UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 8 (April 08, 2021)


80 Questions MCQ Test UPSC CSE Prelims 2021 Mock Test Series | UPSC CSE Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Mock Test - 8 (April 08, 2021)


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QUESTION: 1

Directions forthe following 11 (eleven) items:

Read the following three passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on these passages only.

                             Passage 1

Any government that runs on a huge fiscal deficit has to, at some point, finance that deficit by creating money through borrowings. When the government does that, there is more money chasing the same number of goods and services in the economy. The result is a hike in prices, or inflation. At 5.1%, India's fiscal deficit is dangerously high, controlling which should have been the government's highest priority. Raising diesel prices by 14% such that the subsidy bill on the fuel falls will help bring this deficit under control. To put that issue in perspective, at Rs.47,800 crore oil subsidies for the first quarter of the current financial year have already exceeded the full year's budgeted figure.

For consumers already reeling under a double digit onslaught of food prices, the hike in the diesel prices will hurt, no doubt. Part of this increase can be neutralized, by cutting excise duties on the fuel, for instance. But for successive governments that have been unable to curb spending on vote buying schemes- some of them crucial - or on an inflated and unproductive bureaucracy, the other option is to increase taxes and return to the sky high rates of the coercive 1970s, a regime that is best behind us.

This brings us to the next issue: economic growth. With a high fiscal deficit that keeps inflation high, there is no way the RBI will cut interest rates. Even though most ofthe inflationary expectations are coming from goods outside India's control- crude oil imports, a falling rupee and a globally rising food and commodity prices- RBI's stance has been to keep policy rates high so that thousands cut down on discretionary grounds. In the process, home loan EMIs have been rising and along with inflation on one side, scissoring household targets.

Making matters more complex is the fact that today the sovereign has very little control over its finances. Like it or nor, India cant and will not grow at 9% if the rest of the world is contracting, thereby closing business opportunities- there, the UPA government is right. "The political power of the sovereign goes down with every move towards globalization," Kaushik Basu said. "Economics has become an instrument of global, political and even military strategy." To illustrate, Indian farmers and businesses get affected by WTO negotiations, Indian workers by ILO negotiations, Indian fiscal policy by G20 communities, Indian markets by QE3.

 

Q.From the passage, it can be inferred that the main aim of the author is

Solution:

The passage starts by discussing the rationale for raising diesel prices to control the rising fiscal deficit. It then goes on to discuss how rising food prices, linked with the increase in diesel prices and rising inflation, can be neutralised. The passage then moves on to other issues linked with a high fiscal deficit and rising inflation and subsequently to discuss matters of economic growth and globalisation. The subsequent paragraphs in the passage are all written in an effort to present a platform that helps establish the rationale for the government to tackle the rising fiscal deficit. Option c is the answer. Option a is incorrect as the people of the country and their importance is not discussed. The common man has not been mentioned in the passage. Thus option d is incorrect. Option b is also incorrect as the negative impact of not controlling the fiscal deficit on outside investment is not discussed in the passage.

QUESTION: 2

   Passage 1

Any government that runs on a huge fiscal deficit has to, at some point, finance that deficit by creating money through borrowings. When the government does that, there is more money chasing the same number of goods and services in the economy. The result is a hike in prices, or inflation. At 5.1%, India's fiscal deficit is dangerously high, controlling which should have been the government's highest priority. Raising diesel prices by 14% such that the subsidy bill on the fuel falls will help bring this deficit under control. To put that issue in perspective, at Rs.47,800 crore oil subsidies for the first quarter of the current financial year have already exceeded the full year's budgeted figure.

For consumers already reeling under a double digit onslaught of food prices, the hike in the diesel prices will hurt, no doubt. Part of this increase can be neutralized, by cutting excise duties on the fuel, for instance. But for successive governments that have been unable to curb spending on vote buying schemes- some of them crucial - or on an inflated and unproductive bureaucracy, the other option is to increase taxes and return to the sky high rates of the coercive 1970s, a regime that is best behind us.

This brings us to the next issue: economic growth. With a high fiscal deficit that keeps inflation high, there is no way the RBI will cut interest rates. Even though most ofthe inflationary expectations are coming from goods outside India's control- crude oil imports, a falling rupee and a globally rising food and commodity prices- RBI's stance has been to keep policy rates high so that thousands cut down on discretionary grounds. In the process, home loan EMIs have been rising and along with inflation on one side, scissoring household targets.

Making matters more complex is the fact that today the sovereign has very little control over its finances. Like it or nor, India cant and will not grow at 9% if the rest of the world is contracting, thereby closing business opportunities- there, the UPA government is right. "The political power of the sovereign goes down with every move towards globalization," Kaushik Basu said. "Economics has become an instrument of global, political and even military strategy." To illustrate, Indian farmers and businesses get affected by WTO negotiations, Indian workers by ILO negotiations, Indian fiscal policy by G20 communities, Indian markets by QE3.

 

Q.Which of the following best explains why raising diesel prices will control the fiscal deficit?

Solution:

Refer to the sentence "Raising diesel prices........ deficit under control," given in the first paragraph. It is clear in

this statement that the increase in the diesel subsidy boll has a direct link with the increasing fiscal deficit. Raising diesel prices will lead to a reduction in the diesel subsidy bill and thus will decrease the fiscal deficit. Option b is the answer. Option a is incorrect as it fails to bring in the link between the diesel prices and the fiscal deficit. Option c is incorrect as the passage does not suggest that raising diesel prices is the only way to control the fiscal deficit. Option d is incorrect as it is vague and does not establish the link between diesel prices and fiscal deficit.

QUESTION: 3

Passage 1

Any government that runs on a huge fiscal deficit has to, at some point, finance that deficit by creating money through borrowings. When the government does that, there is more money chasing the same number of goods and services in the economy. The result is a hike in prices, or inflation. At 5.1%, India's fiscal deficit is dangerously high, controlling which should have been the government's highest priority. Raising diesel prices by 14% such that the subsidy bill on the fuel falls will help bring this deficit under control. To put that issue in perspective, at Rs.47,800 crore oil subsidies for the first quarter of the current financial year have already exceeded the full year's budgeted figure.

For consumers already reeling under a double digit onslaught of food prices, the hike in the diesel prices will hurt, no doubt. Part of this increase can be neutralized, by cutting excise duties on the fuel, for instance. But for successive governments that have been unable to curb spending on vote buying schemes- some of them crucial - or on an inflated and unproductive bureaucracy, the other option is to increase taxes and return to the sky high rates of the coercive 1970s, a regime that is best behind us.

This brings us to the next issue: economic growth. With a high fiscal deficit that keeps inflation high, there is no way the RBI will cut interest rates. Even though most ofthe inflationary expectations are coming from goods outside India's control- crude oil imports, a falling rupee and a globally rising food and commodity prices- RBI's stance has been to keep policy rates high so that thousands cut down on discretionary grounds. In the process, home loan EMIs have been rising and along with inflation on one side, scissoring household targets.

Making matters more complex is the fact that today the sovereign has very little control over its finances. Like it or nor, India cant and will not grow at 9% if the rest of the world is contracting, thereby closing business opportunities- there, the UPA government is right. "The political power of the sovereign goes down with every move towards globalization," Kaushik Basu said. "Economics has become an instrument of global, political and even military strategy." To illustrate, Indian farmers and businesses get affected by WTO negotiations, Indian workers by ILO negotiations, Indian fiscal policy by G20 communities, Indian markets by QE3.

 

Q.Consider the following statements:

1.Globalization ensures that economies have less autonomy and thus less say in matters of their economic growth.

2.The WTO has adversely affected the Indian farmer and the prospects of agricultural goods in the country. With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Refer to the last paragraph. Assumption 1 is not valid and cannot be inferred from the passage as the passage provides no information which suggests that globalisation ensures that economies have less autonomy and thus less say in matters of their economic growth. Assumption 2 is incorrect as the sentence "To illustrate, Indian farmers....markets by QE3" given in the last paragraph only states that Indian farmers get affected by the WTO negotiations. However, there is not enough information to assume that the WTO has adversely affected the agricultural growth of the country. Option d is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 4

Passage 1

Any government that runs on a huge fiscal deficit has to, at some point, finance that deficit by creating money through borrowings. When the government does that, there is more money chasing the same number of goods and services in the economy. The result is a hike in prices, or inflation. At 5.1%, India's fiscal deficit is dangerously high, controlling which should have been the government's highest priority. Raising diesel prices by 14% such that the subsidy bill on the fuel falls will help bring this deficit under control. To put that issue in perspective, at Rs.47,800 crore oil subsidies for the first quarter of the current financial year have already exceeded the full year's budgeted figure.

For consumers already reeling under a double digit onslaught of food prices, the hike in the diesel prices will hurt, no doubt. Part of this increase can be neutralized, by cutting excise duties on the fuel, for instance. But for successive governments that have been unable to curb spending on vote buying schemes- some of them crucial - or on an inflated and unproductive bureaucracy, the other option is to increase taxes and return to the sky high rates of the coercive 1970s, a regime that is best behind us.

This brings us to the next issue: economic growth. With a high fiscal deficit that keeps inflation high, there is no way the RBI will cut interest rates. Even though most ofthe inflationary expectations are coming from goods outside India's control- crude oil imports, a falling rupee and a globally rising food and commodity prices- RBI's stance has been to keep policy rates high so that thousands cut down on discretionary grounds. In the process, home loan EMIs have been rising and along with inflation on one side, scissoring household targets.

