Courses

UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021)

80 Questions MCQ Test UPSC CSE Prelims 2021 Mock Test Series | UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021)

Description
This mock test of UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021) for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 80 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 3 (Feb 28, 2021) extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Correct the given equations by interchanging the two signs (10 - 14 t 7 x 3 + 4 = 20)

Solution: Interchange of sign + and x makes the equation into 10 – 14 ÷ 7 + 3 x 4 = 10 - 2 + 3 × 4 = 20. Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 2

Select the correct set of symbols which will fit in the given equation 5 0 6 8 = 48

Solution: These questions are mainly solved with a hit and trial method. Let check option (c), we get 5 × 0 + 6 × 8 = 48, Which is correct. So, (C) must be the right choice.

QUESTION: 3

Direction for: Each of the following questions is based on the following information:1. Six flats on a floor in two rows facing North and South are allotted to P, Q R, S, T and U.2. Q gets a North facing flat and is not next to S.3. S and U get diagonally opposite flats.4. R next to U, gets a south facing flat and T gets North facing flat.If the flats of P and T are interchanged then whose flat will be next to that of U?

Solution:

Interchanging flats P and T

Hence flat R will be next to U.

QUESTION: 4

Direction for: Each of the following questions is based on the following information:

1. Six flats on a floor in two rows facing North and South are allotted to P, Q R, S, T and U.

2. Q gets a North facing flat and is not next to S.

3. S and U get diagonally opposite flats.

4. R next to U, gets a south facing flat and T gets North facing flat.

Which of the following combinations get south facing flats?

Solution:

Hence URP flat combinations get south facing flats.

QUESTION: 5

Direction for: Each of the following questions is based on the following information:

1. Six flats on a floor in two rows facing North and South are allotted to P, Q R, S, T and U.

2. Q gets a North facing flat and is not next to S.

3. S and U get diagonally opposite flats.

4. R next to U, gets a south facing flat and T gets North facing flat.

The flats of which of the other pairs than SU, is diagonally opposite to each other?

Solution:

Hence QP is diagonally opposite to each other.

QUESTION: 6

India is rushing headlong towards economic success and modernisation, counting on high- tech industries such as information technology and biotechnology to propel the nation to prosperity. India’s recent announcement that it would no longer produce unlicensed inexpensive generic pharmaceuticals bowed to the realities of the World Trade Organisation while at the same time challenging the domestic drug industry to compete with the multinational firms. Unfortunately, its weak higher education sector constitutes the Achilles heel of this strategy. India’s main competitors especially China but also Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are investing in large and differentiated higher education systems. They are providing access to large numbers of students at the bottom of the academic system while at the same time building some research based universities that are able to compete with the world’s best institutions. There are a small number of high quality institutions, departments, and centres that can form the basis of the quality sector in higher education. India Educates approximately 10 percent of Its young people in higher education compared with more than half in the major industrialized countries and 15 percent in China. Almost all of the world’s academic systems resemble a pyramid, with a small high quality tier at the top and massive sector at the bottom. India has a tiny top tier. None of its universities occupies a solid position at the top. A few of the best universities have some excellent departments and centres, and there are a small number of outstanding undergraduate colleges.

Q. By what measures can you say that the Asian countries, other than India, are heading towards a knowledge based economy?

1. Building competitive research based universities.

2. Investing in diverse higher education systems,

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that “India ’s main competitors especially China but also Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are investing in large and differentiated higher education systems. They are providing access to large numbers of students at the bottom of the academic system while at the same time building some research based universities that are able to compete with the world ’s best institutions. ``implies that the Asian countries except India are building competitive research based universities and investing in diverse higher education systems to head towards a knowledge based economy.

QUESTION: 7

India is rushing headlong towards economic success and modernisation, counting on high- tech industries such as information technology and biotechnology to propel the nation to prosperity. India’s recent announcement that it would no longer produce unlicensed inexpensive generic pharmaceuticals bowed to the realities of the World Trade Organisation while at the same time challenging the domestic drug industry to compete with the multinational firms. Unfortunately, its weak higher education sector constitutes the Achilles heel of this strategy. India’s main competitors especially China but also Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are investing in large and differentiated higher education systems. They are providing access to large numbers of students at the bottom of the academic system while at the same time building some research based universities that are able to compete with the world’s best institutions. There are a small number of high quality institutions, departments, and centres that can form the basis of the quality sector in higher education. India Educates approximately 10 percent of Its young people in higher education compared with more than half in the major industrialized countries and 15 percent in China. Almost all of the world’s academic systems resemble a pyramid, with a small high quality tier at the top and massive sector at the bottom. India has a tiny top tier. None of its universities occupies a solid position at the top. A few of the best universities have some excellent departments and centres, and there are a small number of outstanding undergraduate colleges.

What did India agree to do at the behest of the World Trade Organisation?

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that “India’s recent announcement that it would no longer produce unlicensed inexpensive generic pharmaceuticals bowed to the realities of the World Trade Organisation” implies that India agreed to manufacture cheap common medicines without a license at the behest of the World Trade Organisation.

QUESTION: 8

India is rushing headlong towards economic success and modernisation, counting on high- tech industries such as information technology and biotechnology to propel the nation to prosperity. India’s recent announcement that it would no longer produce unlicensed inexpensive generic pharmaceuticals bowed to the realities of the World Trade Organisation while at the same time challenging the domestic drug industry to compete with the multinational firms. Unfortunately, its weak higher education sector constitutes the Achilles heel of this strategy. India’s main competitors especially China but also Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are investing in large and differentiated higher education systems. They are providing access to large numbers of students at the bottom of the academic system while at the same time building some research based universities that are able to compete with the world’s best institutions. There are a small number of high quality institutions, departments, and centres that can form the basis of the quality sector in higher education. India Educates approximately 10 percent of Its young people in higher education compared with more than half in the major industrialized countries and 15 percent in China. Almost all of the world’s academic systems resemble a pyramid, with a small high quality tier at the top and massive sector at the bottom. India has a tiny top tier. None of its universities occupies a solid position at the top. A few of the best universities have some excellent departments and centres, and there are a small number of outstanding undergraduate colleges.

Which of the following are India’s weaknesses when it comes to higher education?

