UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2013: Paper 1 (GS)

100 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Civil Services Revision & Mock Tests | UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2013: Paper 1 (GS)

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Priority Sector Lending by banks in India constitutes the lending to__:  


First of all in 1974, the banks were given a target of 33.33 % as share of the priority sector in the total bank credit. This was later revised on the recommendation of the Dr. K S Krishnaswamy to 40%. This is the current target given to banks to disburse the loans to priority sector.  Broadly, priority sector includes the Agriculture Finance, Small Enterprises, Retail Trade, Micro Credit, Education Loans and housing loans. As per Reserve Bank of India, Priority sector includes the Agriculture Finance, Small Enterprises, Retail Trade, Micro Credit, Education Loans and housing loans. As per Reserve Bank of India, Priority sector includes the the sectors shown in the adjacent graphics.

At present the domestic banks have to disburse 40% of the Net Bank Credit to Total Priority sector, out of which 18% should be total agricultural advances.  The Foreign banks have been given a target of 32% of the Net Bank Credit to priority sector, however, there is no lower limit fixed for agriculture.  Target Credit to women beneficiaries is 5%.  The basic objective of setting priority sector targets has been to ensure greater flow of credit to certain sectors where credit would normally not flow to the desired extent.  Earlier, there was a demand from various stake holders of the society that banks should be given a higher than current 40% target of the Priority sector. As of now the targets have not been revised.  The reason is that out of total deposits, banks have to keep certain amount to maintain Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) and from the remaining disposable amount 40 per cent is dedicated for the priority 


 Which one among the following industries is the maximum consumer of water in India?


Though Industrial sector only accounts for three per cent of the annual water withdrawals in India, yet its contribution to water pollution, particularly in urban areas, is considerable. In this question, you should all know that government has been planning to set up an agency on the lines of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency to encourage conservation of the water. The focus initially would be on water intensive sectors such as thermal power plants, textiles, pulp, chemicals etc. Of the total water use by the industry, thermal power plants are the biggest users of water and account for 88% of the total industrial water use. They are followed by engineering (5.05%) pulp & paper (2.26%) and textiles (2.07%) industries. 


To obtain full benefits of demographic dividend, what should India do? 

  • b option will not provide any benefit of demographic dividend. Social security schemes can be used for providing security to nonworking population like old-age pension etc.
  • c option is one of the Millenium Development Goal, but it does not provide any benefit of demographic dividend
  • d option can infact have negative effect as it will make education costlier thus making it out of reach of a large section of eligible population 

In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called ‘Tribhanga' has been a favourite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?


Tribhanga, literally meaning three parts break, consists of three bends in the body; at the neck, waist and knee, hence the body is oppositely curved at waist and neck which gives it a gentle "S" shape.


Annie Besant was: 

1. Responsible for starting the Home Rule Movement

2. The founder of the Theosophical Society

3. Once the President of the Indian National Congress

Select the correct statement / statements using the codes given below. 

  • Annie Besant has become the head of the Theosophical Society, based in Adyar, Madras.  It was a eligious movement, founded by the Russian Madame Blavatsky, and not Besant herself.
  • Theosophy preached a mixture of social reform, cultivation of occult practices, and celebration of ancient Hindu wisdom that predatedWestern civilization. The first and third statements are correct, you must know that the INC Session of 1917 was headed by Annie Besant at Calcutta. 

The Ilbert Bill Controversy was related to the__:  

  • Ilbert Bill is named after Courtenay Peregrine Ilbert, who was appointed as legal adviser to the Council of India.
  • The bill was introduced in 1883 by Viceroy Ripon, who actually desired to abolish the racial prejudice from the Indian Penal Code.
  • Ripon had proposed an amendment for existing laws in the country and to allow Indian judges and magistrates the jurisdiction to try British offenders in criminal cases at the District level.
  • It was never allowed before. So naturally, the Europeans living in India looked it as a Humiliation and the introduction of the bill led to intense opposition in Britain as well as India (by the British residents). So it was withdrawn but was reintroduced and enacted in 1884 in a severely compromised state.

A rise in general level of prices may be caused by___:  

1. An increase in the money supply

2. A decrease in the aggregate level of output

3. An increase in the effective demand

Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 

  1. This question is simply asking which of them can cause inflation.
  2. The first statement is obviously correct. The second and third statements you can opt in simply by commonsense.
  3. Lets see how.  A decrease in aggregate level of output
    • If there is a decrease in aggregate level of output, the money available in the economy will chase for goods / services which are now less available now. This may lead to inflation.
  4. An increase in the effective demand
    • If there is an increase in the effective demand, this would mean that too much money is chasing too few goods. This also may cause inflation.  

