UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2


100 Questions MCQ Test UPSC CSE Prelims 2021 Mock Test Series | UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2


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This mock test of UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 100 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other UPSC: Geography NCERT Based Test- 2 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

When the streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome-like structure, a pattern is developed which is called as:

Solution: A drainage pattern in which consequent streams radiate or diverge outward, like the spokes of a wheel, from a high central area; it is best developed on the slopes of a young, unbreached domal structure or of a volcanic cone.
QUESTION: 2

Which of the following comprises hydrosphere?

1. Ice in glaciers.

2. Water vapour in the atmosphere.

3. Underground water.

4. Water in rivers, lakes and oceans.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Hydrosphere is composed of ice in glaciers, water vapour in the atmosphere, underground water and water in rivers, lakes and oceans.

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QUESTION: 3

Which of the following forests are found in the Western Ghats, hills of the north eastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Solution: Tropical Evergreen forests are a dominant part of the Natural vegetation in India.The evergreen forests are essential in not only promoting greenery on the planet, but they are also useful in the continual survival of animals and plants in the forest ecosystem. The trees are evergreen as there is no period of drought. They are mostly tall and hardwood.
QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements:

1. Erosion is the breaking up of the rocks on the earth's surface.

2. Weathering is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents like wind, water etc.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • Two processes: Weathering and Erosion are continuously wearing away the landscape.

  • Weathering is the breaking up of the rocks on the earth's surface. Erosion is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents like wind, water etc. The eroded material is carried away and transported by wind, water etc. and eventually deposited. These processes of erosion and deposition create different landforms on the surface.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements:

1. Queen Maud Range divides Antarctica into two halves.

2. Mt Sidley is the only active volcano in Antarctica.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Mount Sidley is the highest dormant volcano, and Mount Erebus is the most active volcano in Antarctica.
QUESTION: 6

Which of the following are the minerals found in the Sahara desert?

1. Oil

2. Iron

3. Bauxite

4. Uranium

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Following are the minerals of importance that are found in the Sahara desert:
  1. Oil

  2. Iron

  3. Phosphorus

  4. Manganese

  5. Uranium

The discovery of oil in Algeria, Libya and Egypt is constantly transforming the Sahara desert. Gold is mainly found in South Africa.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statement (s) related to Human resources.

1. The environmental factors such as high altitude, extreme cold, aridity, relief, climate, soil, vegetation types, mineral, and energy resources influences the population distribution

2. Technological and economic advancements influences the population distribution

Which is / are the correct option?

Solution:
  • We as human beings are social animals. We need to interact and cooperate with other people for various purposes, such as requiring their help, their assistance in our day to day work and making them understand the intent and purpose of our actions.

  • Now what we saw here is the need of other people in our day to day life but when you take the perspective of a whole nation, you need to understand the need of people on a macro level. Without question, people of a nation are its greatest asset.

  • It is their everyday skills and abilities that turn them into a resource for the nation. Healthy, educated and motivated people develop resources as per their requirement.

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following factors forms the invisible account of the Balance of Payments of a country?

Solution: Balance of payment broadly comprises current and capital accounts. Current account records export and import of goods (visible items), export and import of services (invisible items) and unilateral transfers from one country to another.

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QUESTION: 9

Climate is an important geographical phenomenon that determines many things like vegetation, fauna, and living comfort. Consider the following statements in this regard and pick out the incorrect ones:

1. Weather refers to the total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time.

2. Climate refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point in time.

Solution:
  • Weather, state of the atmosphere at a particular place during a short period of time.

  • It involves such atmospheric phenomena as temperature, humidity, precipitation (type and amount), air pressure, wind, and cloud cover.

  • The weather differs from the climate in that the latter includes the synthesis of weather conditions that have prevailed over a given area during a long time period—generally 30 years.

  • For a full discussion of the elements and origins of weather, see climate. For the treatment of how conditions in space affect satellites and other technologies, see space weather.

  • As most commonly defined, weather occurs in the troposphere, the lowest region of the atmosphere that extends from the Earth's surface to 6–8 km (4–5 miles) at the poles and about 17 km (11 miles) at the Equator. Weather is largely confined to the troposphere since almost all clouds occur and almost all precipitation develops.

QUESTION: 10

What is the objective of the ASEAN?

Solution:
  • ASEAN nations want to promote economic cooperation in SouthEast Asia and ensure economic stability in the region and to integrate the economies of the region to make the region more attractive for investors.

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (more commonly known as ASEAN) is an intergovernmental organization aimed primarily at promoting economic growth and regional stability among its members.

  • There are currently 10 member states: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

  • ASEAN was founded half a century ago in 1967 by the five Southeast Asian nations of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. This was during the polarized atmosphere of the Cold War, and the alliance aimed to promote stability in the region.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements

1. In India, Semi-Clustered Settlements is a rather universal feature and particularly in the northern plains

2. Dominant community and lower strata of society is clearly visible in Semi-Clustered Settlements

Which is/are CORRECT?

Solution:
  • Semi-Clustered Settlements Semi-clustered or fragmented settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. More often such a pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village.

  • In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or are forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village. In such cases, generally, the land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village, whereas people of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer flanks of the village. Such settlem

QUESTION: 12

The following city is often referred to as 'Manchester of India'?

Solution:
  • The city of Ahmedabad in the Gujarat state is famously known as the "Manchester City of India".

  • This name was given to this city by a popular textile centre in the Manchester of Great Britain, adhering to the striking similarities of Ahmedabad's prospering cotton textile industries with the ones in Manchester.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:

1. The major crop of prairies is maize.

2. These areas are not suitable for cattle rearing.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • In the prairies, places that receive rainfall of over 50 cm, are suitable for farming as the soil is fertile. The major crop of prairies is maize. But some other crops are also grown here.