1. Indian universities do not have the requisite teaching faculty to cater to the needs of the higher education sector.

2. Only five Indian universities occupy the top position very strongly, in the academic pyramid, when it comes to higher education.

3. India has the least percentage of young population taking to higher education as compared to the rest of the comparable countries.

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that “Almost all of the world’s academic systems resemble a pyramid, with a small high quality tier at the top and massive sector at the bottom. India has a tiny top tier. ” Implies that India’s weakness is that it has the least percentage of young population taking to higher education as compared to the rest of the comparable countries.
QUESTION: 9

Virtually everything astronomers known about objects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons—quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe: neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge, and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe.

With which of the following statements regarding neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely to agree?

Solution: From the passage it can be inferred that according to the author neutrino astronomy would be most likely to major breakthroughs in astronomy.

QUESTION: 10

Virtually everything astronomers known about objects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons—quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe: neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge, and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe.

According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos have for studies in astronomy is that they

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that “, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe. ” Implies that they carry information about their history with them.

QUESTION: 11

In which direction is A from B?

Statement- (1) C is in the South from B which is in the West of A.

Statement- (2) B and D is in a straight line and D is in the South from A.

Solution: From the Statement (1), C is in South of B and B is in West of A. Hence, A is East of B.

QUESTION: 12

Directions: Symbols %, #, \$, © are used with different meanings as explained below:

‘P @ Q’ means ‘P is not greater than Q’.

‘P % Q’ means ‘P is neither greater than nor equal to Q’.

‘P # Q’ means ‘P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q’.

‘P \$ Q’ means ‘ P is neither smaller than nor greater than Q’ .

‘P © Q’ means ‘P is not smaller than Q’.

Three statements showing relationships have been given, which are followed by two conclusions (1) and (2). Assuming that the given statements are true, find out which conclusions(s) is/are definitely true.

Statements — M \$ K, K © F, F % H. Conclusions—

1. M # F

2. M \$ F

Solution: M \$ K =>M = K,

F % H =>F

⸫ M = K ≥ F

1) M \$ F =>M =F

2) M # F =>M >F. Since, M = K, which is greater than or equal to F. Therefore, M is either greater than or equal to F

QUESTION: 13

Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Manish and Shubham are good in Dance and Cricket. Akash and Manish are good in Cricket and Singing. Akash, Prakash and Niraj are good in Singing and Swimming. Niraj and Akash are good in Singing and Cooking. Prakash and Shubham are good in Swimming and Dance.

Who is good in Cricket, Swimming and Dance?

Solution:

QUESTION: 14

Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Manish and Shubham are good in Dance and Cricket. Akash and Manish are good in Cricket and Singing. Akash, Prakash and Niraj are good in Singing and Swimming. Niraj and Akash are good in Singing and Cooking. Prakash and Shubham are good in Swimming and Dance.

Who is good in Singing, Dance and Cricket?

Solution:

QUESTION: 15

Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Manish and Shubham are good in Dance and Cricket. Akash and Manish are good in Cricket and Singing. Akash, Prakash and Niraj are good in Singing and Swimming. Niraj and Akash are good in Singing and Cooking. Prakash and Shubham are good in Swimming and Dance.

Who is good in Singing, Swimming and Dance?

Solution:

QUESTION: 16

Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Manish and Shubham are good in Dance and Cricket. Akash and Manish are good in Cricket and Singing. Akash, Prakash and Niraj are good in Singing and Swimming. Niraj and Akash are good in Singing and Cooking. Prakash and Shubham are good in Swimming and Dance.

Who is good in Singing, Swimming and Cooking but not in Cricket?

Solution:

QUESTION: 17

Despite the best efforts of those responsible for preventing fraud, one inevitable reality remains: “fraud happens.” Because fraud and misconduct can occur at various levels in any organization, it is essential that appropriate preventive and detective techniques are in place. Although fraud prevention and detection are related concepts, they are not the same. While prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud or misconduct that is occurring or has occurred. Although preventive measures cannot ensure that fraud will not be committed, they are the first line of defence in minimizing fraud risk. One key to prevention is making personnel throughout the organization aware of the fraud risk management program, including the types of fraud and misconduct that may occur. This awareness should enforce the notion that all of the techniques established in the program are real and will be enforced. The ongoing communication efforts could provide information on the potential disciplinary, criminal, and civil actions that the organization could take against the individual. With this in mind, prevention and deterrence are interrelated concepts. If effective preventive controls are in place, working, and well-known to potential fraud perpetrators, they serve as strong deterrents to those who might otherwise be tempted to commit fraud. Fear of getting caught is always a strong deterrent. Effective preventive controls are, therefore, strong deterrence controls.

According to the passage, what is the fundamental difference between fraud prevention and fraud detection?

Solution: It is mentioned in the passage that prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, while detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud.

QUESTION: 18

Despite the best efforts of those responsible for preventing fraud, one inevitable reality remains: “fraud happens.” Because fraud and misconduct can occur at various levels in any organization, it is essential that appropriate preventive and detective techniques are in place. Although fraud prevention and detection are related concepts, they are not the same. While prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud or misconduct that is occurring or has occurred. Although preventive measures cannot ensure that fraud will not be committed, they are the first line of defence in minimizing fraud risk. One key to prevention is making personnel throughout the organization aware of the fraud risk management program, including the types of fraud and misconduct that may occur. This awareness should enforce the notion that all of the techniques established in the program are real and will be enforced. The ongoing communication efforts could provide information on the potential disciplinary, criminal, and civil actions that the organization could take against the individual. With this in mind, prevention and deterrence are interrelated concepts. If effective preventive controls are in place, working, and well-known to potential fraud perpetrators, they serve as strong deterrents to those who might otherwise be tempted to commit fraud. Fear of getting caught is always a strong deterrent. Effective preventive controls are, therefore, strong deterrence controls.

How the HR department of an organization can play a vital role in the prevention of fraud in the company?

Solution: The HR department of an organization can play vital role in the prevention of fraud in the company "by evaluating employee’s credentials and competence, and being aware of any issues of personal integrity, confirmation of work history and education presented on a job application".