Which one of the following groups of items is included in India's Foreign Exchange Reserves?  


It contains  

1. SDRs

2. Gold

3. Foreign Currency Assets

4. Reserve Tranche Position in IMF 


Which one of the following is likely to be the most inflationary in its effect? 


In the above beautifully carved question, correct answer is A.  

(1) The three option statements viz. B, C and D in the question are revolving around the refinancing the budget deficit. We discuss the given options B, C and D first.  

(2) Government borrows from Public

  • If the government borrows from the public, funds are diverted from the private sector to government and there is a crowding out means shortage of funds.

(3) Government Borrows from Banks

  • If the Government borrows from the banks, the same effect will be seen as funds will be diverted from the banking system and banks will have less money to lend.

(4) Creating new money

  • (this means borrows from RBI) At the same time, if the government borrows from the central bank (RBI) by selling bonds, it receives new money from the central bank in exchange for the bonds.
  • When this new money is spent, aggregate expenditure increases. Since, in this case, funds are not diverted from the private sector, there is no crowding out (i.e., there is no shortage of funds for investment in the private sector).
  • Deficit financing underThus, the expansionary effect is greater than when the deficit is financed by borrowing from the public. This new money increases effective demand which, if there exist unemployed labour and idle production capacity in the economy may raise employment and output.
  • Deficit financing undertaken for the purpose of building up useful capital during a short period of time, is likely to improve productivity and ultimately, increase the supply of consumption goods. And the increase in productivity can act as an anti-inflationary measure.

(4) The first statement: Repayment of Public Debt  

  • If the government pays back the money which is held in its bonds, it will increase the available liquidity in the system, it can cause inflation. There are several ways of repayment of public debt and government chooses carefully, whether it has to actually redeem the bonds or to choose other ways.

Supply of money remaining the same when there is an increase in demand for money, there will be __: 


If the supply is same, and there is more demand for money, obviously the interest rates will increase. 


 Fruits stored in cold chamber exhibit long storage life because ___:


Respiration is the chemical process by which fruits and vegetables convert sugars and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Metabolic activity in fresh fruits and vegetables continues for a short period after harvest. The energy required to sustain this activity comes from the respiration process. Respiration involves the oxidation of sugars to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. The storage life of a commodity is influenced by its respiratory activity. By storing a commodity at low temperature, respiration is reduced and senescence is delayed, thus extending storage life. 


Consider the following fauna of India___:  

1. Gharial

2. Leatherback turtle

3. Swamp deer

Which among the above is / are endangered? 


Gharial Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is the most uniquely evolved crocodilian in the world, a specialized, river-dwelling, fisheater. It is critically endangered and the critical condition of the Gharial reflects the endangered status of rivers. In India, we have only viable population in the National Chambal Sanctuary, spread across three states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in India. Small non-breeding populations exist in Son, Gandak, Hoogly and Ghagra rivers. Now extinct in Myanmar, Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh.  

Leatherback Loggerhead, Hawksbill and Leatherback  are common names of the Turtles found in India. Turtles are placed in reptiles. The five species are Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea). Leatherback is Critically Endangered.

Barasingha Swamp Deer  or the Barasingha is vulnerable not endangered. It is found in isolated localities in northern and central India, and southwestern Nepal. It is extinct in Pakistan and Bangladesh. 


 Ball bearings are used in bicycles, cars, etc., because__:


Ball bearings are used to reduce friction between the surfaces.

A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads.

Ball bearing are used in bicycles, axel cars etc to reduce friction between the surfaces and also because the effective area of contact between the wheel axle is reduced

Ball bearings are spherical in shape. When these move they are not dragged, they roll in any direction. With a little effort (force and energy) these can be moved. The friction force that causes these to move is ROLLING friction and is minimum as compared to static friction and dynamic friction.


 Consider the following phenomena ___:  

1. Size of the sun at dusk

2. Colour of the sun at dawn

3. Moon being visible at dawn

4. Twinkle of stars in the sky

5. Polestar being visible in the sky

Which of the above are optical illusions?   


Size of the sun at Dusk :This is a correct option. The Sun appears smaller during noon but larger at dawn or more clearly at dusk. The apparent difference in the size comes from Optical Illusion. At dawn, Sun is seen with other objects on horizon and looks big. At noon, Sun is all alone in vast expense of sky, so looks small. 