  • They are 1. Potatoes 2. Soybean 3. Cotton 4. Alfa-alfa Area where rainfall is very little or unreliable, grasses are short and sparse. These areas are suitable for cattle rearing.

QUESTION: 14

The Cold Weather Season begins from mid-November in Northern India and stays till February. Consider the following statements about the Cold Weather Season?

1. During this season, the Northeast Trade winds prevail over the country which blows from sea to land and hence, for most of the country, it is a dry season

2. A characteristic feature of the Cold Weather Season over the Northern Plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest

3. The Peninsular region does not have a well-defined cold season

Select the correct answer from the code given below:

Solution:
  • The cold weather season begins with November in north India, and by the beginning of December, the whole country comes under its grip.

  • In this season the southerly branch of the jet stream occupies position south of the Himalayas indicating that oil more the Northern Hemisphere polar dynamics in command of the situation.

  • The westerly jet stream's return is accompanied by the restriction of light north-east trade winds (monsoon) toll surface, withdrawal of the ITC, formation of antic clinic cell over northwestern India and dry wealth conditions prevailing over most of the part of the country.

QUESTION: 15

The Amravati, the Bhavani, the Hemavati, the Kabini, etc. are the main tributaries of:

Solution:
  • Kaveri River, Kaveri also spelt Cauvery, the sacred river of southern India. It rises on Brahmagiri Hill of the Western Ghats in southwestern Karnataka state, flows in a southeasterly direction for 475 miles (765 km) through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and descends the Eastern Ghats in a series of great falls.

  • Right, Bank Tributaries are :- Hemavati , Shimsha , Arkaveri , Chovrai , Turunan Muttai . Left bank Tributaries are :- Lakshmantirath , Kabini ,Suvarnevati , Bhavani , Noyil , Amravati.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statement (s) related to Rural Urban Settlement Dichotomy.

1. The term settlement is accepted but when it comes to its existence that can be differentiated in terms of rural and urban, but there is no consensus on what exactly defines a village or a town.

2. The basic difference between towns and villages is that in towns the main occupation of the people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors, while in the villages most of the people are engaged in primary occupations.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution:
  • Human Settlement is a form of human habitation which ranges from a single dowelling to large city. In other words, it is a process of opening up and settling a previously uninhabited area by the people.

  • People live in clusters of houses that might be a village, a town or a city. The study of human settlements is basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects human relationship with the environment.

  • A human settlement is defined as a place inhabited more or less permanently. The houses may be designed or redesigned, buildings may be altered, functions may change but settlement continues in time and space.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statement (s) related to composition of population.

1. The population is usually divided into three age groups- children (0-14yrs), adults (15-59yrs) and aged (60 and over).

2. Population of males and females, children, young and old comprises the population of a country.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution: Population of males and females, children, young and old comprises the population of a country. The population is usually divided into three age groups- children (0-14yrs), adults (15-59yrs) and aged (60 and over). This is called the age-group of the population. The proportion of the adult population is the least variable in the three groups. The main difference is found in the population of children and old people.
QUESTION: 18

Which of the following comes under primary activities?

Solution:
  • A primary economic activity is a type of operation or industry that involves extracting or refining natural resources, such as mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing.

  • These economic functions deliver the raw material for other industries, further refining and developing these materials into products to sell to customers.

QUESTION: 19

Which unit of the Hindustan Copper Ltd. is the first copper smelting unit in India?

Solution: Malanjkhand Copper Project was established in 1982. Hindustan Copper Ltd has set up the initial project to exploit the copper ore through an open-pit mine.
QUESTION: 20

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Mahanadi river drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa.

2. Godavari River drainage basin is the largest among peninsular rivers.

3. There is no west flowing river in Madhya Pradesh

Solution:

The major west-flowing rivers in Peninsular India are Narmada and Tapi. It is located mainly in Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada River is also known as the Rewa River. The River originates from the Maikala range near Amarkantak.

QUESTION: 21

Jhumming refers to:

1. Primitive subsistence farming in Brazil.

2. 'Slash and burn' agriculture in North eastern states of India

3. Primitive farming in Malaysia.

4. Commercial farming in Punjab.

Select correct answer

Solution:
  • Slash and burn farming is a form of shifting agriculture where the natural vegetation is cut down and burned as a method of clearing the land for cultivation, and then, when the plot becomes infertile, the farmer moves to a new fresh plant and does the same again. This process is repeated over and over.

  • Shifting Cultivation is known as Ladang in Indonesia, Caingin in Philippines, Milpa in central America & Mexico, Ray in Vietnam, Taungya In Myanmar , Tamrai in Thailand, Chena in Sri Lanka, Conuco in Venezuela, Roca in Brazil, Masole in central Africa.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements?

1. Tsunamis are rarer in the Indian Ocean than the pacific ocean

2. The first indication that a tsunami is approaching is the rapid withdrawal of water from the coastal region.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • Tsunami is a Japanese word that means “harbour waves” as the harbours get destroyed whenever there is a tsunami.

  • An earthquake /volcanic eruption or underwater landslides can shift large amounts of ocean water.

  • As a result, a huge tidal wave called tsunami, that may be as high as 15 mtr is formed.

  • Tsunamis are rare in the Indian ocean as the seismic activity is less as compared to the Pacific ocean.

  • The tsunami that ravaged the South and Southeast Asian coasts in December 2004, is the most devastating tsunami in the last several hundred years.

  • The Indira Point in Andaman and Nicobar islands got submerged after the tsunami.

QUESTION: 23

Which of the following pairs is/are correct?

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: the Andes are mountain ranges of South America.

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QUESTION: 24

Which of the following is not the objective of the WTO?

