their importance.
  • The NHEQF draws heavily from the European Bologna process, which may not fully suit India’s diverse and complex higher education system.
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