QUESTION: 19

Despite the best efforts of those responsible for preventing fraud, one inevitable reality remains: “fraud happens.” Because fraud and misconduct can occur at various levels in any organization, it is essential that appropriate preventive and detective techniques are in place. Although fraud prevention and detection are related concepts, they are not the same. While prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud or misconduct that is occurring or has occurred. Although preventive measures cannot ensure that fraud will not be committed, they are the first line of defence in minimizing fraud risk. One key to prevention is making personnel throughout the organization aware of the fraud risk management program, including the types of fraud and misconduct that may occur. This awareness should enforce the notion that all of the techniques established in the program are real and will be enforced. The ongoing communication efforts could provide information on the potential disciplinary, criminal, and civil actions that the organization could take against the individual. With this in mind, prevention and deterrence are interrelated concepts. If effective preventive controls are in place, working, and well-known to potential fraud perpetrators, they serve as strong deterrents to those who might otherwise be tempted to commit fraud. Fear of getting caught is always a strong deterrent. Effective preventive controls are, therefore, strong deterrence controls.

What is the strong deterrent for fraud according to this passage?

Solution: The fear of getting caught is the strong deterrent for fraud according to this passage.

QUESTION: 20

One year ago, the ratio between Rajeev’s salary and Shivani’s salary is 4:5. The ratio between their individual salary of the last year and current year is 2:5 and 10: 11 respectively. If the total current salary of Nusrat and Shweta is 6200. Then find the current salary of Shivani?

Solution: Let previous year salary of Rajeev be 4x and Shivani be 5x Rajeev’s Previous year salary be 2y and Current year salary be 5y So, 4x is equal to 2y then 5y is equal to 10x.

Similarly, Shivani’s previous year salary was 10y and Current year salary was 11y. So, 5x is equal to 10y then 11y is equal to (11/2) x.

So, the current year salary ratio is 20: 11.

Given, 31x = 6200

⇒ x = 200 The current salary of Shivani = (11/31) × 6200 = 2200

QUESTION: 21

There is a Hockey match of Dhyanchand tomorrow, at Motera stadium. In recent years, it has rained only 73 days each year. Unfortunately, the weatherman has predicted rain for tomorrow. When it actually rains, the weatherman correctly forecasts rain 80 of the time. When it doesn't rain, he incorrectly forecasts rain 20 of the time. What is the probability that it will rain on the day of Dhyanchand's Hockey match?

Solution: The sample space is defined by two mutually-exclusive events - it rains or it does not rain. Additionally, a third event occurs when the weatherman predicts rain. Notation for these events appears below.

Event A1 It rains on Dhyanchand's Hockey match.

Event A2 It does not rain on Dhyanchand's Hockey match Event B The weatherman predicts rain.

In terms of probabilities, we know the following:

P (A1) = 73/365 = 0.2 [It rains 73 days out of the year.]

P (A2) = 292/365 = 0.8 [It does not rain 292 days out of the year.]

P (B|A1) = 0.8 [When it rains, the weatherman predicts rain 80% of the time.] P (B|A2) = 0.2 [When it does not rain, the weatherman predicts rain 20% of the time.] We want to know P (A1|B), the probability it will rain on the day of Dhyanchand's Hockey match, given a forecast for rain by the weatherman. The answer can be determined from Bayes' theorem, as shown below.

=

=

QUESTION: 22

Study the following table and answer the question based on it.

Expenditures of a Company (in Lakh Rupees) per Annum Over the given Years

The total amount of bonus paid by the company during the given period is approximately what percent of the total amount of salary paid during this period?

Solution: Total bonus paid = 16

Total salary = 1540

Percentage = (16/1540) X 100 = 1.03%

QUESTION: 23

Study the following table and answer the questions (Q.22 - Q.23) based on it.

Expenditures of a Company (in Lakh Rupees) per Annum Over the given Years

The ratio between the total expenditure on Taxes for all the years and the total expenditure on Fuel and Transport for all the years respectively is approximate?

Solution: Total spent on taxes = 465

Total spent on fuel & transport = 275

Ratio = 465/275 = 93/55 = 93: 55

QUESTION: 24

if the HCF of two numbers (each greater than 15) be 15 and LCM be 315, then the sum of numbers will be

Solution:

Let the number be 15a and 15b, then using the product of numbers = LCM × HCF

=15a ×15b = 315 × 15

= a × b= 21

21 = 3 × 7 so, numbers can be 15 × 3, 15 × 7

Sum =45 + 108= 153

QUESTION: 25

A certain number when divided by 247 leaves a remainder 17, another number when divided by 361 leaves a remainder 52. What is the remainder when the sum of these two numbers is divided by 19?

Solution: N1 = 247x + 17 and N2 = 361y + 52

N1 + N2 = (19 × 13 × x + 17) + (19 ×19 × y + 52)

Remainder when N1 + N2 is divided by 19,

=

=12

QUESTION: 26

find the least value of “b” for which 67b326 is divisible by 3?

Solution: The required number is b.

Then, = 6+7+b+3+2+6=24+b is divisible by 3.

Therefore, the least value of b is 0.

QUESTION: 27

From ‘apparel to aerospace’, ‘steel to software’, the pace of technological innovation is quickening. No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain competitive. Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fibre developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment. Some companies are adept at using a diversity of technologies to create new products that transform markets. But many others are floundering because they rely on a technology strategy that no longer works in such a fast changing environment. The difference between success and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development

(R&D), but how it approaches it. There are two possible approaches. Either a company can invest in R&D that uses an older generation of technology, the ‘breakthrough’ approach-or its focus on combining existing technologies into hybrid technologies - the ‘technologies fusion’ approach. It blends incremental technical improvements from several previously separate fields of technology to create products that revolutionise markets. In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy. Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses the R&D efforts to narrowly, ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies. Yet many western companies still rely almost exclusively - on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are complex: a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering and arrogance and aversion to sharing research results.

Which of the following would correctly reflect the position regarding the two approaches to technology adoption?

Solution: Refer the first sentence of the last paragraph “In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy.”