Solution:
  • WTO is not responsible for the improvement in the Balance of Payment of the member countries while other options given in the question are objectives of the WTO. Created in 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international institution that oversees the global trade rules among nations. It superseded the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) created in the wake of World War II.

  • The WTO is based on agreements signed by the majority of the world’s trading nations. The main function of the organization is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers protect and manage their businesses.

QUESTION: 25

Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about climatic conditions for Growing Wheat?

I. Wheat is sown in mid-October-mid-November and harvested in March.

II. Wheat grows well in cool, moist climates and ripens in a warm, dry climate.

Solution:
  • Wheat is a Rabi crop. It is sown in mid-October-mid-November and harvested in March. It grows well in cool, moist climate and ripens in a warm, dry climate.

  • The cool winters and the hot summers are conducive to a good crop. A cloudless sky having bright sunshine during ripening and harvesting periods will make better quality wheat. Winter rainfall is ideal.

QUESTION: 26

Which of the following are the vegetation of the Sahara desert?

1. Palm

2. Cactus

3. Potato

4. Maize

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: The Sahara desert despite the harsh climate has some vegetation, it mainly includes

1. Cactus

2. Date Palms

3. Acacia

QUESTION: 27

Which among the following does not belong to India's major large scale industries?

Solution: Under K.C. Pant, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, a committee was set up on strengthening the khadi and village industries sector.

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QUESTION: 28

Consider the following statements about stars:

1. They have their own light and heat.

2. They are made of gases.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Stars have their own light and heat, and they are made of gases. Stars produce light due to the nuclear reactions taking place in them.
QUESTION: 29

Coastline of the Atlantic Ocean provides natural harbours because?

1. It is irregular.

2. It is indented.

3. It has a steep slope.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Coastline of Atlantic ocean provides natural harbours because it is irregular and indented.
QUESTION: 30

Consider the following statement (s) is/ are about Tropical Thorn Forests.

1. They occur in the areas which receive rainfall more than 60 cm.

2. These consist of a variety of herbs, thorny grasses and shrubs.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A thorny forest is a dense, scrub-like vegetation characteristic of dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with a seasonal rainfall averaging 250 to 500 mm (9.8 to 19.7 in).

  • This vegetation covers a large part of southwestern North America and southwestern Africa and smaller areas in Africa, South America, and Australia. In South America, thorn forest is sometimes called Caatinga, and consists primarily of small, thorny trees that shed their leaves seasonally.

  • Trees typically do not exceed 10 metres (33 ft) in height, usually averaging between 7 and 8 metres (23 and 26 ft) tall. Thorn forest grades into savanna woodland as the rainfall increases and into desert as the climate becomes dryer.

QUESTION: 31

Consider the following statements:

1. Retreating monsoon season is 3 months long.

2. The temperature falls during the retreating monsoon season.

Which of the following statements are correct:

Solution:
  • Retreating monsoon season commences with the southwest monsoon [mid-September – November] and lasts till early January.

  • It is a 3-month long process where it starts from the peninsula in October and from the extreme southeastern tip by December.

  • The southwest monsoons withdraw from the Coromandel coast in mid-December.

  • In Punjab, the southwest monsoons withdraw from there in the second week of September. During this period, the temperature comes down sharply.

  • The sky also becomes clear. The most severe and destructive tropical cyclones are originated in the Indian seas and the Bay of Bengal during the retreating monsoons.

  • During the retreating monsoon season in India, the southeastern coast receives much rainfall; tropical cyclones also occur.

  • The state of Tamil Nadu receives almost half of its annual rainfall during this time. This is called the winter monsoon or the northeast monsoons.

QUESTION: 32

Inner planets revolve rapidly too?

Solution: The gravitational pull of the Sun is greater for inner planets as they are nearer to the Sun. So, they revolve rapidly to keep themselves in orbit and avoid falling into the Sun.
QUESTION: 33

The latitude that pass through Sikkim does not pass through:

1. Punjab

2. Rajasthan

3. Uttrakhand

4. Delhi

5. Uttar Pradesh

Code:

Solution: Punjab, Uttrakhand and Delhi.
QUESTION: 34

What is the correct descending order of food grain producing states?

Solution:
QUESTION: 35

Consider the following statements:

1. Prairies are totally treeless.

2. Tallgrass up to two metres high grows here.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • Prairies are particularly treeless. But for the most part, it is treeless while near the low lying plains, flanking river valleys, woodland can be found. Where water is available trees such as willows, alders and poplars grow.

  • Tallgrass up to two metres high dominates the landscape. It is actually a “sea of grass".

QUESTION: 36

Consider the following statement (s) related to Hamleted rural settlement.

1. Units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country.

2. A pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution:
  • Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. These units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country.

  • This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors. A hamlet is a small settlement, smaller than a village. Usually, all settlers in a hamlet are centered around a single economic activity.

  • A hamlet may consist of a farm, a mill, a mine or a harbor. All the people living there would be workers on that farm, mill, mine or harbour. Hamlets, especially those with a medieval church may have resulted from a medieval village, that was abandoned for some reason.

  • Because of the small size of the settlement, there are usually no buildings which have a central or administrative function.5-6 families may live there usually within a 2km radius area.

QUESTION: 37

Consider the following statements

1. Shedding leaves and appearing as vast grassland in dry seasons is a feature of dry deciduous forest.

2. Tendu trees are commonly found in Dry deciduous forest.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

Solution: As the dry season begins, the trees shed their leaves completely and the forest appears like a vast grassland with naked trees all around. Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, khair, axlewood, etc. are the common trees of dry deciduous forests.

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QUESTION: 38

Which of the following state's population growth rate is around or equal to India's population growth rate?