Making matters more complex is the fact that today the sovereign has very little control over its finances. Like it or nor, India cant and will not grow at 9% if the rest of the world is contracting, thereby closing business opportunities- there, the UPA government is right. "The political power of the sovereign goes down with every move towards globalization," Kaushik Basu said. "Economics has become an instrument of global, political and even military strategy." To illustrate, Indian farmers and businesses get affected by WTO negotiations, Indian workers by ILO negotiations, Indian fiscal policy by G20 communities, Indian markets by QE3.

 

Q.Which of the following would help explain the relationship between the interest rates and a high fiscal deficit?

Solution:

Refer to the third paragraph that states that with a high inflation rate one cannot expect the RBI to reduce the interest rates. It can be assumed that the interest rates will either remain as they are or rise further. The rest of the paragraph indicates that the interest rates are rising. Option a is incorrect as the passage does not indicate the funding of government requirements through market borrowings. Option b goes against the discussion in the third paragraph. The author suggests an impact on the fiscal deficit not only in this paragraph but in the entire passage. Option c is incorrect as the paragraph suggests a link between interest rates and fiscal deficit.

QUESTION: 5

                        Passage 2

There is a controversy raging over the entry of giants such as Tesco and the Wall Mart into India after the government permitted FDI in multi-brand retail. Most economic analysts look at it in terms of capital coming into India to oust local shopkeepers or in terms of capital coming in to offer better prices to farmers or set up distribution chains and storage facilities to help consumers. These arguments seem a little old. There is a technological dimension to this that may reveal that it is India that it is India that is behind the competitive edge of big retail chains.

In 2009, Walmart picked Bangalore based Infosys Technologies and India centric Cognizant among three information technology service vendors for a $600 million multi-year contract. Finance is now easily available for retail companies from banks and equity markets. What sets the real smart retail giants apart is their ability to leverage software and IT to keep their competitive edge.

Supply chain software can help lower costs by managing inventories. Data analytics and customer relations software can help them identify the more lucrative customers or choose discount strategies. Partners, employees and vendors of retail giants are now connected by software Indian talent figures in all this.

Infosys was an early adapter ofWalmart's move to go in for radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags that helps the retail chain track inventories at low cost.

Last year, Walmart also acquired Kosmix, a cutting edge search engine, founded by Indian born Venky Harinarayan and Anand Rajaraman (who earlier co-founded Junglee.com that Amazon acquired). Now Kosmix is a part of Walmart Labs. Its technology filters and aggregates information by topic from Twitter messages and the larger Web in real time. This is a new way to interact with shoppers.

Tesco now owes its edge to its Bangalore IT facility called the "Hindustan Service Centre". The British retail chain says 6000 employee strong HSC's strategic initiatives coverthe "IT, business, financial, commercial and property aspects." In Bangalore, Indian techies develop tools like mobile applications for Tesco.

 

Q.It can be assumed that the author's views on FDI in multi brand retail are

Solution:

In the sentence "There is a technological....... of big retail chains", the author highlights that India has played an

important role in giving the retail giants a competitive edge. Option c is the answer. Options a and b are incorrect as they place importance on the interests of the local shopkeepers whereas the author does not highlight this in the passage. Option d is incorrect as it goes against the stand that the author takes in the first paragraph.

QUESTION: 6

  Passage 2

There is a controversy raging over the entry of giants such as Tesco and the Wall Mart into India after the government permitted FDI in multi-brand retail. Most economic analysts look at it in terms of capital coming into India to oust local shopkeepers or in terms of capital coming in to offer better prices to farmers or set up distribution chains and storage facilities to help consumers. These arguments seem a little old. There is a technological dimension to this that may reveal that it is India that it is India that is behind the competitive edge of big retail chains.

In 2009, Walmart picked Bangalore based Infosys Technologies and India centric Cognizant among three information technology service vendors for a $600 million multi-year contract. Finance is now easily available for retail companies from banks and equity markets. What sets the real smart retail giants apart is their ability to leverage software and IT to keep their competitive edge.

Supply chain software can help lower costs by managing inventories. Data analytics and customer relations software can help them identify the more lucrative customers or choose discount strategies. Partners, employees and vendors of retail giants are now connected by software Indian talent figures in all this.

Infosys was an early adapter ofWalmart's move to go in for radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags that helps the retail chain track inventories at low cost.

Last year, Walmart also acquired Kosmix, a cutting edge search engine, founded by Indian born Venky Harinarayan and Anand Rajaraman (who earlier co-founded Junglee.com that Amazon acquired). Now Kosmix is a part of Walmart Labs. Its technology filters and aggregates information by topic from Twitter messages and the larger Web in real time. This is a new way to interact with shoppers.

Tesco now owes its edge to its Bangalore IT facility called the "Hindustan Service Centre". The British retail chain says 6000 employee strong HSC's strategic initiatives coverthe "IT, business, financial, commercial and property aspects." In Bangalore, Indian techies develop tools like mobile applications for Tesco.

 

Q.Which of the following are the essential elements in the success of retail giants?

1.The use of technology to maintain an advantage over others.

2.Sales and marketing strategies based on an analysis of customer data.

Solution:

Statement 1 can be inferred from the last line of the second paragraph.

Statement 2 can be inferred from the sentence "Data analytics and customer relations...choose discount strategies"

QUESTION: 7

Passage 2

There is a controversy raging over the entry of giants such as Tesco and the Wall Mart into India after the government permitted FDI in multi-brand retail. Most economic analysts look at it in terms of capital coming into India to oust local shopkeepers or in terms of capital coming in to offer better prices to farmers or set up distribution chains and storage facilities to help consumers. These arguments seem a little old. There is a technological dimension to this that may reveal that it is India that it is India that is behind the competitive edge of big retail chains.

In 2009, Walmart picked Bangalore based Infosys Technologies and India centric Cognizant among three information technology service vendors for a $600 million multi-year contract. Finance is now easily available for retail companies from banks and equity markets. What sets the real smart retail giants apart is their ability to leverage software and IT to keep their competitive edge.

Supply chain software can help lower costs by managing inventories. Data analytics and customer relations software can help them identify the more lucrative customers or choose discount strategies. Partners, employees and vendors of retail giants are now connected by software Indian talent figures in all this.

Infosys was an early adapter ofWalmart's move to go in for radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags that helps the retail chain track inventories at low cost.

Last year, Walmart also acquired Kosmix, a cutting edge search engine, founded by Indian born Venky Harinarayan and Anand Rajaraman (who earlier co-founded Junglee.com that Amazon acquired). Now Kosmix is a part of Walmart Labs. Its technology filters and aggregates information by topic from Twitter messages and the larger Web in real time. This is a new way to interact with shoppers.

Tesco now owes its edge to its Bangalore IT facility called the "Hindustan Service Centre". The British retail chain says 6000 employee strong HSC's strategic initiatives coverthe "IT, business, financial, commercial and property aspects." In Bangalore, Indian techies develop tools like mobile applications for Tesco.

 

Q.Which of the following options best explains the purpose of the last four paragraphs?

Solution:

In the last four paragraphs, the author presents examples of how Indian firms and professionals have, though technology, helped in the growth of the foreign retail giants. Refer to the last line of the first paragraph which helps infer that option b is the answer. Option a is incorrect as it does not point out the role of Indian technology firms and professionals. Option c is incorrect as it is a general statement while the author only presents information on Indian IT firms and does not link this with the growth of retail giants. Option d is incorrect as it leaves out the role of the Indian IT firms.

QUESTION: 8

                        Passage 3

The relation between gender and poverty is a complex and controversial topic that is now being debated more than ever before. Although much policymaking has been informed by the idea of feminization of poverty, the precise nature of the nexus between gender and poverty needs to be better understood and operationalized in policymaking. The difficulty originates from the different shapes and forms gender inequalities and poverty take depending on the economic, social and ideological context. Yet another difficulty involves the scarcity of gender disaggregated data for a number of countries. For the last three decades, many women's advocates have been arguing that women are poorer than men. The most common empirical expression of this idea is the concept of feminization of poverty. This idea has become popular both in shaping analyses of poverty and poverty alleviation strategies. Thus, targeting women has become one vehicle for gender sensitive poverty alleviation. Poor women have become the explicit focus of policymaking, for example, in the area of microcredit programs and income generation activities.

However, the universal validity of the feminization of poverty is being empirically challenged. Although the idea that there are gender differences in experiences of poverty is not abandoned, a more nuanced and complex analysis of poverty and gender inequalities is emerging. This, in turn, is giving rise to a more gender aware approach to poverty elimination strategies.

 

Q.Which of the following statements agree with the author's opinions on the feminization of poverty?

1.It has drawn attention away from aspects of poverty in its generalization.

2.It has produced results in the areas of microcredit programs and income generation activities.

Solution:

It is nowhere mentioned in the passage that feminization of poverty has drawn attention away from some aspects of poverty. Neither it is mentioned that feminization of poverty has produced results in the areas of microcredit programs and income generation activities. Thus option d is correct.

QUESTION: 9

    Passage 3

The relation between gender and poverty is a complex and controversial topic that is now being debated more than ever before. Although much policymaking has been informed by the idea of feminization of poverty, the precise nature of the nexus between gender and poverty needs to be better understood and operationalized in policymaking. The difficulty originates from the different shapes and forms gender inequalities and poverty take depending on the economic, social and ideological context. Yet another difficulty involves the scarcity of gender disaggregated data for a number of countries. For the last three decades, many women's advocates have been arguing that women are poorer than men. The most common empirical expression of this idea is the concept of feminization of poverty. This idea has become popular both in shaping analyses of poverty and poverty alleviation strategies. Thus, targeting women has become one vehicle for gender sensitive poverty alleviation. Poor women have become the explicit focus of policymaking, for example, in the area of microcredit programs and income generation activities.