QUESTION: 28

From ‘apparel to aerospace’, ‘steel to software’, the pace of technological innovation is quickening. No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain competitive. Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fibre developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment. Some companies are adept at using a diversity of technologies to create new products that transform markets. But many others are floundering because they rely on a technology strategy that no longer works in such a fast changing environment. The difference between success and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development

(R&D), but how it approaches it. There are two possible approaches. Either a company can invest in R&D that uses an older generation of technology, the ‘breakthrough’ approach-or its focus on combining existing technologies into hybrid technologies - the ‘technologies fusion’ approach. It blends incremental technical improvements from several previously separate fields of technology to create products that revolutionise markets. In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy. Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses the R&D efforts to narrowly, ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies. Yet many western companies still rely almost exclusively - on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are complex: a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering and arrogance and aversion to sharing research results.

Which of the following features of technology has been highlighted most prominently by the author of the passage?

Solution: The author has highlighted the two approaches that have been described in the entire passage.

QUESTION: 29

From ‘apparel to aerospace’, ‘steel to software’, the pace of technological innovation is quickening. No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain competitive. Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fibre developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment. Some companies are adept at using a diversity of technologies to create new products that transform markets. But many others are floundering because they rely on a technology strategy that no longer works in such a fast changing environment. The difference between success and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development

(R&D), but how it approaches it. There are two possible approaches. Either a company can invest in R&D that uses an older generation of technology, the ‘breakthrough’ approach-or its focus on combining existing technologies into hybrid technologies - the ‘technologies fusion’ approach. It blends incremental technical improvements from several previously separate fields of technology to create products that revolutionise markets. In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy. Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses the R&D efforts to narrowly, ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies. Yet many western companies still rely almost exclusively - on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are complex: a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering and arrogance and aversion to sharing research results.

What, according to the author, is adding to the pressure on the companies?

Solution: Refer the third sentence of the first paragraph “Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fibre developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment.”

QUESTION: 30

Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century that the ice ages were caused by variations in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. For some time, this theory was considered untestable, largely because there was no sufficiently precise chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital variations could be matched. To establish such a chronology, it is necessary to determine the relative amounts of land ice that existed at various times in the Earth’s past. A recent discovery makes such a determination possible: relative land-ice volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes, 16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the heavier isotope 18.

When an ice age begins, the continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the amount of water evaporated from the ocean that will eventually return to it. Because heavier isotopes tend to be left behind when water evaporates from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen 18. The degree of enrichment can be determined by analyzing ocean sediments of the period, because these sediments are composed of calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen, the more land ice there was when the sediment was laid down.

According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?

Solution: According to passage ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments can be used to deduce the relative volume of land ice that was present when the sediment was laid down.

QUESTION: 31

Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century that the ice ages were caused by variations in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. For some time, this theory was considered untestable, largely because there was no sufficiently precise chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital variations could be matched. To establish such a chronology, it is necessary to determine the relative amounts of land ice that existed at various times in the Earth’s past. A recent discovery makes such a determination possible: relative land-ice volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes, 16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the heavier isotope 18.

When an ice age begins, the continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the amount of water evaporated from the ocean that will eventually return to it. Because heavier isotopes tend to be left behind when water evaporates from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen 18. The degree of enrichment can be determined by analyzing ocean sediments of the period, because these sediments are composed of calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen, the more land ice there was when the sediment was laid down.

It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation formed from evaporated ocean water has

Solution: From the passage we can infer that precipitation formed from evaporated ocean water has less oxygen 18 than does ocean water.

QUESTION: 32

Greek architecture of the great age is the expression of men who were, first of all, intellectual artists, kept firmly within the visible world by their mind, but, only second to that, lovers of the human world. The Greek temple is the perfect expression of the pure intellect illumined by the spirit. No other great buildings anywhere approach its simplicity. In the Parthenon straight columns rise to plain capitals; a pediment is sculptured in bold relief; there is nothing more. And yet-here is the Greek miracle this absolute simplicity of structure is alone in majesty of beauty among all the temples and cathedrals and palaces of the world. Majestic but human, truly Greek. No superhuman force as in Egypt; no strange supernatural shapes as in India; the Parthenon is the home of humanity at ease, calm, ordered, sure of itself and the world. The Greeks flung a challenge to nature in the fullness of their joyous strength. They set their temples on the summit of a hill overlooking the wide sea, outlined against the circle of the sky. They would build what was more beautiful than hill and sea and sky and greater than all these. It matters not at all if the temple is large or small; one never thinks of the size. It matters not how much it is in ruins. A few white columns dominate the lofty height at Sounion as securely as the great mass of the Parthenon dominates all the sweep of sea and land around Athens. To the Greek architect man was the master of the world. His mind could understand its laws; his spirit could discover its beauty

The Greeks flung a challenge to nature in the fullness of their joyous strength.” Which of the following best captures the 'challenge' that is being referred to?

Solution: To build monuments those were more appealing to the mind and spirit than nature's creations. Not stated explicitly, but this is what is implied.

QUESTION: 33

Of the 1300 candidates, who were interviewed for a position at a Bank, 900 had a Car, 630 had a motorcycle and 690 had a mobile phone. 300 of them had both, a Car and a motorcycle, 230 had both, a motorcycle and a mobile phone and 360 had both, a Car and mobile phone and 100 had all three. How many candidates had none of the three?

Solution: Number of candidates who had none of the three = Total number of candidates - the number of candidates who had at least one of three devices.

The total number of candidates = 1300.

We know that, Total= A + B + C - {A ∩ B + B ∩ C + C ∩ A + 2(A ∩ B ∩ C)} + neither

Therefore, 1300 = 900 + 630 + 690 - {300 + 360 + 230 +200} + neither

=> Neither = [1300 − (900 + 630 + 690) + (300 + 360 + 230 + 200)]

The number of candidates having neither = 170

QUESTION: 34

The ratio of Adam’s age 4 years ago and Eve’s age after 4 years is 1: 1. Presently, the ratio of their ages is 4 : 3. Find the ratio between Adam’s age 4 years hence and Eve’s age 4 years

Solution:

Currently, the ratio of their ages is 4: 3. Suppose, their ages are: 4x and 3x.