Solution: The population growth rate of Chandigarh, Uttarakhand and Assam is around or equal to India's population growth rate (17%)

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QUESTION: 39

With reference to Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), consider the following statements

1. AIIB has more than 80 member nations.

2. India is the largest shareholder in AIIB.

3. AIIB does not have any members from outside Asia.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

Solution:
  • Headquartered in Beijing, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a development bank established to boost lending for projects in sectors like energy, transportation, urban construction, logistics, education and healthcare.

  • AIIB presently has 97 approved members worldwide. The Bank has invested in 13 member regions; it has members from outside Asia in Egypt (Middle East), Azerbaijan (Asia and Europe) and others. The three largest shareholders of the bank are China, India and Russia.

QUESTION: 40

Consider the following statement (s) related to rural settlements.

1. On the basis of setting: The main types are plain villages, plateau villages, coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.

2. On the basis of functions: There may be farming villages, fishermen’s villages, lumberjack villages, pastoral villages etc.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution: Rural Settlement Patterns Patterns of rural settlements contemplate the way the houses are sited in relation to each other. The site of the village, the surrounding topography and terrain influence the shape and size of a village. Rural settlements may be classified on the basis of a number of criteria

(i) On the basis of setting: The main types are plain villages, plateau villages, coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.

(ii) On the basis of functions: There may be farming villages, fishermen’s villages, lumberjack villages, pastoral villages etc.

(iii) On the basis of forms or shapes of the settlements: These may be a number of geometrical forms and shapes such as Linear, rectangular, circular star like, T-shaped village, double village, cross shaped village etc.

QUESTION: 41

Consider the following statements:

1. The warm ocean currents originate near the equator and move towards the pole.

2. The cold currents carry water from higher latitudes to lower latitudes.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Generally the warm currents originate near the equator and move towards the poles. The cold currents carry water from the higher latitudes (polar) to lower latitudes (tropical). The Labrador ocean current is cold current and the Gulf Stream is a warm current.
QUESTION: 42

Which of the following is true regarding natural vegetation of India?

1. Himalayan heights are marked with tropical evergreen vegetation

2. The Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rainforests

3. The deltaic regions have tropical deciduous forests and mangroves

Select the correct statements using following codes

Solution: India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation. Himalayan heights are marked with temperate vegetation; the Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rainforests, the deltaic regions have tropical forests and mangroves; the desert and semi desert areas of Rajasthan are known for cacti, a wide variety of bushes and thorny vegetation.
QUESTION: 43

Consider the following statements about the characteristics of Indian Monsoon.

1. Monsoon season in India is associated with continuous rainfall without breaks.

2. Monsoon causes flood as well as drought.

3. Monsoon winds are pulsating and unstable in nature and direction.

4. Tropical cyclones originate in the Andaman Sea and cause heavy rain in India's eastern coast post-retreat of monsoon.

Which of these is/are not correct?

Solution:

Characteristics of the Indian Monsoon

  1. These winds generally strike the Indian coast in the first week of June, but their arrival and departure may be before time or may be delayed.

  2. Monsoon is not steady winds. They are irregular in nature affected by different atmospheric conditions i.e. due to regional climatic conditions.

  3. Monsoons are not equally distributed. The spatial distribution of rainfall is uneven – some regions may receive heavy rains while the others will have to be content with meagre or scanty rains.

  4. When the monsoon arrives, it gives heavy rainfall which continues for several days. This is known as the 'burst of monsoon'. This occurs mainly at the Kerala coast where it reaches first.

  5. Generally, these winds start retreating by the end of September. But, sometimes, their departure may be delayed till October or they may retreat even much earlier.

QUESTION: 44

Consider the following statement (s) is/are regarding deciduous forest.

1. It is found in regions where rainfall is between 70 and 200 cm.

2. Forests are divided into moist and dry deciduous on the basis of the availability of water.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A deciduous forest is a biome dominated by deciduous trees which lose their leaves seasonally. The Earth has temperate deciduous forests, and tropical and subtropical deciduous forests, also known as dry forests.

  • Another name for these forests is broad-leaf forests because of the wide, flat leaves on the trees. Trees in tropical deciduous forests lose their leaves in the dry season and regrow them in the rainy season. In temperate deciduous forests, trees lose their leaves in the fall and regrow them in the spring.

  • Animals inhabiting deciduous forests include insects, spiders, reptiles and birds. Mice, rabbits, foxes, deer, otters, bears and humans are just some examples of mammals that live in deciduous forests. Tropical and subtropical deciduous forests are also home to mammals such as elephants, monkeys, tigers, and giraffes.

  • Deciduous forests are home to trees such as oak, birch, beech, aspen, elm and maple. Tropical and subtropical forests also have teak trees, palm trees and bamboo. Plants found in these forests include flowers, ferns, mosses and herbs. In addition, tropical and subtropical forests feature flowers such as orchids and numerous vines called lianas. The average temperature of deciduous forests is 50°F and annual rainfall averages 30 to 60 inches.

QUESTION: 45

Which of the following countries of Africa is known as the nation of thousand hills?

Solution:
  1. Rwanda is known as the land of thousand hills. Recently in the news due to the agreement signed in Kigali (capital of Rwanda) known as Kigali agreement, to amend the Montreal protocol.

  2. Montreal Protocol is an international treaty to phase out Ozone Depleting Substances from the atmosphere.

  3. The Kigali agreement aims to reduce the use of Hydrofluorocarbons by 80-85 per cent till 2045.

QUESTION: 46

During which decade did India see a negative population growth?

India witnessed a negative population growth during 1911-21.

Solution:
QUESTION: 47

Consider the following statement (s) related to pillars of human development.

1. Equity means making equal access to opportunities available to everybody that opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.