However, the universal validity of the feminization of poverty is being empirically challenged. Although the idea that there are gender differences in experiences of poverty is not abandoned, a more nuanced and complex analysis of poverty and gender inequalities is emerging. This, in turn, is giving rise to a more gender aware approach to poverty elimination strategies.

 

Q.Which of the following has/have not been mentioned in the passage?

1.Experiences of poverty

2.Failed poverty alleviation strategies.

Solution:

Only 2 has not been mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 10

    Passage 3

The relation between gender and poverty is a complex and controversial topic that is now being debated more than ever before. Although much policymaking has been informed by the idea of feminization of poverty, the precise nature of the nexus between gender and poverty needs to be better understood and operationalized in policymaking. The difficulty originates from the different shapes and forms gender inequalities and poverty take depending on the economic, social and ideological context. Yet another difficulty involves the scarcity of gender disaggregated data for a number of countries. For the last three decades, many women's advocates have been arguing that women are poorer than men. The most common empirical expression of this idea is the concept of feminization of poverty. This idea has become popular both in shaping analyses of poverty and poverty alleviation strategies. Thus, targeting women has become one vehicle for gender sensitive poverty alleviation. Poor women have become the explicit focus of policymaking, for example, in the area of microcredit programs and income generation activities.

However, the universal validity of the feminization of poverty is being empirically challenged. Although the idea that there are gender differences in experiences of poverty is not abandoned, a more nuanced and complex analysis of poverty and gender inequalities is emerging. This, in turn, is giving rise to a more gender aware approach to poverty elimination strategies.

 

Q.Consider the following statements:

1.The feminization of poverty happened due to a lack of empirical data.

2.Understanding gender issues in poverty is important.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

In the passage, no relation has been given between feminisation of poverty and the lack of empirical data. Statement 2 is valid as the first few lines of the passage emphasize on the importance of gender

issues in poverty. Refer to the line “the precise nature of the........... operationalized in policymaking.” Thus

option b is correct.

QUESTION: 11

  Passage 3

The relation between gender and poverty is a complex and controversial topic that is now being debated more than ever before. Although much policymaking has been informed by the idea of feminization of poverty, the precise nature of the nexus between gender and poverty needs to be better understood and operationalized in policymaking. The difficulty originates from the different shapes and forms gender inequalities and poverty take depending on the economic, social and ideological context. Yet another difficulty involves the scarcity of gender disaggregated data for a number of countries. For the last three decades, many women's advocates have been arguing that women are poorer than men. The most common empirical expression of this idea is the concept of feminization of poverty. This idea has become popular both in shaping analyses of poverty and poverty alleviation strategies. Thus, targeting women has become one vehicle for gender sensitive poverty alleviation. Poor women have become the explicit focus of policymaking, for example, in the area of microcredit programs and income generation activities.

However, the universal validity of the feminization of poverty is being empirically challenged. Although the idea that there are gender differences in experiences of poverty is not abandoned, a more nuanced and complex analysis of poverty and gender inequalities is emerging. This, in turn, is giving rise to a more gender aware approach to poverty elimination strategies.

 

Q.Consider the following statements-

1.Policymaking, till date, has ignored the link between poverty and gender.

2.Gender disaggregated data is important for formulating policies that factor in the link between poverty and gender.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following statements is/are valid?

Solution:

We cannot say that policy making has ignored the link between poverty and gender. However, the passage mentions the scarcity of gender-disaggregated data and how it poses a difficulty in policymaking exercise. Thus option b is correct.

QUESTION: 12

Directions forthe following 5 (five) items:

Each of the items below consists of a question and two statements. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Give answer as:

Statements:

1. Rahul at present is 25 years younger to his mother.

2. Rahul's brother, who was born in 1964, is 35 years younger to his mother.

 

Q. In which year was Rahul born?

Solution:

From both I and II, we find that Rahul is (35 - 25) = 10 years older than his brother, who was born in 1964. So, Rahul was born in 1954.

QUESTION: 13

Statements:

1. One-fourth of the weight of each pole is 5 kg.

2. The total weight ofthree poles is 20 kilograms more than the total weight oftwo poles.

 

Q. What will be the total weight of 10 poles, each of the same weight ?

Solution:

From I, we conclude that weight of each pole = (4x5) kg = 20 kg.

So, total weight of 10 poles = (20 x 10) kg = 200 kg.

From II, we conclude that:

Weight of each pole = (weight of 3 poles) - (weight of 2 poles) = 20 kg.

So, total weight of 10 pojes = (20 x 10) kg = 200 kg.

QUESTION: 14

Statements:

1. H is the only daughter of X who is wife of M.

2. K and J are brothers of M.

 

Q.How many children does M have?

Solution:

From I, we conclude that H is the only daughter of M. But this does not indicate that M has no son. The information given in II is immaterial.

QUESTION: 15

Statements:

1. The company sold 8000 units of product A each costing Rs. 25.

2. This company has no other product line.

 

Q.How much was the total sale of the company ?

Solution:

From I, total sale of product A = Rs. (8000 x 25) = Rs. 200000.

From II, we know that the company deals only in product A.

This implies that sale of product A is the total sale of the company, which is Rs. 200000.

QUESTION: 16

Statements:

1. P is fifteenth from the left in the row.

2.Q is exactly in the middle and there are ten children towards his right.

 

Q.How many children are there between P and Qina row of children?

Solution:

From II, Q being in the middle, there are 10 children to his right as well as to his left. So, Q is 11th from the left. From I, P is 15th from the left.

Thus, from both I and II, we conclude that there are 3 children between P and Q.

QUESTION: 17

You are appointed the Vice Chairman in an authority that is responsible for fulfilling the needs in the area. The area has a substantial number of weaker sections and low income groups, which cannot afford to buy expensive houses. You have been asked by the State Housing minister to sell the land that is meant for building houses for the poor to private builders at throw away prices so that they can build plush apartments and sell them at an exorbitant premium. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as it shows that you are not giving in to undue pressure. Option d is the 2nd best option as here you are making sure that the purpose for which the land is meant is fulfilled, however, it seems to be a compromise. Option b would portray that you act on impulse and also go ahead with impracticable solutions. Option a is negated as it would portray you as a weak personality.

QUESTION: 18

You are newly appointed as secretary in the telecom commission. The commission is ready to sell the radio wave spectrum to private companies. After the scrutiny of the documents you have come to know that the price at which the spectrum is being sold is substantially lower than the current market valuation. You think that this may cause a huge loss. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best option as it deals with the problem at hand and provides a solution that is feasible and also not time consuming. Option d is the next best choice as it deals with the problem to some extent but it is infeasible as you may need several clearances from various departments and ministries to change the process. Option a is inappropriate as you are acting on impulse and moreover this may be infeasible as redoing all the documents may take a lot of time, which the commission does not have at its disposal, as it is ready to sell the spectrum. Going with option b would be unethical as you do not know whether this would definitely result in low prices for the services related to the spectrum.

QUESTION: 19

You are the head of the foreign diplomacy department of your country. The country's economy is ailing and it needs fresh infusion of capital. You have been asked by the foreign minister to do something about this problem. You will

Solution:

Option b is the best choice as not only it will help in solving the problem at hand (infusion of capital) but also is the right way to approach businesses in other countries. Option a is the 2nd best option as even though it looks it may solve the problem it is not clear why the business houses will devise ways to bring in foreign capital on your behest. Option c would be not correct as it may mean that you have some personal interest in your friends setting up business in the country. Option d will portray you as a quitter.

QUESTION: 20

You have been appointed the head of a committee, which has been created to look into the demands of various groups to create smaller states based on ethnicities and language differences in existing states as they think that development in all areas is not even and some areas are extremely backward. These groups are highly vocal in nature for creation of new states but the government thinks that creating new states will hamper the unity of the country. You belong to one of these states. You will

Solution:

Option b is the best answer as it takes into consideration the view of other members of the committee and incorporated the view of the other members. Option c is the next best option as it will take care of the concern of the government but you cannot ask the government to decide on amending the laws regarding this. Option a is inappropriate as it is based on your personal feelings and may be biased. Option d is incorrect as there should be no interest from your side to convince the government that the demands are genuine.

QUESTION: 21

The district where you are working as a collector has been affected by a severe drought. The majority of the population, which was clearly impoverished, has been hit hard by the non availability of the staple food grain. However, the government storages are full of grains and some of it is on the verge of decay. In this situation, you will

Solution:

Option c is the best answer as it shows how proactive you are and it will help in dealing with the given problem. Option d is the 2nd best choice as you are being honest with the people and telling them the reality but it also shows that you are not proactive at all. Option a is unviable as to distribute the grains a system has to be followed and opening the coffers may create chaos. Option b is incorrect as you do not know the intentions of the dealers and it is quite possible that they may not sell the grain at a nominal rate.