Adam’s age 4 years ago = 4x – 4

Eve’s age after 4 years = 3x + 4

The ratio of Adam’s age 4 years ago and Eve's age after 4 years is 1: 1

Therefore,

=

Solving, we get x = 8

We are required to find the ratio between Adam’s age 4 years hence and Eve’s age 4 years ago.

Eve's age: (3x – 4)

Putting the value of x, we get:

= = =

So, the required ratio is 9: 5

QUESTION: 35

Out of the four annual examinations, each with a total of 100 marks, a student secured average marks of 35%, 65% and 50% in the first, second and third annual examinations. To have an overall average of 60%, how many marks does the student need to secure in the fourth annual examination?

Solution: Let the average marks in the third Annual examination be x.

Total marks = (Marks in first + second + third + fourth) Annual examination

So, the student must score 90% in the fourth annual examination to secure 60% overall average.

∴ Average marks in the third annual examination

QUESTION: 36

In a college, 12% of total students are interested in chess. 3/4 of the total students are interested in hockey. 10 % of the remaining students are interested in singing and the remaining 117 are interested in dancing. How many students are there in college?

Solution:

Total percentage of students = 100%

Students interested in chess = 12%

Students interested in Hockey = 3/4 × 100 = 75%

Students interested in singing = 10% 13%

% of students interested in Dancing =[100 − (12 + 75 + 1.3)]% = 11.7%

So 11.7% = 117, then 100% =117/11.7 x 100 = 1,000

So, total number of students = 1,000

QUESTION: 37

K is South-West of L. If M is South-East of L, then M is in which direction of K?

Solution:

QUESTION: 38

Rehman earns a profit of 50% on selling a knife at 40% discount on the printed price. The ratio of Cost price and the printed price is:

Solution: Let the cost price = Rs. 100

Selling price = Rs. 150

QUESTION: 39

In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on. When the demand for basic and more essential consumer goods is more or less met, demand for the next higher level of consumer goods begins to impinge on consumer decision making and their consumption increases. There is thus a hierarchy of income levels and a hierarchy of consumer goods. As incomes rise and one approaches the turning point referred to, there is an upward movement along the hierarchy in the demand for consumer goods which exhibits itself in a relative increase in the demand for these goods. If one examines the past consumption behaviour of households in India, one finds confirmation of the proposition just made. Until the mid seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods. About the same time the rising trend in the share of food in total consumption expenditure also begins to decline, raising the proportion of expenditure on non-food consumer goods. Simultaneously one also notices a sharper rise in the proportion of expenditure on consumer durables. Thus, what one sees is an upward movement in consumer demand along the hierarchy of consumer goods which amounts to a major change in consumer behaviour.

As income rises in a poor country like India, the poor people concentrate on increasing their consumption of

Solution: Refer the first two sentences of the passage “In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on.”

QUESTION: 40

In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on. When the demand for basic and more essential consumer goods is more or less met, demand for the next higher level of consumer goods begins to impinge on consumer decision making and their consumption increases. There is thus a hierarchy of income levels and a hierarchy of consumer goods. As incomes rise and one approaches the turning point referred to, there is an upward movement along the hierarchy in the demand for consumer goods which exhibits itself in a relative increase in the demand for these goods. If one examines the past consumption behaviour of households in India, one finds confirmation of the proposition just made. Until the mid seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods. About the same time the rising trend in the share of food in total consumption expenditure also begins to decline, raising the proportion of expenditure on non-food consumer goods. Simultaneously one also notices a sharper rise in the proportion of expenditure on consumer durables. Thus, what one sees is an upward movement in consumer demand along the hierarchy of consumer goods which amounts to a major change in consumer behaviour.

Whenever there is a decline in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals

Solution: Refer the second sentence of the second paragraph “Until the mid-seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods.”

QUESTION: 41

In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on. When the demand for basic and more essential consumer goods is more or less met, demand for the next higher level of consumer goods begins to impinge on consumer decision making and their consumption increases. There is thus a hierarchy of income levels and a hierarchy of consumer goods. As incomes rise and one approaches the turning point referred to, there is an upward movement along the hierarchy in the demand for consumer goods which exhibits itself in a relative increase in the demand for these goods. If one examines the past consumption behaviour of households in India, one finds confirmation of the proposition just made. Until the mid seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods. About the same time the rising trend in the share of food in total consumption expenditure also begins to decline, raising the proportion of expenditure on non-food consumer goods. Simultaneously one also notices a sharper rise in the proportion of expenditure on consumer durables. Thus, what one sees is an upward movement in consumer demand along the hierarchy of consumer goods which amounts to a major change in consumer behaviour.

Prices of protective food have risen because

Solution:

Refer the first few lines of the first paragraph “For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non -food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on.”

QUESTION: 42

In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from the shogun to the humblest samurai, found themselves under financial stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to the overlords’ failure to adjust to a rapidly expanding economy, but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords’ control. Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlord’s income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses. Although shortfalls in overlord’s income resulted almost as much from laxity among their tax collectors as from their higher standards of living, a misfortune like a fire or flood, bringing an increase in expenses or a drop in revenue, could put a domain in debt to the city rice-brokers who handled its finances. Once in debt, neither the individual samurai nor the shogun himself found it easy to recover. It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited, and since the income of Japan’s central government consisted in part of taxes collected by the shogun from his huge domain, the government too was constrained.

According to the passage, the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned about high living standards. So according to passage the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that spending had outdistanced income.

QUESTION: 43

In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from the shogun to the humblest samurai, found themselves under financial stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to the overlords’ failure to adjust to a rapidly expanding economy, but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords’ control. Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlord’s income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses. Although shortfalls in overlord’s income resulted almost as much from laxity among their tax collectors as from their higher standards of living, a misfortune like a fire or flood, bringing an increase in expenses or a drop in revenue, could put a domain in debt to the city rice-brokers who handled its finances. Once in debt, neither the individual samurai nor the shogun himself found it easy to recover. It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited, and since the income of Japan’s central government consisted in part of taxes collected by the shogun from his huge domain, the government too was constrained.

The passage implies that individual samurai did not find it easy to recover from debt for which of the following reasons?

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that “It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited ” implies they didn’t find easy to recover from debt because there was a limit to the amount in taxes that farmers could be made to pay.