Color of the Sun at Dawn: A halo is a ring around the moon or sun produced by refraction of light through a thin cloud of ice crystals. The halo had red colors on the inside of the ring shifting to blue on the outside. This is also a correct statement. The color effects such as red colors of halo, the reddish colored sunpillars etc. are optical illusions. 

Twinkling of stars: Twinkling of stars is also an optical illusion caused by the refraction of light while moving through various layers of atmospheres. 

Moon being visible at Dawn: Moon is appears larger than size. The statement is ambiguous so opted out.  

Polestar being visible in the sky: Polestar is visible in the sky from northern latitudes. There is apparent motion of all stars in the night except Pole star. Of course this is an optical illusion. It is really us on Earth doing all the actual moving. But this statement does not say anything on that. This option is thus opted out


With reference to the history of philosophical thought in India, consider the following statements regarding Sankhya school?

1. Sankhya does not accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul. 

2. Sankhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior influence or agent.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 


Samkhya is an Orthodox Indian philosophical system. Orthodox Indian philosophical system believes in soul and karma theory. For Karma theory to hold, soul has to undergo rebirth or transmigration. Therefore, without liberation no soul can be free from the cycle of rebirth or transmigration.

Samkhya school philosophy- after you have ‘died’ in this life you will go through a process of rebirth where depending on your actions in your former life your status will be decided. 


In the context of India, which of the following principles is/are implied institutionally in the parliamentary government?

1. Members of the cabinet are members of the parliament.

2. Ministers hold the office till they enjoy confidence in the parliament.

3. Cabinet is headed by the head of the state. Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


A The third statement you can opt out because head of the state is President and he / she does not head the cabinet. The second statement is correct and the first statement is also correct. 


The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What is/are the reason/ reasons?

1. Thermal difference between land and water

2. Variation in altitude between continents and oceans

3. Presence of strong winds in the interior

4. Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


The first statement is correct as we all know. One major factor affecting the distribution of the temperature of Earth is distribution of Land and Oceans. Since there is more land in Northern Hemisphere and more waters in Southern hemisphere and there is a big difference between the specific heat of land and water; the loss of heat from the continents is bigger than the oceans. The continents get heated faster and get cooled faster in comparison to the Oceans. This is the reason that the temperatures of the Oceans are moderate while that of continents is extreme. The moderating effect on temperature of the land due to proximity of the seas is called Maritime influence. The increasing effect on temperature of the land at interior of the continents is called Continental Influence. In the above question, the statement 2 is framed as a wrong statement, statement 3 is also a wrong statement and statement 4 is also a wrong statement.  


Which of the following is/are the characteristic/ characteristics of Indian coal?

1. High ash content

2. Low sulphur content

3. Low ash fusion temperature Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Indian coals by their very nature are high in ash content but low in sulphur content. Indian coal is its high ash fusion temperature of about 1,500°C.  


Which of the following statements regarding laterite soils of India are correct ?

1. They are generally red in colour.

2. They are rich in nitrogen and Potash.

3. They are well-developed in Rajasthan and UP.

4. Tapioca and Cashew nuts grow well on these soils.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


The first statement is correct. The second statement is partially correct (it should have been rich in Iron Oxide and Potash to be correct), The third statement is incorrect and the fourth statement is correct. I am hereby inserting a snippet from SGS 30:  

  • The Laterite soils develop in areas with high temperature and high rainfall and are common in the high altitude areas of Peninsular plateau.  
  • Laterite soil and is mainly found on the summits of the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal Hills, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa plateau, thus abundant in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.
  • Laterite soil represents intense leaching due to heavy rains, due to which the lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind. Then, the Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrives well in high temperature.
  • This implies that the Laterite soil is poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess.  Due to excess of Iron, laterites are not suitable for cultivation ; however, application of manures and fertilisers are required for making the so ils fertile for cultivation .
  • Red Laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for tree crops like cashewnut.
  • Laterite soils are widely cut as bricks for use in house construction.   

Consider the following statements : 

1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.

2. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.

3. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Natural gas is obtained alongwith oil in all the oil fields but exclusive reserves have been located along the eastern coast as well as (Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura, Rajasthan and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra. 

Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period.


Consider the following crops :

1. Cotton  

2. Groundnut

3. Rice

4. Wheat

Which of these are Kharif crops?  