QUESTION: 22

You are the chief engineer in the Highway authority and are responsible to construct roads and highways. The authority is building a new road and the project has hit a roadblock because there is a temple in the way where the road is to be built. It is a religiously sensitive area and the people in this area are protesting that they will not let the temple be broken as it would be a religious sacrilege to them. It is not technically possible for you to take the road around the temple as there is a high probability that this turn would result in frequent accidents. You will

Solution:
QUESTION: 23

You are a district collector in a small district where the local goons are rampant. A particular area is notorious for the instances of goons being involved in eve teasing and rape and has found place in many national media reports. The National Commission for Women (NCW) has pointed this out to you and asked you to do something about it. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as it directly addresses the issue at hand. Moreover, tackling the root of the problem directly would serve to fix the problem for the long term. Option b is the next choice as it would help contain the menace of eve teasing as well as the problem of rape but it is not a long term solution as it may not be possible to deploy extra platoons of policemen at the place permanently. Options a and d indicate an irresponsive attitude on your part.

QUESTION: 24

You are a police constable on duty and notice two people on a bike riding without helmets. You ask them to pull over and are about to fine them when the driver tells you that they could not put on their helmets as the pillion rider is extremely sick and needs to be taken to the hospital urgently. You will

 

Solution:

The rider has broken the law and needs to be fined. Even if you are in an emergency it does not take much time to grab a helmet for your own safety. Option d is the best choice as quickly arranging for an ambulance and fining them will not only take care of the sick person but also penalize the rider for breaking the law. Option c is the next best choice as it only falls short of providing a help to the sick person. Options a and b are incorrect as in both cases you are allowing them to ride without the helmet once again.

QUESTION: 25

Your father has had a heart attack and needs to be taken to the hospital right away. You are the only one in your house as other family members are on a tour. While you are taking your father to the hospital you see that a small girl has fallen into a deep drain. You will

Solution:

Option b is the best choice as you cannot stop while taking your father to the hospital, so the best you can do is call an ambulance for the girl. Option d is the next best choice as it is not able to provide immediate help to the girl. Option c may endanger your father's life and option a is incorrect as you cannot ignore the girl.

QUESTION: 26

Directions forthe following 9 (nine) items:

The following nine items are based on three passages in English to test the comprehension of English language and therefore these items do not have Hindi version. Read each passage and answer the items that follow.

                         Passage - 1

The poor baron bore it all, as long as he could, and when he could bear it no longer, lost his appetite and his spirits, and sat himself gloomily and dejectedly down. But there were worse troubles yet in store for him, and as they came on, his melancholy and sadness increased. Times changed. He got into debt. The Germain coffers went empty, though the Heusen family had looked upon them as inexhaustible; and just when the baroness was on the point of making a thirteenth addition to the family pedigree, Von discovered that he had no means of replenishing them

 

Q.The baron-

Solution:

The passage clearly mentions that the baron was in economic trouble. All other options are incorrect.

QUESTION: 27

 Passage - 1

The poor baron bore it all, as long as he could, and when he could bear it no longer, lost his appetite and his spirits, and sat himself gloomily and dejectedly down. But there were worse troubles yet in store for him, and as they came on, his melancholy and sadness increased. Times changed. He got into debt. The Germain coffers went empty, though the Heusen family had looked upon them as inexhaustible; and just when the baroness was on the point of making a thirteenth addition to the family pedigree, Von discovered that he had no means of replenishing them

 

Q.The Germain coffers-

Solution:

Refer to the fifth line of the passage. It clearly says that they became empty when the baroness was pregnant for the thirteenth time.

QUESTION: 28

 Passage - 1

The poor baron bore it all, as long as he could, and when he could bear it no longer, lost his appetite and his spirits, and sat himself gloomily and dejectedly down. But there were worse troubles yet in store for him, and as they came on, his melancholy and sadness increased. Times changed. He got into debt. The Germain coffers went empty, though the Heusen family had looked upon them as inexhaustible; and just when the baroness was on the point of making a thirteenth addition to the family pedigree, Von discovered that he had no means of replenishing them

 

Q.Von-

Solution:

The last sentence of the passage makes it clear that Von was unable to replenish the coffers.

QUESTION: 29

                           Passage - 2

Peter Morton woke with a start to face the first fight. Rain tapped against the glass. It was January the fifth.He looked across a table on which a night light had guttered into a pool of water, at the other bed. Francis was still asleep and Peter lay down again with his eyes on his brother. It amused him to imagine it was himself whom he watched, the same hair, the same eyes, the same lips and line of cheek. But the thought palled, and the mind went back to the fact which lent the day importance. It was the fifth ofjanuary. He could hardly believe a year had passed since Mrs. Henne Falcon had given her last children's party.

 

Q.Francis-

Solution:

The passage is all about Peter waking up while Francis was asleep. Rest all options are not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 30

                              Passage - 2

Peter Morton woke with a start to face the first fight. Rain tapped against the glass. It was January the fifth. He looked across a table on which a night light had guttered into a pool of water, at the other bed. Francis was still asleep and Peter lay down again with his eyes on his brother. It amused him to imagine it was himself whom he watched, the same hair, the same eyes, the same lips and line of cheek. But the thought palled, and the mind went back to the fact which lent the day importance. It was the fifth ofjanuary. He could hardly believe a year had passed since Mrs. Henne Falcon had given her last children's party.

 

Q.Peter-

Solution:

Refer to the second line of the second paragraph.

QUESTION: 31

Passage - 2

Peter Morton woke with a start to face the first fight. Rain tapped against the glass. It was January the fifth. He looked across a table on which a night light had guttered into a pool of water, at the other bed. Francis was still asleep and Peter lay down again with his eyes on his brother. It amused him to imagine it was himself whom he watched, the same hair, the same eyes, the same lips and line of cheek. But the thought palled, and the mind went back to the fact which lent the day importance. It was the fifth ofjanuary. He could hardly believe a year had passed since Mrs. Henne Falcon had given her last children's party.

 

Q.January the fifth-

Solution:

Refer to the fourth and fifth line of the second paragraph.

QUESTION: 32

                          Passage - 3

A certain man planted a rose and watched it faithfully and before it blossomed, he examined it.

He saw the bud that would soon blossom, but noticed thorns upon the stem and he thought. How can any beautiful flower come from a plant burdened with so many sharp thorns? Saddened by this thought, he neglected to water the rose, and just before it was ready to bloom....it died.

So it is with many people. Within every soul there is a rose. The God like qualities planted in us at birth, grow amid the thorns of our faults. Many of us look at ourselves and see only the thorns, the defects.

We despair, thinking that nothing good can possibly come from us. We neglect to water the good within us, and eventually it does. We never realise our potential.

Some people do not see the rose within themselves; someone else must show it to them. One of the greatest gifts a person can possess is to be able to reach past the thorns of another, and find the rose within them.

 

Q.Every soul-

 

Solution:

Refer to the first line of the third paragraph.

QUESTION: 33

Passage - 3

A certain man planted a rose and watched it faithfully and before it blossomed, he examined it.

He saw the bud that would soon blossom, but noticed thorns upon the stem and he thought. How can any beautiful flower come from a plant burdened with so many sharp thorns? Saddened by this thought, he neglected to water the rose, and just before it was ready to bloom....it died.

So it is with many people. Within every soul there is a rose. The God like qualities planted in us at birth, grow amid the thorns of our faults. Many of us look at ourselves and see only the thorns, the defects.

We despair, thinking that nothing good can possibly come from us. We neglect to water the good within us, and eventually it does. We never realise our potential.

Some people do not see the rose within themselves; someone else must show it to them. One of the greatest gifts a person can possess is to be able to reach past the thorns of another, and find the rose within them.

 

Q.People-

Solution:

Refer to the first line of the fourth paragraph.

QUESTION: 34

                               Passage - 3

A certain man planted a rose and watched it faithfully and before it blossomed, he examined it.

He saw the bud that would soon blossom, but noticed thorns upon the stem and he thought. How can any beautiful flower come from a plant burdened with so many sharp thorns? Saddened by this thought, he neglected to water the rose, and just before it was ready to bloom....it died.

So it is with many people. Within every soul there is a rose. The God like qualities planted in us at birth, grow amid the thorns of our faults. Many of us look at ourselves and see only the thorns, the defects.

We despair, thinking that nothing good can possibly come from us. We neglect to water the good within us, and eventually it does. We never realise our potential.

Some people do not see the rose within themselves; someone else must show it to them. One of the greatest gifts a person can possess is to be able to reach past the thorns of another, and find the rose within them.

 

Q.Which ofthe following statements is/are correct?

1. Realising one's potential can lead one to success in life.

2. Sometimes people fail to clearly understand their own capacity.

Solution:

Statement 1 is not valid as the author does not relate realising one's potential to one's success in life. Statement 2 is valid as from the sentence- We never realize our potential. It can be gathered that sometimes people fail to clearly understand their own capacity. Thus option b is correct.

QUESTION: 35

Directions forthe following 6 (six) items:

Each of the items below consists of a question and two statements. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Give answer as:

Statements:

1. R's sisterj has married Ts brother L, who is the only son of his parents.

2. K is the only daughter of L and J.

 

Q.How is T related to K?

Solution:

From I, we know that L is T's brother and J's husband. Since L is the only son of his parents, T is L's sister.

From II, we know that K is L's daughter.

Thus, from I and II, we conclude that T is the sister of K's father i.e. T is K's aunt.

QUESTION: 36

Statements:

1.R is third to the left of Q and P is second to the right of R.

2.Q is to the immediate left of T who is second to the right of P.

 

Q.Who is to the immediate right of P among five persons P, Q, R, S and T facing North?

Solution:

From I, we have the order: R, -, P, Q.

From II, we have the order: P, Q, T.