2. Sustainability to the human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work that must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution:

Components of Human Development:

1. Equality, 2. Sustainability, 3. Productivity, and 4. Empowerment.

1. Equality: If development is viewed in terms of enhancing people’s basic capabilities, people must enjoy equitable access to opportunities. Such may be called equality-related capabilities. To ensure equality-related capabilities or access to opportunities what is essential is that the societal institutional structure needs to be more favourable or progressive. In other words, the unfavourable initial asset distribution, like land, can be made more farmer-friendly through land reform and other redistributive measures. In addition, uneven income distribution may be addressed through various tax-expenditure policies.

2. Sustainability: Another important facet of human development is that development should ‘keep going’, should ‘last long’. The concept of sustainable development focuses on the need to maintain the long term protective capacity of the biosphere. This then suggests that growth cannot go on indefinitely; there are, of course, ‘limits to growth.

3. Productivity: Another component of human development is productivity which requires investment in people. This is commonly called investment in human capital. Investment in human capital—in addition to physical capital—can add more productivity.

4. Empowerment: The empowerment of people—particularly women—is another component of human development. In other words, genuine human development requires empowerment in all aspects of life. Empowerment implies a political democracy in which people themselves make the decisions about their lives. Under it, people enjoy greater political and civil liberties and remain free from excessive controls and regulations. Empowerment refers to decentralisation of power so that the benefits of governance are reaped by all peoples. It focuses on grassroots participation which promotes democracy by enfranchising the disadvantaged groups.

QUESTION: 48

Consider the following statement (s) related to rural settlements.

1. On the basis of setting: The main types are plain villages, plateau villages, coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.

2. On the basis of functions: There may be farming villages, fishermen’s villages, lumberjack villages, pastoral villages etc.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution:
  • The rural settlements are concerned with the degree of dispersion of the dwellings and the life is supported by land based primary economic activities.

  • Rural people are less mobile and therefore, social relations among them are intimate. In India, the rural settlement varies with the diversity of climatic conditions. In India, a compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is a rather universal feature, particularly in the northern plains.

  • The rural settlements are concerned with the degree of dispersion of the dwellings and the life is supported by land based primary economic activities. Rural people are less mobile and therefore, social relations among them are intimate.

  • In India, the rural settlement varies with the diversity of climatic conditions. In India, a compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is a rather universal feature, particularly in the northern plains. However, there are several areas, which have other forms of rural settlements.

QUESTION: 49

Which of the following states have an international border?

1. Himachal Pradesh

2. Assam

3. Meghalaya

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: All given states share an international border. Himachal Pradesh with China. Assam and Meghalaya with Bangladesh.
QUESTION: 50

Which of the following is the highest plateau in the world?

Solution: Tibetan plateau is the highest plateau globally with a height of 4000 to 6000 metres above mean sea level.
QUESTION: 51

With reference to population pyramid, consider the following statements:

1. The numbers of children are shown at the bottom.

2. In a country low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base.

3. In India, the pyramid is broad in the younger age groups.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • In countries where death rates (especially amongst the very young) are decreasing, the pyramid is broad in the younger age groups, because more infants survive to adulthood.

  • This can be seen in the pyramid for India. The numbers of children (below 15 years) are shown at the bottom and reflect births' level.In countries like Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base.

QUESTION: 52

Consider the following statement (s) is/are related to natural vegetation.

1. Natural Vegetation follows the climatic variables and grows naturally.

2. Natural vegetation vary according to the climate, soil and altitude.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Natural vegetation means the plants that have not been grown by humans. It doesn’t need help from humans and gets whatever it needs from its natural environment. There is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations.

  • With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil.

  • It is categorized into three broad categories: Forest, grassland and shrubs. Natural vegetation means the plants that have not been grown by humans. It doesn’t need help from humans and gets whatever it needs from its natural environment. There is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations. With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation.

QUESTION: 53

Which agency is responsible for procurement, distribution and storage of food grain production in India?

A. Ministry of Agriculture

B. Food Corporation of India

C. NAFED

D. TRIFED

Select correct answer

Solution:

"Food Corporation of India” is sensible for “distribution and storage of the food grain in India”. It was structured under the Food Corporation Act of 1964 with the following objectives:

1. Guarantee minimal prices for agricultural products.

2. Adhere to the minimal food stock levels to protect food safety (Buffer stock)

3. Effectively and judicial distribution of food across the country, especially in the lower section of people.

4. Increase price stability and protect the interest of the farmers.

QUESTION: 54

Consider the following statements:

1. Large scale maps show large areas in great detail.

2. Small scale maps show small areas in great detail.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Large scale maps show small areas in great detail like a village map on paper. Small scale maps show large areas in less detail like maps in an atlas.
QUESTION: 55

Which of the following currents are the warm currents?

1. California Current

2. North Pacific Drift

3. Caribbean Current

4. Gulf Stream

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  1. Following are the warm currents: 1. North Pacific drift 2. Caribbean Current 3. Gulf Stream 4. Brazilian Current 5. Agulhas Current

  2. Following are the cold currents: 1. Californian Current 2. Humboldt Current 3. Falkland Current 4. Canary Current 5. Benguela Current

QUESTION: 56

Which of the following statements is correct about the Biosphere Reserve?

Solution: Biosphere Reserve is a notified area which covers a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well. It is an area meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.
QUESTION: 57

Which of these describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large scale?

1. Shifting agriculture

2. Plantation agriculture

3. Horticulture

4. Intensive agriculture

Select correct answer

Solution:
  • Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown for profit. Large land areas are needed for this type of agriculture.

  • Countries that have plantation agriculture usually experience tropical climates with high annual temperatures and receive high annual rainfall.

  • Plantation agriculture has its roots in the past. In the early 18th and 19th centuries, a number of plantations were set up by westerners and western companies.

QUESTION: 58

Which of the following is the hottest place in the world?