QUESTION: 44

Direction: Six members of a family P, Q, R, S, T and U. There are two couples each having one unmarried child in the family. Each has a profession namely Doctor, Musician, Actor, Engineer, Pilot and Soldier not in the same order as written.

1. R is father of Soldier

2. Pilot marries T, who is neither Engineer nor Soldier

3. Q is a doctor and married to an Engineer

4. U, the son of Pilot is an Actor

5. P is neither a soldier nor an Engineer.

6. R and P are brothers

What is the occupation of P?

Solution:
QUESTION: 45

Direction: Six members of a family P, Q, R, S, T and U. There are two couples each having one unmarried child in the family. Each has a profession namely Doctor, Musician, Actor, Engineer, Pilot and Soldier not in the same order as written.

1. R is father of Soldier

2. Pilot marries T, who is neither Engineer nor Soldier

3. Q is a doctor and married to an Engineer

4. U, the son of Pilot is an Actor

5. P is neither a soldier nor an Engineer.

6. R and P are brothers

T is married to?

Solution:
QUESTION: 46

Direction: Six members of a family P, Q, R, S, T and U. There are two couples each having one unmarried child in the family. Each has a profession namely Doctor, Musician, Actor, Engineer, Pilot and Soldier not in the same order as written.

1. R is father of Soldier

2. Pilot marries T, who is neither Engineer nor Soldier

3. Q is a doctor and married to an Engineer

4. U, the son of Pilot is an Actor

5. P is neither a soldier nor an Engineer.

6. R and P are brothers

What is the occupation of S?

Solution: Using statements, what we get is written in table below;

Now, T is neither Engineer nor soldier and Q is Doctor and U is an Actor and she is married to a Pilot, so she must be a Musician. P is neither Soldier nor Engineer. So, he must be Pilot and Married to T. Therefore, R is married to Q. Hence, S is a soldier and Son of R and Q; U is the son of P and T.

Now, the table looks like,

QUESTION: 47

A sum of Rs. 299 is divided between A, B, C in the ratio 1/2 : 2/3 : 3/4. find the amount of B.

Solution:

QUESTION: 48

Directions: The following table shows the marks obtained by 100 students in Mathematics, Science and the average of the two subjects.

Find the number of students who got 60% or more marks in both subjects.

Solution: The particular student who got 60% or more marks in Maths may or may not get 60% or more marks in Science. Hence we can’t find the number of students who got 60% or more marks in both subjects. Therefore, data is inadequate.

QUESTION: 49

Directions: The following table shows the marks obtained by 100 students in Mathematics, Science and the average of the two subjects.

If to qualify in the examination one has to secure a minimum of 60% marks in either of the subjects, find the least number of students who have qualified the examination.

Solution: The number of students who got 60% or more marks in any one subject qualifies the examination. Therefore, the least number of students who have qualified the examination = 38 + 25 = 63.

QUESTION: 50

Directions: The following table shows the marks obtained by 100 students in Mathematics, Science and the average of the two subjects.

If to qualify in the examination one has to secure a minimum of 60% marks in both subjects, find the maximum number of students who have qualified the examination.

Solution: For maximum number of students to get 60% or more marks in both subjects, 35 + 24 = 59 students who got 60% or more marks in Maths must get 60% or more marks in Science.

QUESTION: 51

According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching but not a lot of people dead. “Old terrorism sought to change the world while the new sort is often practised by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption”, he added. Hoffman says, “New terrorism has no long-term agenda but is ruthless in its short-term intentions. It is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the West in general and the US in particular. Its perpetrators may be religious fanatics or diehard opponent of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain of the victim.”

According to the author of the passage, the root cause of terrorism is

1. Religious fanaticism

2. socio-political changes in countries

3. The enormous population growth

Solution: In the passage it is mentioned that it is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance implies that according to author Religious fanaticism is the root cause of terrorism.

QUESTION: 52

According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching but not a lot of people dead. “Old terrorism sought to change the world while the new sort is often practised by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption”, he added. Hoffman says, “New terrorism has no long-term agenda but is ruthless in its short-term intentions. It is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the West in general and the US in particular. Its perpetrators may be religious fanatics or diehard opponent of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain of the victim.”

The sole objective of the old terrorism, according to Hoffman, was to

Solution: According to Hoffman old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on.

QUESTION: 53

According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching but not a lot of people dead. “Old terrorism sought to change the world while the new sort is often practised by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption”, he added. Hoffman says, “New terrorism has no long-term agenda but is ruthless in its short-term intentions. It is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the West in general and the US in particular. Its perpetrators may be religious fanatics or die hard opponent of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain of the victim.”

Which of the following statements is true about new terrorism?

Solution: New terrorism has no long-term agenda but is ruthless in its short-term intentions.

QUESTION: 54

In the recent Justice as Translation, James Boyd White argues that opinion-writing should be regarded as an act of "translation,” and judges as "translators.” As such, judges find themselves mediating between the authoritative legal text and the pressing legal problem that demands resolution. A judge must essentially “reconstitute” that text by fashioning a new one, which is faithful to the old text but also responsive to and informed by the conditions, constraints, and aspirations of the world in which the new legal problem has arisen.

Which one of the following phrases best describes the meaning of “Re-constitute” used in the passage?

Solution: In the passage author motioned that “A judge must essentially “re-constitute” that text by fashioning a new one, which is faithful to the old text but also responsive to and informed by the conditions, constraints, and aspirations of the world in which the new legal problem has arisen” implies that new-one is explained according to the time. So, (c) best describes.
QUESTION: 55

It is an old saying that knowledge is power. Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, indirectly controls power. Therefore, ever since the dawn of civilization persons in power have always tried to supervise or control education. It has been the handmaid of the ruling class. During the Christian era, the ecclesiastics controlled the institution of education and diffused among the people the gospel of the Bible and religious teachings. These gospels and teachings were no other than a philosophy for the maintenance of the existing society. It taught the poor man to be meek and to earn his bread with the sweat of his brow, while the priests and the landlords lived in luxury and fought duels for the slightest offense.

Why have persons in power always tried to supervise or control education?