Clearly, each one of the above two orders indicates that Q is to the immediate right of P.

QUESTION: 37

Statements:

1.Anjali was born on an even date of the month.

2.Anjali's birth date was a prime number.

 

Q.On which date of the month was Anjali born in February 2004 ?

Solution:

From I and II, we conclude that Anjali was born in February 2004 on a date which is an even prime number. Since the only even prime number is 2, so Anjali was born on 2nd February, 2004.

QUESTION: 38

Statements:

1. M is brother of P and T is sister of P.

2. P's mother is married toj's husband who has one son and two daughters.

 

Q.How isj related toP?

Solution:

From II, we know that P's mother is married to J's husband, which means that J is P's mother.

QUESTION: 39

Statements:

1. The first Sunday of that month fell on 5th.

2. The last day of that month was Friday.

 

Q.The last Sunday of March, 2006 fell on which date ?

Solution:

From I, we conclude that 5th, 12th, 19th and 26th of March, 2006 were Sundays.

So, the last Sunday fell on 26th.

From II, we conclude that 31st March, 2006 was Friday. Thus, 26th March, 2006 was the last Sunday of the month.

QUESTION: 40

Statements:

1. Y and Z are children of D who is wife of X.

2. R's sister X is married to Ys father.

 

Q.: How is X related toY?

Solution:

From I, we conclude that Y is the child of D who is wife of X i.e. X is Y's father. From II, X is married to Y's father. This implies that X is Y's mother.

QUESTION: 41

Statements:

1. Shyam is younger than Ram who is elder than at least two people.

2. There are five members in the family and Shyam is younger than exactly three people.

 

Q.Is Ram the eldest person of his family?

Solution:

Statement 1 says that Ram is younger than at least 3 members but we do not know how many members are there in the family. Hence 1 alone is not sufficient. Statement 2 does not talk about Ram at all. Thus Statement 2 is also not sufficient.

Combining the 2 statements, we get that Ram can be the eldest or the second eldest person in his family.

QUESTION: 42

You are a senior official at the government tax department. It has come to your notice that a big business house has not been filing its annual reports to the ministry in order to save taxes. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as it shows that you are proactive and take extra efforts to be effective in your job. It will also increase the profitability that you may find some concrete proofs to substantiate on the case. Option b is the next best choice but it may take a long time to execute and by that time the company may tamper with the evidence against it. Option a is not correct as it is not correct to take any action without any proof. Option d is unethical.

QUESTION: 43

You are the head of the water works department of a major city. Every year the city suffers from flooding during the rainy season. If the drains are cleared and improved, flooding will stop. However, this project will cause a lot of traffic problems and will be a major inconvenience to the public. What will you do?

Solution:

Option d is the best option as it takes care of both problems at hand viz traffic problems can be minimized and the work will be completed faster. Option b is less preferred as even if you are going ahead with the project you are ignoring the traffic problems that will be faced by the general public. Option c is incorrect. Option a is incorrect as it projects you as a quitter.

QUESTION: 44

You are the head of the police department of a communally sensitive area. A fundamentalist leader is planning to hold a rally there. You believe that the rally can lead to violence in the region. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as it will help in curbing any untoward incident. Option d is the next best choice as it can also be considered but it is not a sure shot solution as the leader may not heed to your request. Option b is incorrect as in a free country it is not feasible to issue orders forbidding assembly and gathering of people. Option a is incorrect as arresting the leader on the mere speculation that his speech and rally can lead to violence is an encroachment of his fundamental rights.

QUESTION: 45

You are the parliamentary affairs minister of your country. The members of the opposition party create a hue and cry about each and every issue, reasonable or otherwise. They demand a probe into every other issue and halt the functioning of the parliament. As a result, the functioning of the parliament has been paralysed. What would you do to restore the proper functioning of the Parliament

Solution:

Option b is the best choice as this is what you can do in your capacity as a parliamentary affairs minister. Option c is the next best choice as you may be able to resolve the issue with the help of the opposition leader considering that he/she has influence over his/her party. Option a is incorrect because as a parliamentary affairs minister you do not have the authority to expel the members of the parliament. Option d would mean that you make compromises even if the opposite party is wrong and this shows your submissive attitude.

QUESTION: 46

The large influx of illegal migrants into a border state has changed the demography of this state and led to tension among people. As the CM of the state, you will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as it directly addresses the problem at hand. Option d is not suitable but the next best choice. Option a is incorrect as it will be selfish on your part and only increase tension among people. Option b is incorrect as it fosters enmity between the two countries without solving the problem

QUESTION: 47

You are a teacher in an intermediate school. You have caught a student cheating during his final examination. He is one of your favourites in class. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice because as a teacher it is your duty to let the principal know about the misconduct of the student. Option b is the next best choice as you are doing the right thing by not allowing the student to cheat any further. Options a and d are completely unethical on your part.

QUESTION: 48

You are the head of the fire department of a small town. Due to unauthorized constructions and encroachments, the roads of the town have become very congested. In the event of a fire, the department's vehicles are likely to be delayed due to this congestion, thus endangering lives and property. You will

Solution:

Option a is the best choice as in your current capacity you can bring the matter to the attention of the government. Option d is the next best option as this matter falls under the domain of the municipality and if the municipal department is willing it can take steps to check the illegal construction. Option c is incorrect as you do not have the authority to demolish the illegal buildings because you are the head of the fire department. Option b is incorrect as it projects you as a quitter.

QUESTION: 49

Arvind is standing in the line to pay the electricity bill. Although he is getting late for work, today is the last day to pay the bill. So, Arvind has to stand in the long snaking queue, waiting for his turn. Suddenly he notices that a young female college student walks past him to the front of the line where another lady is standing and quietly slips into the line behind that lady. How should Arvind react?​

Solution:

Option d is the best option as it approaches the girl directly and politely. Option c is the 2nd best option as it speaks against the wrong thing but in an unpleasant way. Cutting into a line is incorrect and this should be pointed out to the girl. Hence option a is incorrect. Option b is not correct as it does not target the intended person.

QUESTION: 50

A new literary festival is organized by a club, which is headed by you. Two reputed authors who do not get along well with each other are among the celebrities who will be attending the festival. You will

Solution:

Option c is the best choice as you can decide on which day you want each author to visit and it also eliminates any possibility of confrontation. Option d is the 2nd best choice as in reality you should not be concerned with the personal difference between the 2 authors. Option a is unethical and option b is undemocratic on your part.

QUESTION: 51

Directions forthe following 8 (eight) items:

Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on these passages only.

                     Passage 1

We live in a legal environment where the rule of sub-judice is regarded as an anachronism, emanating from a time when all trials were decided by jurors susceptible to influence by what was published in the press. By and large, the law of sub judice, which regulates the dissemination of matter under the consideration of the court, is a dead letter. In such a context, the Supreme Court's judgment last year, justifying a ban on the publication of court proceedings in certain cases is likely to have a chilling effect on the freedom of the press and the very idea of an open trial. Mercifully, the Court refused to lay down broad guidelines for reporting ongoing cases. But though its order books like a restatement of the Mirajkar case in which a nine member bench ruled that the right to open justice is not absolute, the Court has likely upset the "difficult Constitutional balance" between freedom of expression and the administration ofjustice that the landmark 1966 judgment established. Indeed, by emphasizing the right of an aggrieved person to seek postponement of media coverage of an ongoing case by approaching the appropriate writ court, there is a danger that gag orders may become commonplace. At a minimum, the door has been opened to hundreds and thousands of additional writs- a burden our legal system is unprepared to handle- filed by accused persons with means

The fivejudge bench cited precedents in many jurisdictions to maintain "There is power in the courts to postpone the reporting ofjudicial proceedings in the administration ofjustice." Even in the USA, where the First Amendment trumps any restriction placed on rights to free speech, the courts have evolved ‘neutralizing devices' to prevent the corruption of the administration ofjustice. But set aside the judicial reasoning and consider its possible impact. Powerful defendants in high profile cases will try their best to get postponement orders despite the very strict criteria laid down by the Supreme Court. Moreover, gag orders issued in contravention of the doctrines of necessity and proportionality may take a long time to vacate, thus robbing the public of its right to know. The public scrutiny of courts is critical in ensuring that the judges do justice; a lack of awareness of what goes on in a courtroom can only undermine the public confidence in the judicial system. The same Mirajkarjudgment also said restraint on publication and closed door units could apply only in exceptional cases.