Solution: Death Valley, California is the hottest place in the world.
QUESTION: 59

Cotton textile industry requires:

Solution:
  • Several factors, like availability of raw cotton, market, transport, etc. play a key role in the localization of the cotton textile industry.

  • The significance of raw cotton is evident from the fact that 80 per cent of the industry is coterminous with the country's cotton growing tracts.

  • Some of the important centres such as Ahmedabad, Solapur, Nagpur, Coimbatore and Indore are located in large-scale cotton cultivation areas.

QUESTION: 60

The factor(s) responsible for population change is (are):

Solution: Option D is the correct answer.
QUESTION: 61

Which of the following are identified as dwarf planets in our solar system?

1. Ceres

2. Pluto

3. Makemake

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: IAU currently recognizes five dwarf planets: Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris.
QUESTION: 62

What do you mean by the term density of population of a country:

Solution:
  • Population density is a measurement of population per unit volume or unit area. It is a key geographical term.

  • The population density is the number of people living in a particular space, say one kilometre or one mile. It is determined by dividing the population of an area by its land area.

QUESTION: 63

Which of the following states has got the largest forest in the country?

Solution: In terms of area, Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover of 77,414 square km in the country, followed by Arunachal Pradesh with 66,964 square km and Chhattisgarh with 55,547 square km.
QUESTION: 64

The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the:

Solution:
  • The rate of natural increase refers to the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by a factor (usually 1,000). It is equal to the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.

  • This measure of the population change excludes the effects of migration.

QUESTION: 65

Consider the following statements:

1. Natural environment refers to biotic and abiotic conditions.

2. Human environment refers to human activities, creation and interaction between human beings.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Biotic components are living organisms existing on the earth, i.e. human, animal and plants. Abiotic components are non-living organisms existing on the earth, i.e. land, air, water etc.
QUESTION: 66

Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?

Solution:

Rural-urban migration is a form of so-called internal migration which means a movement within a country and which stays in contrast to international or intercontinental migration. It refers to the movement of people from the countryside respectively the rural areas into the cities, often the metropolitan cities of a country.

QUESTION: 67

Which of the following are the countries in which the Sahara desert lies?

1. Chad

2. Egypt

3. Sudan

4. Zimbabwe

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • The Sahara desert touches 11 countries.

  • These are the following: 1. Algeria 2. Chad 3. Egypt 4. Libya 5. Mali 6. Mauritania 7. Morocco 8. Niger 9. Sudan 10. Tunisia 11. Western Sahara It is restricted in North Africa. So it does not lie in Zimbabwe.

QUESTION: 68

Which of the following are the characteristic of the bird Toucans:

1. Brilliantly coloured plumage

2. Oversized bills

3. Make a loud sound

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Birds such as Toucans, Hummingbirds and Bird of Paradise have the following characteristics: 1. Brilliantly coloured plumage, 2. Oversized bills for eating 3. Make loud sounds in the forest These birds can be easily seen in the Amazon forest.

493477

QUESTION: 69

In which of the following states is the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary located?

Solution:
  • Manas National Park or Wildlife Sanctuary is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Assam.

  • The name of the park originates from the river Manas river, which is a major tributary of the river Brahmaputra. Kaziranga National Park is also situated in Assam.

QUESTION: 70

Consider the following statements:

1. Biosphere is the narrow zone of the earth where the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere interact.

2. A11 the plants, animals, and human beings are elements of the biosphere.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Biosphere is the narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact to support life. Animal kingdom and plants together make the biosphere or living world.
QUESTION: 71

Consider the following pairs:

1. Morning star: Venus

2. Red planet: Mars

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  1. Venus can be seen a few hours before the Sun, and hence it is called the morning star.

  2. It can be seen a few hours after sunset and hence called the evening star.

  3. Mars appears red due to the rusty colour of its soil. Hence, called the red planet.

QUESTION: 72

Consider the following statement:

1. The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin is formed by the tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra.

2. The summers are hot and winters are cool in this basin.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: The tributaries of the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent. The basin lies in the subtropical region that is situated between 10 N 30 N latitudes. The area is dominated by the monsoon climate. The summers are hot and winters cool.
QUESTION: 73

Which is the only continent that lies in all four hemispheres?

Solution: Africa is the only continent which lies in all four hemispheres due to the Equator and Prime Meridian passing through the continent.
QUESTION: 74

Consider the following statements:

1. 99 percent of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen and oxygen.

2. Carbon dioxide is the third most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • The atmosphere comprises 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, making 99% of the Earth's atmosphere.

  • Out of the remaining 1%, Argon is the most abundant gas or the third most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere.

QUESTION: 75

Consider the following statements:

1. Hydrosphere comprises only seas and oceans.

2. Landforms are found over the continents and also on the ocean floors.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution: Hydrosphere comprises various sources of water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans etc.
QUESTION: 76

Which of the following is the commercial crop in India?

1. Mustard

2. Tobacco

3. Jute

4. All of the above

Select correct answer

Solution: This type of farming is what contributes to the country’s economy with huge volumes of yield. In fact, the crops grown commercially in India are used as an export item across the world. In this farming method, the Indian farmer uses a high amount of fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides to enhance and maintain the growth of the crops. Depending on the crop best suited to the respective weather and soil, commercial farming in India varies across different regions. For example, Haryana, Punjab and West Bengal grow rice commercially, while it is a subsistence crop in Orissa. Major crops grown commercially in India are wheat, pulses, millets, maize and other grains, vegetables, and fruits. Another method of commercial farming is ‘plantation’.

Plantation farming is a blend of agriculture and industry, practiced across a vast area of land. It is a labor-intensive farming method that also uses the latest technological support for sustaining, cultivating and yielding. The produce yielded from plantations is treated as raw materials to be subsequently used in their respective industries. Crops grown: Some of the significantly grown crops in plantation farming are tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, coconuts, etc.