Solution: From the passage, it is concluded that persons in power always tried to supervise or control education because education is key to knowledge which indirectly controls power.

QUESTION: 56

It is an old saying that knowledge is power. Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, indirectly controls power. Therefore, ever since the dawn of civilization persons in power have always tried to supervise or control education. It has been the handmaid of the ruling class. During the Christian era, the ecclesiastics controlled the institution of education and diffused among the people the gospel of the Bible and religious teachings. These gospels and teachings were no other than a philosophy for the maintenance of the existing society. It taught the poor man to be meek and to earn his bread with the sweat of his brow, while the priests and the landlords lived in luxury and fought duels for the slightest offense.

What do you mean by the “sweat of his brow”?

Solution: From the passage, it is concluded that the phrase “sweat of his brew” is used for very hard work to earn bread.

QUESTION: 57

Directions: Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.

Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the difference (in tonnes) between the production of Canada in 2013 and that of America in 2016?

Solution:

Production of America in 2016 = 35 Lakh tonnes

Production of Canada in 2013 = 30 Lakh tonnes

So, the difference is 5 Lakh tonnes or 500000 tonnes.

QUESTION: 58

Directions: Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.

Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the percentage increase in production of America from 2016 to 2017?

Solution: Production of America in 2016 = 35 Lakh tonnes

Production of America in 2017 = 65 Lakh tonnes

Percentage increase of America from 2016 to 2017 = = 85.71%

QUESTION: 59

Directions: Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.

Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

For which of the following years the percentage of rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for Britain?

Solution: Percentage rise/fall in production for Britain

QUESTION: 60

Directions: Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.

Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

The total production of Canada in 2014 and 2018 is what percentage of the total production of Canada in 2016 and 2017?

Solution: Percentage Production

=

= 175%

QUESTION: 61

Directions: Study the following graph carefully to answer the questions given below it.

Production of Wheat (in Lakh tonnes) by three different countries America, Britain & Canada over the years

What is the difference (in Lakh tonnes) between the average production per year of the country with highest average production and that of the country with the lowest average production?

Solution: Average production of America = 51.66

Average production of Britain = 43

Average production of Canada = 30.83

Difference of production = 51.66 – 30.83 = 20.83

QUESTION: 62

Find the value of expression 98-99+100101+102-103+ 998 - 999 + 1000

Solution: Here,

98-99 = -1

100-101 = -1

102-103 = -1

And, so on

There are 902 terms from 98 to 999. So their sum = -902/2 = -451

Final term is (1000). So, (-451 + 1000) = 549

Therefore, total term of -1 will be 1000/2=500

So, the value of expression = 500×-1= -500

QUESTION: 63

Adam, Boris and Khan start from the same place and travel in the same direction at speeds of 15, 30 and 60 km per hour respectively. Boris starts two hours after Adam. If Boris and Khan overtake Adam at the same instant, how many hours after Adam did Khan start?

Solution: Let us assume that Adam started running at 10 AM and Boris started at 12 noon.

So, in these two hours’ distance travelled by Adam is 30 km and the relative speed of Boris with respect to Adam is 15 km/hr.

So Boris will overtake Adam after =30/15 =2 hrs

So, Boris reaches there at 2 PM.

So, Khan also overtakes Adam at 2 PM.

Let us assume Khan takes t time to overtake Adam and the relative speed of Khan with respect to Adam is 45 km/hr and Adam ran for 4 hrs.

So, distance travelled by Adam is:

= time × speed

= 4 × 45 ……. (i)

While Khan's distance travelled is:

=t × 60 -------- (ii)

Since distance travelled by them is equal,

⇒ (i) = (ii)

⇒ 4 × 45 = t × 60

T = 3 hours

So, after 3 hrs, Khan will start running.

QUESTION: 64

If the 1st day of a century is Friday then what could be the 1st day of the next century.

Solution: In a period of 100 years there are 23 or 24 leap years (as for century year it might be or might not be a leap year, as 1900 was not a leap year)

Number of odd days in a period of 100 years is 100 + 23 or 100 + 24 or 123/124 odd days.

Number of odd days in 100 years is when 123/124 is divided by 7, remainder is 4 or 5.

QUESTION: 65

If '+’ means 'x’, ‘-’ means V’, V’ means ‘+’ and 'x’ means ‘-’, then what will be the value of (16 * 32 - 2 x 3 + 4) = ?

Solution:

Given that

Equation is (16 ÷ 32 - 2 × 3 + 4)

Now, by assigning the proper signs in the given expression,

16 + 32 ÷ 2 – 3 x 4 = 16 + 16 – 12 = 20

QUESTION: 66

A wine seller had three types of wine. 435 litres of 1st kind, 609 litres of 2nd kind and 290 litres of 3rd kind. Find the least possible number of casks of equal size in which different types of wine can be filled without mixing.

Solution: For the least possible number of casks of equal size, the size of each cask must be of the greatest volume.

To get the greatest volume of each cask, we have to find the largest number which exactly divides 435, 609 and 290.That is nothing but the H.C.F of (435, 609, and 290)

The H.C.F of (435, 609, 290) = 29 litres

Each cask must be of the volume 29 litres.

=

= 15 + 21 + 10 => 46

Hence, the least possible number of casks of equal size required is 46.

QUESTION: 67

The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 11. If 45 is added to the number, then the digits are reversed. Find the number.

Solution: Given

x + y = 11………(i)

10x + y + 45 = 10y + x ……….. (ii)

From equation (i) and (ii), we get

X = 3 and y =8

So, the number is 38.

QUESTION: 68

By religion, I do not mean formal religion, or customary religion, but the religion which underlies all religions, which bring us face to face with our maker. Let me explain what I mean by religion. It is not the Hindu religion which I certainly prize above all other religions, but the religion which transcends Hinduism, which changes one very nature, which binds one indissolubly to the truth within and which ever purifies. It is the permanent element in human nature which counts no cost too great in order to find full expression and which leaves the soul utterly restless until it has found itself, known its maker and appreciated the true correspondence between the Maker and itself. I have not seen him, neither have I known Him. I have made the world’s faith in God my own, and as my faith is ineffaceable, I regard that faith as amounting to experience. However, as it may be said that to describe faith as experience is to tamper with truth, it may perhaps be more correct to say that I have no word for characterizing my belief in God. There is an independent mysterious Power that pervades everything. I feel it, though I do not see it. It is the unseen power which makes itself and yet defies all proofs because it is so unlike all that I perceive through my senses. It transcends the senses. But it is possible to reason out the existence of God to a limited extent.