 

Q.Consider the following statements:

1. Gag orders on the press were justifies in the past due to the possibility ofjurors being influenced by the news

2. The monetary ban on publication of court proceedings has upheld the freedom of expression With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Refer to the first sentence of the passage. Assumption 1 can be inferred from this sentence. Assumption 2 is incorrect as the paragraph indicates that the momentary ban curbed the freedom of expression and was not in favour of it. Option a is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 52

 Passage 1

We live in a legal environment where the rule of sub-judice is regarded as an anachronism, emanating from a time when all trials were decided by jurors susceptible to influence by what was published in the press. By and large, the law of sub judice, which regulates the dissemination of matter under the consideration of the court, is a dead letter. In such a context, the Supreme Court's judgment last year, justifying a ban on the publication of court proceedings in certain cases is likely to have a chilling effect on the freedom of the press and the very idea of an open trial. Mercifully, the Court refused to lay down broad guidelines for reporting ongoing cases. But though its order books like a restatement of the Mirajkar case in which a nine member bench ruled that the right to open justice is not absolute, the Court has likely upset the "difficult Constitutional balance" between freedom of expression and the administration ofjustice that the landmark 1966 judgment established. Indeed, by emphasizing the right of an aggrieved person to seek postponement of media coverage of an ongoing case by approaching the appropriate writ court, there is a danger that gag orders may become commonplace. At a minimum, the door has been opened to hundreds and thousands of additional writs- a burden our legal system is unprepared to handle- filed by accused persons with means

The fivejudge bench cited precedents in many jurisdictions to maintain "There is power in the courts to postpone the reporting ofjudicial proceedings in the administration ofjustice." Even in the USA, where the First Amendment trumps any restriction placed on rights to free speech, the courts have evolved ‘neutralizing devices' to prevent the corruption of the administration ofjustice. But set aside the judicial reasoning and consider its possible impact. Powerful defendants in high profile cases will try their best to get postponement orders despite the very strict criteria laid down by the Supreme Court. Moreover, gag orders issued in contravention of the doctrines of necessity and proportionality may take a long time to vacate, thus robbing the public of its right to know. The public scrutiny of courts is critical in ensuring that the judges do justice; a lack of awareness of what goes on in a courtroom can only undermine the public confidence in the judicial system. The same Mirajkarjudgment also said restraint on publication and closed door units could apply only in exceptional cases.

 

Q.It can be inferred that the Mirajkar case is significant because-

Solution:

Refer to the fifth line f the passage. It states the temporary ban that the court has placed on the publication of court proceedings in certain cases. The eighth line goes on to imply that this ban is a restatement of the Mirajkar case. This indicates that the Mirajkar case also allowed the court to ensure that its proceedings did not go public. The penultimate sentence of the passage indicates that the trial behind closed doors holds in the case of exceptional cases only. Option b is the answer. Option a can be ruled out as it goes against the information in the passage. Option c is incorrect s the restriction on the freedom of the press is linked to the present ban and not with the case itself. Also the right to report has not been discussed in the passage. Option d is incorrect as it is only those who have means who can ensure that the court proceedings do not go public. But this is not the case for every person undergoing trials.

QUESTION: 53

 Passage 1

We live in a legal environment where the rule of sub-judice is regarded as an anachronism, emanating from a time when all trials were decided by jurors susceptible to influence by what was published in the press. By and large, the law of sub judice, which regulates the dissemination of matter under the consideration of the court, is a dead letter. In such a context, the Supreme Court's judgment last year, justifying a ban on the publication of court proceedings in certain cases is likely to have a chilling effect on the freedom of the press and the very idea of an open trial. Mercifully, the Court refused to lay down broad guidelines for reporting ongoing cases. But though its order books like a restatement of the Mirajkar case in which a nine member bench ruled that the right to open justice is not absolute, the Court has likely upset the "difficult Constitutional balance" between freedom of expression and the administration ofjustice that the landmark 1966 judgment established. Indeed, by emphasizing the right of an aggrieved person to seek postponement of media coverage of an ongoing case by approaching the appropriate writ court, there is a danger that gag orders may become commonplace. At a minimum, the door has been opened to hundreds and thousands of additional writs- a burden our legal system is unprepared to handle- filed by accused persons with means

The fivejudge bench cited precedents in many jurisdictions to maintain "There is power in the courts to postpone the reporting ofjudicial proceedings in the administration ofjustice." Even in the USA, where the First Amendment trumps any restriction placed on rights to free speech, the courts have evolved ‘neutralizing devices' to prevent the corruption of the administration ofjustice. But set aside the judicial reasoning and consider its possible impact. Powerful defendants in high profile cases will try their best to get postponement orders despite the very strict criteria laid down by the Supreme Court. Moreover, gag orders issued in contravention of the doctrines of necessity and proportionality may take a long time to vacate, thus robbing the public of its right to know. The public scrutiny of courts is critical in ensuring that the judges do justice; a lack of awareness of what goes on in a courtroom can only undermine the public confidence in the judicial system. The same Mirajkarjudgment also said restraint on publication and closed door units could apply only in exceptional cases.

 

Q.Which of the following options would the author most agree with?

Solution:

Refer to the last few lines of the passage. "The public scrutiny of courts is critical in ensuring that judges do justice"- these lines indicate that public scrutiny leads to greater accountability of the judges. Option c is the answer. Option a can be ruled out as the failure of the system of checks and balances has not been discussed in the passage and there is not enough information in the passage to make this inference. Option b is incorrect s the link between the judiciary and the common man has not been emphasised by the author and hence it would not be as important as the deterioration of the judicial system. Option d is incorrect as allowing legal proceedings to be made public does not indicate that only powerful persons will be brought to justice.

QUESTION: 54

 Passage 1

We live in a legal environment where the rule of sub-judice is regarded as an anachronism, emanating from a time when all trials were decided by jurors susceptible to influence by what was published in the press. By and large, the law of sub judice, which regulates the dissemination of matter under the consideration of the court, is a dead letter. In such a context, the Supreme Court's judgment last year, justifying a ban on the publication of court proceedings in certain cases is likely to have a chilling effect on the freedom of the press and the very idea of an open trial. Mercifully, the Court refused to lay down broad guidelines for reporting ongoing cases. But though its order books like a restatement of the Mirajkar case in which a nine member bench ruled that the right to open justice is not absolute, the Court has likely upset the "difficult Constitutional balance" between freedom of expression and the administration ofjustice that the landmark 1966 judgment established. Indeed, by emphasizing the right of an aggrieved person to seek postponement of media coverage of an ongoing case by approaching the appropriate writ court, there is a danger that gag orders may become commonplace. At a minimum, the door has been opened to hundreds and thousands of additional writs- a burden our legal system is unprepared to handle- filed by accused persons with means

The fivejudge bench cited precedents in many jurisdictions to maintain "There is power in the courts to postpone the reporting ofjudicial proceedings in the administration ofjustice." Even in the USA, where the First Amendment trumps any restriction placed on rights to free speech, the courts have evolved ‘neutralizing devices' to prevent the corruption of the administration ofjustice. But set aside the judicial reasoning and consider its possible impact. Powerful defendants in high profile cases will try their best to get postponement orders despite the very strict criteria laid down by the Supreme Court. Moreover, gag orders issued in contravention of the doctrines of necessity and proportionality may take a long time to vacate, thus robbing the public of its right to know. The public scrutiny of courts is critical in ensuring that the judges do justice; a lack of awareness of what goes on in a courtroom can only undermine the public confidence in the judicial system. The same Mirajkarjudgment also said restraint on publication and closed door units could apply only in exceptional cases.

 

Q.The author asks us to ‘set aside the judicial reasoning and consider its possible impact' to

1. direct attention to the possible real life impacts of the Supreme Court judgment

2. point out that judicial reasoning is fallible in certain situations Select the correct answer from the codes given below.

Solution:

Only statement 1 follows from the passage. The author discusses the legal reasoning behind the judgment and then moves on to discuss the impact this judgment will have in various life situations. The author does not want to point out that judicial reasoning is fallible. So statement 2 is incorrect.

QUESTION: 55

                            Passage 2

The USA officially ended its 3 year old surge in Afghanistan. The surge was the tactical employment of 30000 additional troops with the purpose of giving the government of Hamid Karzai enough security to build an Afghan National Army and bring the Taliban to the negotiating table.

The end of the surge marks the end of the USA willingness to militarily support a liberal and progressive Kabul regime. Nation building, as it were, is no longer part of the international agenda regarding Afghanistan.

It is important not to assume that Afghanistan will inevitably become a Taliban playground as the USA withdrawal continues. The USA is likely to keep several thousand Special Forces soldiers and a fleet of drones in Afghanistan for years to come. The Karzai government will receive several billion dollars a year in foreign assistance.

The sense is a stalemate. Neither Mr Karzai nor the Taliban can win. But there is also no evidence that Kabul is in a position to constructively bring the insurgents to the negotiating table- one of the unfulfilled goals of the surge. This means that the USA withdrawal is likely to be accompanied by more violence.

As the USA disengages, the main external player will increasingly become Pakistan, but Afghanistan today will be a lot harder to control for Rawalpindi than it was in the 1980s- this is the centre of the Afghan dilemma when it comes to India. Pakistan wants security guarantees regarding Afghanistan that would convert Kabul into a vassal State. India's desire is for a Kabul that is not dominated by Islamists.

Bridging the gap between Pakistani paranoia and Indian interests will be crucial to place Afghanistan on an even keel. This will be determined on the battlefield partially vacated by the USA. India is unwilling to be involved through boots on the ground. But there are several ways it should seek to ensure that a USA withdrawal does not mean an Afghan terrain that tilts in the direction of the Taliban closest to Pakistan.

 

Q.Consider the following statements:

1. The strengthening of the Afghan nation was an objective of the USA.

2. Afghanistan is doomed to fight a lone battle with the Taliban.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?​

Solution:

Refer to the last lines of the first and second paragraphs. From the first paragraph, it can be assumed that the USA aimed to increase the strength of Afghan nation. Refer to the line “with the purpose of ....to the negotiating table.” From the second paragraph it can be inferred that the USA will no longer provide military support to build a progressive regime in Afghanistan. Statement 1 is correct. Statement 2 is incorrect as the third paragraph states that the USA will continue to provide military support to Afghanistan.

QUESTION: 56

  Passage 2

The USA officially ended its 3 year old surge in Afghanistan. The surge was the tactical employment of 30000 additional troops with the purpose of giving the government of Hamid Karzai enough security to build an Afghan National Army and bring the Taliban to the negotiating table.