QUESTION: 77

The Forest Act was enacted in which of the following year?

Solution:

First Forest Act was enacted in 1927. This is one of the many surviving colonial legislations. It was enacted to consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce and the duty leviable on timber and other forest produce.

QUESTION: 78

The Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum are the major tributaries to the river:

Solution:
  • Indus River, Tibetan and Sanskrit Sindhu, Sindhi Sindhu, or Mehran, a great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia.

  • It is one of the longest rivers globally, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km).

  • Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles (1,165,000 square km), of which 175,000 square miles (453,000 square km) lie in the ranges and foothills of the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Karakoram Range; the rest is in the semiarid plains of Pakistan.

QUESTION: 79

The following is also known as 'Sunrise industry':

Solution:
  • Sunrise industry is a colloquial term for a burgeoning sector or business in its infancy stage, showing a rapid boom.

  • Sunrise industries are typically characterized by high growth rates, numerous start-ups, and an abundance of venture capital funding. These industries generate a lot of "buzz" as investors' interest in its long-term growth prospect, and public awareness increases.

QUESTION: 80

Consider the following statements:

1. Level of the sea is measured as zero.

2. Level of seawater is higher in enclosed seas.

3. Elevation of land is measured from the sea basin.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Level of seawater is the same everywhere. Elevation of land is measured from the sea level.
QUESTION: 81

A lake formed when a meandering river is cut off from the mainstream is known as:

Solution:
  1. An oxbow lake starts as a curve, or meander, in a river. A lake forms as the river finds a different, shorter, course.

  2. The meander becomes an oxbow lake along the side of the river.

  3. Oxbow lakes usually form in flat, low-lying plains close to where the river empties into another water body.

  4. On these plains, rivers often have wide meanders. Meanders that form oxbow lakes have two sets of curves: one curving away from the river's straight path and one curving back.

  5. The corners of the curves closest to each other are called concave banks. The concave banks erode over time.

  6. The force of the rivers flowing water wears away the land on the meander's concave banks. The banks opposite the concave banks are called convex banks.

  7. The opposite of erosion happens here. Silt and sediment build up on convex banks. This build-up is called deposition.

  8. Erosion and deposition eventually cause a new channel to be cut through the small piece of land at the meander's narrow end. The river makes a shortcut. Oxbow lakes are the remains of the bend in the river.

QUESTION: 82

Which of the following is not matched correctly?

Solution:

Types of crops in India

  1. KHARIF SEASON IN INDIA (kharif means autumn in Arabic) July – October Harvest – September to October A.k.a Monsoon Crops Such crops require a lot of water Example: rice, sorghum, maize, Tea, rubber, coffee, guar, Sesame, cereals such as Arhar Dal, pearl millet, soybeans, cotton, oilseeds, etc.

  2. RABI CROPS IN INDIA Sowing between October and November Harvest – February to April A.k.a Winter Season Crops Need cold weather for growth Need less water Example: wheat, oats, barley, pulses, cereals, oilseeds, linseed, etc.

  3. ZAID SEASON Sowing between March and June (between Kharif and Rabi) Requires warm & dry weather for growth and a longer day-length for flowering Example: Seasonal fruits and vegetables.

QUESTION: 83

Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?

1. Maximum support price

2. Minimum support price

3. Moderate support price

4. Influential support price

Select correct answer

Solution:
  • Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices.

  • The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).

  • MSP is price fixed by the Government of India to protect the producer -farmers - against excessive fall in price during bumper production years.

QUESTION: 84

Consider the following statement (s) related to dispersed or isolated rural settlement.

1. Patterns of settlement appear in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes.

2. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by the extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

Which is / are correct option?

Solution: A dispersed settlement, also known as a scattered settlement, is one of the main types of settlement patterns used by landscape historians to classify rural settlements found in India and other parts of the world. Typically, there are a number of separate farmsteads scattered throughout the area. In these settlements, houses are spaced far apart and often interspersed with fields.
QUESTION: 85

Consider the following statements:

1. Sketches and plans are drawn to scale.

2. A plan is based on memory.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory, spot observation, and not scale. A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. It is drawn to scale.
QUESTION: 86

Which of the following statements is/are true?

1. The sex ratio in India is 940.

2. The sex ratio has seen a decline in the past decade.

3. India had the worst sex ratio in 1991 when it was 927.

Solution:

In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males. The Sex Ratio 2011 shows an upward trend from the census 2001 data. Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males Sex ratio is used to describe the number of females per 1000 of males. Sex ratio is a valuable source for finding the population of women in India and what is the ratio of women to that of men in India.

In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males. The Sex Ratio 2011 shows an upward trend from the census 2001 data. Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males. Since decades India has seen a decrease in the sex ratio 2011, but since the last two of the decades there has been in slight increase in the sex ratio. Since the last five decades the sex ratio has been moving around 930 of females to that of 1000 of males. The major cause of the decrease of the female birth ratio in India is considered to be the violent treatments meted out to the girl child at the time of the birth.

QUESTION: 87

Which of the following statements is/are true?

1. From 1901 to 1911 India’s population registered a four-fold growth.

2. From 1901 to 1951, India’s population grew only one and half times.

Solution: India’s population has grown steadily from 1901, except for a decrease in 1921. It increased from 23.8 crore in 1901 to 36.1 crore in 1951 and further to 102.7 crore in 2001, as shown in Table 31.1. It reveals that during the first 50 years from 1901 to 1951, population grew by 12.3 crore while during the next 50 years from 1951 to 2001, it increased by more than 5 times, that is, by 66.6 crore.
QUESTION: 88

Which of the following features are made by the river in a flood plain?

1.Ox-bow lake

2. Meander

3. Levees

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • As the river enters the plain, it twists and forms large bends known as meanders.