Which of the following elements would be present in the author’s concept of religion?

1. It is a reflection of the truth within.

2. It may or may not be present in human nature.

3. It transcends the customary and formal religion.

4. It seeks the maker.

5. Its characteristics undergo change with time and place.

6. It transcends Hinduism.

Solution: From the first paragraph of the passage, it is concluded that according to author religion is that which changes one very nature, which binds one indissolubly to the truth within and which ever purifies. It is the permanent element in human nature which counts no cost too great in order to find full expression and which leaves the soul utterly restless until it has found itself, known its maker and appreciated the true correspondence between the Maker and itself. So, (C) follows.

QUESTION: 69

Which of the following can be said to be the author’s view about the existence of God?

Solution: In the last line of the fourth paragraph of the passage the author mentions, “it is possible to reason out the existence of God to a limited extent” tell us about the author's view on God’s existence.

QUESTION: 70

Direction: A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H members of the family. Sitting around a table facing the center. There are 3 generations and there are 2 married couples and the rest are children of the 2nd generation. A the grandchild of E sits immediate right to his grandmother D. B and G, daughters of C sit between their parents. H the son of F but F is not his mother, sits between his sister and his mother and he is immediately right to his mother. A’s mother is sitting between her only son and one daughter G.

How H related to E?

Solution:
QUESTION: 71

Direction: A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H members of the family. Sitting around a table facing the center. There are 3 generations and there are 2 married couples and the rest are children of the 2nd generation. A the grandchild of E sits immediate right to his grandmother D. B and G, daughters of C sit between their parents. H the son of F but F is not his mother, sits between his sister and his mother and he is immediately right to his mother. A’s mother is sitting between her only son and one daughter G.

How many people sit between A’s mother and F’s mother?

Solution:
QUESTION: 72

Direction: A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H members of the family. Sitting around a table facing the center. There are 3 generations and there are 2 married couples and the rest are children of the 2nd generation. A the grandchild of E sits immediate right to his grandmother D. B and G, daughters of C sit between their parents. H the son of F but F is not his mother, sits between his sister and his mother and he is immediately right to his mother. A’s mother is sitting between her only son and one daughter G.

E is sitting immediately right?

Solution: Let’s firstly clarify the relations then we consider sitting arrangements, Using statement, A the grandchild of E sits immediately right to his grandmother D. So, E and D are of 3 rd generation and husband and wife respectively.

B and G are daughters of C and H is the only son of F implies that F and C are married couples, B, G, A, and H are siblings in which H is male and A, B and G are females.

F is not the mother of H implies he is the father of H.

Now tabulate the concluded information, Using the above-given pieces of information, the sitting arrangement must be,

QUESTION: 73

A watch which gains uniformly is 5 min slow at 7 pm on Monday and is 5 min 30 s fast at 7 pm on Friday. When was the watch correct?

Solution: Total time in hours from Monday at 7 pm to Friday at 7 pm = (4 × 24, h = 95h.)

In 96 h the watch gain

Now, 21/ 2 minutes gained in 96 hrs.

Therefore, 5 minutes is gained in

= 45 hr 42 minutes = 1 day 21 hr 42 minutes.

QUESTION: 74

Statement:

A. There is growth in terrorism in Pakistan.

B. Pakistan faced growing international opposition for its decision of not banning terrorist’s political parties.

Conclusion:

1. The citizens of Pakistan favoured the decision.

2. Some powerful terrorist organisations have a number of seats in Pakistani government.

Solution: Neither the citizen’s response to the decision nor the number of seats by organisation can be deduced from the statement. So, neither 1 nor 2 follows.

QUESTION: 75

Statement:

A. Daily soap for women is generally senseless.

B. Women love to watch daily soap.

Conclusions:

1. Women are senseless.

2. All daily soaps are senseless.

Solution:

Statement states that “Daily soap for women are generally senseless” that does not imply women are senseless. So, conclusion 1 doesn’t follow. It is mentioned that “Daily soap for women are generally senseless” again it doesn’t imply all daily soaps are senseless. So, neither 1 nor 2 follows.

QUESTION: 76

Directions: Refer to the table below and answer the questions that follow. Salary range for an organisation for all male and female employees

What is the approximate average monthly income of males in the organisation?

Solution: Unless we know the exact salary of the employees, we can’t calculate the average salary.
QUESTION: 77

Directions: Refer to the table below and answer the questions that follow. Salary range for an organisation for all male and female employees

What is the minimum average monthly income (approximately) of the female employees who do not earn less than Rs 5000?

Solution: As we are talking about the minimum average salary, we will assume the minimum value of the range for each group. For example, 90 females will have Rs 3000 as the minimum salary and 28 female employees will have Rs 5000 as the minimum salary.

= ≅ 7192

QUESTION: 78

Directions: Refer to the table below and answer the questions that follow. Salary range for an organisation for all male and female employees

What is the ratio of the maximum average monthly salaries of all the male employees to all the female employees who earn equal?

Solution: We do not know the exact salaries of those 3 male employees and 1 female employee who earn more than Rs 25000. So we can’t say anything about this.

QUESTION: 79

Directions: Refer to the table below and answer the questions that follow. Salary range for an organisation for all male and female employees

What percent of the total employees earn less than Rs 20000 but more than or equal to Rs 10000 as their monthly salary?

Solution: Total no. of employees = 461

No. of employees who earn more than or equal to 10000 but less than 20000 = 48 + 28 + 16 + 8 = 100

Therefore, required percentage = x 100

≈ 21.7%

QUESTION: 80

Directions: Refer to the table below and answer the questions that follow. Salary range for an organisation for all male and female employees

Which of the following cannot be deduced from the given data?

Solution: There are 286 male employees and 175 female employees in the company. (a) and (b) are easily inferred from the data but (c) is not, as we cannot find the number of employees earning more than or equal to 5000 but less than or equal to 10000.