The end of the surge marks the end of the USA willingness to militarily support a liberal and progressive Kabul regime. Nation building, as it were, is no longer part of the international agenda regarding Afghanistan.

It is important not to assume that Afghanistan will inevitably become a Taliban playground as the USA withdrawal continues. The USA is likely to keep several thousand Special Forces soldiers and a fleet of drones in Afghanistan for years to come. The Karzai government will receive several billion dollars a year in foreign assistance.

The sense is a stalemate. Neither Mr Karzai nor the Taliban can win. But there is also no evidence that Kabul is in a position to constructively bring the insurgents to the negotiating table- one of the unfulfilled goals of the surge. This means that the USA withdrawal is likely to be accompanied by more violence.

As the USA disengages, the main external player will increasingly become Pakistan, but Afghanistan today will be a lot harder to control for Rawalpindi than it was in the 1980s- this is the centre of the Afghan dilemma when it comes to India. Pakistan wants security guarantees regarding Afghanistan that would convert Kabul into a vassal State. India's desire is for a Kabul that is not dominated by Islamists.

Bridging the gap between Pakistani paranoia and Indian interests will be crucial to place Afghanistan on an even keel. This will be determined on the battlefield partially vacated by the USA. India is unwilling to be involved through boots on the ground. But there are several ways it should seek to ensure that a USA withdrawal does not mean an Afghan terrain that tilts in the direction of the Taliban closest to Pakistan.

 

Q.It can be inferred that the likely outcome of the USA withdrawal will be

Solution:

Option a can be ruled out as the author suggests in the sentence "it is important not to....USA withdrawal continues" that one must not assume that Afghanistan will become a Taliban playground. This indicates that there are grounds to believe that the Karzai government will be able to control the country even after the USA withdrawal. Option c can be ruled out as the author states in the last line of the third paragraph that Afghanistan will continue to receive aid. Option d can be ruled out as though the author mentions initial violence in the fourth paragraph, there are no grounds to assume that this will soon transit into a peace building process. Option b is the answer and can be inferred from the sentence "bring the Taliban to negotiating table" and "The sense is a....Taliban can win."

QUESTION: 57

Passage 2

The USA officially ended its 3 year old surge in Afghanistan. The surge was the tactical employment of 30000 additional troops with the purpose of giving the government of Hamid Karzai enough security to build an Afghan National Army and bring the Taliban to the negotiating table.

The end of the surge marks the end of the USA willingness to militarily support a liberal and progressive Kabul regime. Nation building, as it were, is no longer part of the international agenda regarding Afghanistan.

It is important not to assume that Afghanistan will inevitably become a Taliban playground as the USA withdrawal continues. The USA is likely to keep several thousand Special Forces soldiers and a fleet of drones in Afghanistan for years to come. The Karzai government will receive several billion dollars a year in foreign assistance.

The sense is a stalemate. Neither Mr Karzai nor the Taliban can win. But there is also no evidence that Kabul is in a position to constructively bring the insurgents to the negotiating table- one of the unfulfilled goals of the surge. This means that the USA withdrawal is likely to be accompanied by more violence.

As the USA disengages, the main external player will increasingly become Pakistan, but Afghanistan today will be a lot harder to control for Rawalpindi than it was in the 1980s- this is the centre of the Afghan dilemma when it comes to India. Pakistan wants security guarantees regarding Afghanistan that would convert Kabul into a vassal State. India's desire is for a Kabul that is not dominated by Islamists.

Bridging the gap between Pakistani paranoia and Indian interests will be crucial to place Afghanistan on an even keel. This will be determined on the battlefield partially vacated by the USA. India is unwilling to be involved through boots on the ground. But there are several ways it should seek to ensure that a USA withdrawal does not mean an Afghan terrain that tilts in the direction of the Taliban closest to Pakistan.

 

Q.What is the difference between the interests of India and Pakistan with reference to Afghanistan?

Solution:

Options a and b can not be inferred from the passage. Option c is incorrect as there is no indication that

Pakistan is looking for a change in regime. However, it is clearly mentioned that "India's desire................. Islamist."

This indicates that India is not in favour of an Islamist dominated Kabul. Thus option d is correct.

QUESTION: 58

Passage 2

The USA officially ended its 3 year old surge in Afghanistan. The surge was the tactical employment of 30000 additional troops with the purpose of giving the government of Hamid Karzai enough security to build an Afghan National Army and bring the Taliban to the negotiating table.

The end of the surge marks the end of the USA willingness to militarily support a liberal and progressive Kabul regime. Nation building, as it were, is no longer part of the international agenda regarding Afghanistan.

It is important not to assume that Afghanistan will inevitably become a Taliban playground as the USA withdrawal continues. The USA is likely to keep several thousand Special Forces soldiers and a fleet of drones in Afghanistan for years to come. The Karzai government will receive several billion dollars a year in foreign assistance.

The sense is a stalemate. Neither Mr Karzai nor the Taliban can win. But there is also no evidence that Kabul is in a position to constructively bring the insurgents to the negotiating table- one of the unfulfilled goals of the surge. This means that the USA withdrawal is likely to be accompanied by more violence.

As the USA disengages, the main external player will increasingly become Pakistan, but Afghanistan today will be a lot harder to control for Rawalpindi than it was in the 1980s- this is the centre of the Afghan dilemma when it comes to India. Pakistan wants security guarantees regarding Afghanistan that would convert Kabul into a vassal State. India's desire is for a Kabul that is not dominated by Islamists.

Bridging the gap between Pakistani paranoia and Indian interests will be crucial to place Afghanistan on an even keel. This will be determined on the battlefield partially vacated by the USA. India is unwilling to be involved through boots on the ground. But there are several ways it should seek to ensure that a USA withdrawal does not mean an Afghan terrain that tilts in the direction of the Taliban closest to Pakistan.

 

Q.The phrase ‘boots on the ground' means

Solution:
QUESTION: 59

Directions forthe following 8 (eight) items:

Each of the items below consists of a question and two statements. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Give answer as:

Statement:

1. Z did not finish last in the race.

2. Y finished second in the race.

 

Q.3 boys X, Y and Z ran a 100 metre race. It is known that X did not come second. Y did not come third and Z did not come first in the race. Who came first?

Solution:

Statement I: Z has to be second. X has to be third and Y has to be first

Statement II: Y finished second. Z has to be third and X has to be first.

QUESTION: 60

Statements:

1. Y says, "I have only one brother".

2. X says, "I have only one sister".

 

Q.How is X related to Y?

Solution:

The statements in I and II do not provide any clue regarding relation between X and Y.

QUESTION: 61

Statements:

1. z-x = 4

2. y is the average of x and z.

All the three numbers are odd, such that z-x =4. So, they have to be consecutive odd numbers. Hence, statement I alone is sufficient to answer the question.

Statement II: y is the average of x and z, which means they can be consecutive odd numbers or numbers like 3, 7 and 11.

Hence, Statement II alone is not sufficient to answer the question.

 

Q.If x, y and z are odd numbers such that x<y <z. Are they consecutive odd numbers?

Solution:

All the three numbers are odd, such that z-x =4. So, they have to be consecutive odd numbers. Hence, statement I alone is sufficient to answer the question.

Statement II: y is the average of x and z, which means they can be consecutive odd numbers or numbers like 3, 7 and 11.

Hence, Statement II alone is not sufficient to answer the question.

QUESTION: 62

Statement:

1. xisa multiple of 4.

2. xisa multiple of 5.

 

Q.What is the remainder when x is divided by 20?

Solution:

Statement hAsxisa multiple of 4, so when x is divided by 20 the possible remainders can be 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16. Statement II: Asxisa multiple of 5, so when x is divided by 20 the possible remainders can be 0, 5, 10 or 15. Thus, by combining the two statements, we get the required remainder as 0.

QUESTION: 63

Statements:

1. P has two sisters M and N.

2. F's mother is sister of M's father.

 

Q.How is F related to P?

Solution:

From I and II, we conclude that P is M's brother and so M's father is P's father. So, F is the child of the sister of P's father i.e. F's mother is P's aunt or F is P's cousin.

QUESTION: 64

Statements:

1. Only 50% of students passed the examination.

2. If 10 more students passed, the pass percentage would have been 51%.

 

Q.How many students appeared for the examination?

Solution:

Let the total number of students who appeared in the examination be x.

Statement I will give the information about passed students. Statement II is also not complete in itself. Combining the statements I and II, we get 50x/100 + 10 = 51x/100 Thus, x can be calculated as 1000.

QUESTION: 65

Statements:

1. Notwogirlssittogether.

2. All the three boys sit together.

 

Q.In how many ways can three boys and three girls be seated on 6 identical chairs in a row?

Solution:

Both the statements I and II are sufficient to give a unique value of the number of the ways for the required arrangement. Hence, we can find the answer of the question by using either statement alone.

QUESTION: 66

Statements:

1. A is the sister of C.

2. E is the husband of A.

 

Q.B is the brother ofA. How is A related toB?

Solution:

B is A's brother means A is either brother or sister of B. Now, each one of I and II individually indicates that A is a female, which means that A is B's sister.

QUESTION: 67

Directions forthe following 4 (four) items:

Read the following passage and answer the items that follow this passage. Your answers to these items should be based on this passage only.