  • Due to continuous erosion and deposition along the sides of meanders, the meander loops' ends come closer and closer.

  • Due to time, the loop cut off from the river and formed a cut-off lake called an ox-bow lake. The raised banks in the floodplain are called levees.

QUESTION: 89

Which of the following tribes were found in the prairies?

1. Blackfoot Indians

2. Craw

3. Eskimos

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  1. The grasslands of Prairies were the home of American Indians, more popularly known as Blackfoot Indians'.

  2. The Prairies were also the home of other tribes also like the Apache, the Crow, the Cree and the Pawnee.

  3. The Eskimos traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from the eastern Siberia to across Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

QUESTION: 90

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the EU?

Solution: The EURO is the official currency of the European Union. Currently 19 of 28 member states use the euro: this group of states is known as the Euro zone. It is the second most traded currency in the Foreign Exchange Market after the US dollar. The European Union is a unified trade and monetary body of 28 member countries. It eliminates all border controls between members.
QUESTION: 91

Consider the following statements:

1. Mushroom rocks are formed by the erosion of the rocks by the winds.

2. Dunes are created by deposition of sands by the running water.

3. When wonderful and light grains of sand are deposited in large areas, it is called loess.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • Wind erodes the lower section of the rock more than the upper section. Therefore such rock has a narrower base and wide top and thus it is called Mushroom Rock.

  • When the wind blows, it lifts and transports sand from one place to another. When it stops blowing, the sand falls and gets deposited in the form of a low hill-like structure called dunes.

  • When the sand particles are wonderful and light, the wind can carry it over long distances and deposit in large areas; it is called loess. Large deposits of loess are found in China.

QUESTION: 92

Venus is called Earth's twin because?

1. It has a similar size as that of the Earth.

2. It has a similar shape to that of the Earth.

3. It takes the same time as that of the Earth to revolve around the sun.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Venus is called Earth's twin because it has a similar size and shape as Earth's.

  • Earth's diameter is 12,756.2 km, and Venus's is 12,103.6 km. Earth is only =5%larger than Venus, which, compared to other size differences between other surrounding planets, is a relatively minute difference in size.

QUESTION: 93

Consider the following statements:

1. During the earthquake, the greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre.

2. The strength of the earthquake increases away from the epicentre.

3.Some common earthquake predictions include studying animal behavior, fish in the pond get agitated and snakes come to the surface.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • The strength of the earthquake decreases away from the epicenter. Although earthquakes can not be predicted, the impact can certainly be minimized if it is prepared before-hand.

  • Some common earthquake prediction methods like- studying animal behaviour, fish in the pond get agitated and snakes come to the surface are adopted by people.

QUESTION: 94

Consider the following statements about the population density/growth in India. Which are Correct?

Solution: All the statements are correct.
QUESTION: 95

Which of the following statement (s) is/are correct about Indian forest reserve?

1. Indian mangroves cover about 4975 km2 in the coastal regions.

2. Sunderban is the largest mangrove forest in India and it has been added to the list of biosphere reserves of UNESCO.

Solution:
  • The Mangrove ecosystems are unique & rich in biodiversity and they provide numerous ecological services.

  • Mangrove cover has been separately reported in the ISFR 2019 and the total mangrove cover in the country is 4,975 sq km. An increase of 54 sq Km in mangrove cover has been observed as compared to the previous assessment of 2017. Top three states showing mangrove cover increase are Gujarat (37 sq km) followed by Maharashtra (16 sq km) and Odisha (8 sq km). . The deltas of the Ganges, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Kaveri rivers contain mangrove forests.

  • The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world (140,000 ha), lies on the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India’s Sundarbans World Heritage site inscribed in 1987.

  • The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. The area is known for its wide range of fauna, including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python.

QUESTION: 96

Which of the following are old fold mountains in the world?

1. Aravallis

2. the Appalachians

3. Ural mountains

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Aravalis, Appalachians and Ural mountains are old fold mountains of the world.
QUESTION: 97

Consider the following statements:

1. People of the Amazon basin practice slash and burn agriculture.

2. Their staple food is manioc.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?

Solution:
  • Slash and burn away of cultivation of land where farmers clear a piece of land by cutting or slashing down trees and bushes.

  • These are then burnt, which release the nutrient into the soil. And crops are grown in this cleared field for a few years.

  • After repeatedly using the patch of land, the soil loses its nutrients. So it is abandoned. Their staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato.

QUESTION: 98

Consider the following statements:

1. More than 99 per cent of the mass of the Solar system is in the Sun.

2. The distance between the Sun and the Earth is 10 Astronomical Unit.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: 99.86 percent of the mass of the Solar system is in the Sun. The distance between the Sun and the Earth is 1 AU (Astronomical Unit) or 150,000,000 km.
QUESTION: 99

Under which plan did the Government introduce an agricultural strategy which gave rise to the Green Revolution?

A. First five year plan

B. Second five year plan

C. Third five year plan

D. Fourth five year plan

Solution:
  • The Third 5 year Plan focused on agriculture & enhancement in the production of wheat, but the succinct Sino - Indian War in the year 1962 exposed flaws in the economy & shifted the spotlight towards the Defence industry.

  • On May 31 & June 1, 1961, the National Development Council considered the Draft Report on the Third Plan and generally approved it The Third 5 Year Plan symbolizes the 1st phase in a system of enduring expansion extending over the next 15 years or so. In the course of this period, India's economy must not only enlarge swiftly but must, in unison, become independent and self -generating.

QUESTION: 100

Bhoodan-Gramdan movement was initiated by:

Solution:
  • The Bhoodan-Gramdan movement brought Vinoba Bhave to the international scene.

  • In 1951,the Third Annual Sarvodaya Conference was held at Shivarampally, a village a few miles south of the city of Hyderabad in South India.