                               Passage 1

Volatility in capital flows resulting from the spillover effects of monetary policy choices and other uncertainties in the advanced financial markets further impacted exchange rates and made the task of macro- economic management difficult in many emerging economies. This has brought out a new dimension of globalisation in the post financial crisis world, where easy monetary policy in one set of countries may result in inflation elsewhere due to cross border capital flows.

The changes in composition of the global economy suggest a percentile shift in the global balance of output of goods, especially manufacturing. While services, in particular financial services, continue to be largely concentrated in advanced economies, a large share in world population, coupled with higher growth, implies, that the Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) and developing countries will increasingly account for incremental 

growth in the global market forgoods and services. Even if the emerging economies, including India, witnessed a slow growth in 2011, growth prospects of most ofthese economies remain robust in the medium to long run due to various factors such as demographics and size of the domestic market, apart from high rates of investment and savings.

 

Q.Consider the following statements-

1. The new dimension of globalisation is an outcome of difficult macro-economic management scenario.

2. Monetary policy in a set of countries can potentially affect other countries.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Statement 1 is valid as the first paragraph of the passage tells us that a new dimension of globalisation has been brought out by the difficulty in macro economic management. The second statement is valid as the sentence "easy monetary policy                     cross border capital flows" clearly tells that monetary policy in a set of countries can potentially affect other countries.

QUESTION: 68

   Passage 1

Volatility in capital flows resulting from the spillover effects of monetary policy choices and other uncertainties in the advanced financial markets further impacted exchange rates and made the task of macro- economic management difficult in many emerging economies. This has brought out a new dimension of globalisation in the post financial crisis world, where easy monetary policy in one set of countries may result in inflation elsewhere due to cross border capital flows.

The changes in composition of the global economy suggest a percentile shift in the global balance of output of goods, especially manufacturing. While services, in particular financial services, continue to be largely concentrated in advanced economies, a large share in world population, coupled with higher growth, implies, that the Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) and developing countries will increasingly account for incremental 

growth in the global market forgoods and services. Even if the emerging economies, including India, witnessed a slow growth in 2011, growth prospects of most ofthese economies remain robust in the medium to long run due to various factors such as demographics and size of the domestic market, apart from high rates of investment and savings.

 

Q.Consider the following statements

1. Manufacturing sector has been a noticeable change in the global balance of output of goods.

2. The post financial crisis world has posed more problems than solutions for most nations.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

The sentence "the changes in...... especially manufacturing" lucidly conveys that manufacturing sector has been

a noticeable change in the global balance of output of goods. Statement 2 cannot be inferred based on the information in the passage.

QUESTION: 69

   Passage 1

Volatility in capital flows resulting from the spillover effects of monetary policy choices and other uncertainties in the advanced financial markets further impacted exchange rates and made the task of macro- economic management difficult in many emerging economies. This has brought out a new dimension of globalisation in the post financial crisis world, where easy monetary policy in one set of countries may result in inflation elsewhere due to cross border capital flows.

The changes in composition of the global economy suggest a percentile shift in the global balance of output of goods, especially manufacturing. While services, in particular financial services, continue to be largely concentrated in advanced economies, a large share in world population, coupled with higher growth, implies, that the Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) and developing countries will increasingly account for incremental 

growth in the global market forgoods and services. Even if the emerging economies, including India, witnessed a slow growth in 2011, growth prospects of most ofthese economies remain robust in the medium to long run due to various factors such as demographics and size of the domestic market, apart from high rates of investment and savings.

 

Q.Consider the following statements

1.Advanced economies are a hub of financial services.

2.Demographics and size of the domestic market are crucial for growth in the emerging economies.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Statement 1 can be inferred from the sentence “While services, in particular....in advanced economies.” Statement 2 is invalid as the passage only mentions demographics and size of the domestic market as some of the various factors for growth in emerging economies. Whether demographics and size of the domestic market are crucial for growth in emerging economies cannot be determined on the basis of the information in the passage. Option a is correct.

QUESTION: 70

 Passage 1

Volatility in capital flows resulting from the spillover effects of monetary policy choices and other uncertainties in the advanced financial markets further impacted exchange rates and made the task of macro- economic management difficult in many emerging economies. This has brought out a new dimension of globalisation in the post financial crisis world, where easy monetary policy in one set of countries may result in inflation elsewhere due to cross border capital flows.

The changes in composition of the global economy suggest a percentile shift in the global balance of output of goods, especially manufacturing. While services, in particular financial services, continue to be largely concentrated in advanced economies, a large share in world population, coupled with higher growth, implies, that the Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) and developing countries will increasingly account for incremental 

growth in the global market forgoods and services. Even if the emerging economies, including India, witnessed a slow growth in 2011, growth prospects of most ofthese economies remain robust in the medium to long run due to various factors such as demographics and size of the domestic market, apart from high rates of investment and savings.

 

Q.Consider the following statements

1. Incremental growth is the exclusive domain of developing countries.

2. The monetary policy choices have led to an unpredictable capital flow scenario.

With reference to the above passage, which ofthe following assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Statement 1 is invalid as the passage does not provide any information on the basis of which it can be inferred. Statement 2 is correct as the first sentence of the passage clearly conveys that the monetary policy choices have led to an unpredictable capital flow scenario. Thus option b is correct.

QUESTION: 71

An official in your branch office has put in a request to be transferred to his hometown. There is no one to care for his ailing mother at home and it is essential that he be there. However, there is another official in your department who has been requesting a transfer to his hometown for a year now because he wants to stay closer to his family. The other official has been exemplary in his work and you are afraid of alienating him. You would:

Solution:

The best course of action is option b. The official with an ailing mother has a valid reason for wanting a transfer and a leave would only be a short term solution thus option d is the second best option. Option a is premature as there might not be an easy availability of qualified staff. Option c is not a valid course of action since it does not address the concerns of your employees.

QUESTION: 72

You are an administrative authority in a district. Some of the locals have complained to you that the fair price shop in their locality is distributing commodities on a priority basis to those willing to pay more. You would:

Solution:

The best option is a. Since there have been complaints, you need to ensure that the fair price shop is operating as it should. Option d is the next best course of action as it might help in identifying any past malpractice.

QUESTION: 73

You are an administrative authority. One of the new employees working under you has expressed concern that developmental work in the district is suffering because the senior members in his team are not open to new ideas. You would:

Solution:

The person might have a valid concern and this needs to be looked into objectively. So, the best course of action is c. It would also ensure that other members in the team are made aware of the new member's concerns and can share their feedback with him. This would help improve communication within the team. Option a might be a long term course of action.

QUESTION: 74

You are the administrative authority in a district. There has been a shortage of fertilizers in the district and this has caused widespread resentment amongst the local farmers. They allege that many fertiliser dealers are indulging in black marketing of urea. You would:

Solution:

The best course of action is c. Investigating the shortage will give you greater clarity about the situation and also address the concerns of the farmers. Option b is the next best course of action as it will help placate the farmers till the situation is resolved. Option d can be a follow up course of action to ensure peace in the district. Option a is notjustified.

QUESTION: 75

You are the administrative authority in a district. A part of your district lies near the coast. Heavy showers have been forecasted and the reservoirs on rivers flowing through the region are already overflowing. You would:

1. set up shelter homes that the seaside residents can move into at short notice.

2. ensure that all warnings from monitoring bodies get disseminated as quickly as possible.

Solution:

1 is a valid option as setting up shelter homes will help pre-empt any chaos in case there is a need to evacuate the coastal areas and help prevent loss of life. 2 is an important step to ensure that all concerned, public and administration alike, know about the severity of the situation.

QUESTION: 76

Directions forthe following 5 (five) items:

Each of the items below consists of a question and two statements. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Give answer as:

Statements:

1. The ratio of a:b = 1:5

2. The ratio of b:c = 3:2

 

Q.What is the value of the ratio (a +c ) :c?

 

Solution:

A relation between a and c can be found using both statements. As (a+c)/c = a:c + l

QUESTION: 77

Statements:

1. If 4 more books are placed on the shelf, the total number of books on the shelf will be more than 28.

2. If 5 books are removed, the shelf will contain less than 21 books.

 

Q.: How many books are there on the shell?

 

Solution:

Statement I says that there could be 25 or more books. Statement II says that there could be 25 or less books. The two statements when taken together give us the answer as 25 books.

QUESTION: 78

Statements:

I. Man in the photograph is the only son ofTanya's grandfather.

II. The man in the photograph has no brothers or sisters and his father is Tanya's grandfather.

 

Q.How is Tanya related to the man in the photograph ?

Solution:

From I, we conclude that the man is the only son of Tanya's grandfather i.e. he is Tanya's father or Tanya is the man's daughter.

From II, we conclude that the man's father is Tanya's grandfather. Since the man has no brothers or sisters, so he is Tanya's father orTanya is the man's daughter

QUESTION: 79

Statements:

1. One of the numbers is 1.

2. The sum of 2 of these numbers is 4.

 

Q.What is the average of 3 consecutive odd numbers?

Solution:

Statement I: The only possible case of three consecutive odd numbers is 1,3 and 5. So the required average is 3.

Statement II: The sum of the two of these integers is 4, so again the only possible case of three consecutive odd numbers is 1,3 and 5. So the required average is 3.

QUESTION: 80

Statements:

1. She has less 50 paisa coins than one rupee coins.

2. She has a total of 5 coins.

 

Q.Maryanne has Rs.4 in 50 paise and one rupee coins. How many 50 paisa coins does she have?

Solution:

Statement I indicates that the number of 50 paise coins is 2 as that is the only case possible in this case and the number of one rupee coins is 3. Statement II independently gives the same result.