  • Kharif crops or monsoon crops are cultivated and harvested during the rainy (monsoon) season in the South Asia, which lasts between April and October depending on the area. Cotton, groundnut and rice (paddy) are Kharif crops.
  • Rabi crops refer to agricultural crops sown in winter and harvested in the spring. Wheat is major Rabi crop

“Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herders”. The above statement best describes which of the following regions? 


Steppe's climate is continantal with extremes of temp. Nomadic tribes like Kirghiz are found. Rainfall is expected to be light. African Savannah gets moderate raifall. 


Consider the following statement :  

1. Inflation benefits the debtors.

2. Inflation benefits the bond-holders.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?   


For debtors, "real" interest rate goes down with inflation. Thus it benefits them

On the other hand, with inflation the yield of bonds goes down, thus a negative effect for bond-holders


Disguised unemployment generally means?  


Disguised unemployment is one of the major features of Indian Agriculture. It seems that all members of a family are employed but if one member is withdrawn, there is no change in total output. The third statement Marginal Productivity is low is a correct statement. 


Consider the following statements :

1. The council of Ministers in the centre shall be collectively responsible to the Parliament.

2. The Union Ministers shall hold the office during the pleasure of the president of India.

3. The Prime Minister shall communicate to the president about the proposals for legislation.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct? 


Consider the following statements :

1. National development council is an organ of the planning commission.

2. The economic and social planning is kept in the concurrent list in the constitution of India.

3. The constitution of India prescribes that Panchayats should be assigned the task of preparation of plans for economic development and social justice.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?


NDC is listed as an advisory body to Planning commission. Moreover the plans made by Planning commission are placed before NDC for its acceptance. So statement 1 is wrong. 


Consider the following statements :

1. The chairman and the deputy chairman of the Rajya Sabha are not the members of that house.

2. While the nominated members of the two houses of the parliament have no voting right in the presidential election, they have the right to vote in the election of the vice President.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


 The first statement is not correct because its talks about chairman as well as the deputy chairman. The Vice-President of India is ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.  Rajya Sabha also chooses from amongst its members, a Deputy Chairman. The second statement is correct

  • President: Elected members of parliament (MPs from Lok Sabha as well as Rajya Sabha). Elected members of State legislative members, including that if NCT of Delhi and Pondicherry  
  • Vice President:  Vice President is elected indirectly, by an electoral college consisting of members of both houses of the Parliament

With reference to National Legal Service Authority, consider the following statements :

1. Its objective is to provide free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society on the basis of equal opportunity.

2. It issues guidelines for the state legal services authorities to implement the legal programmes and schemes throughout the country.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct? 


The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes. In every State, State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect to the policies and directions of the NALSA and to give free legal services to the people and conduct Lok Adalats in the State. 


During a thunderstorm, the thunder in the skies is produced by the:  

1. Meeting of cumulonimbus clouds in the sky

2. Lightning that separates the nimbus clouds

3. Violent upward movement of air and water particles

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 

  • Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air. They can occur inside warm, moist air masses and at fronts. As the warm, moist air moves upward, it cools, condenses, and forms cumulonimbus clouds that can reach heights of over 20 km (12.45 miles). The thunderstorms are associated with the cumulonimbus clouds. These clouds normally form on warm sunny days but they can also be found on cold front.  
  • But this question is asking about the Thunder i.e. the sound produced. The lightning generates between 100 million and 1 billion volts of electricity and can heat the air to around 50K°F. The rapid expansion causes the shock waves. Thunder happens because the lightning would heat the air at huge temperatures and the air expands so fast that it makes a loud clap of thunder. 

Consider the following pairs : Tribes State  
1. Limbo (Limbu)   : Sikkim  
2. Karbi                  : Himachal Pradesh  
3. Dongaria             : Kondh Odisha  
4. Bonda                 : Tamil Nadu
Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?   

  • The Limboo people also known as Subba, Yakthungba, Limboo and Tshong of Sikkim are the ethnic minority tribal community who have their distinct identity as one of the indigenous inhabitants of Sikkim having own script, culture, food habits, attire, customs, traditions, religion and
  • Karbi Tribes are mainly dominated in the Karbi Anglong districtof Assam. Some are also found in North Cochar Hills, Nagaon, Golaghat, Kamrup, Jorhat, Sonitpur and Lakhimpur districts of Assam and in the bordering states of Nagaland and Meghalaya.
  • Bondas live in the remote Bonda hills. The landscape is quite inspiring with steep roads to climb up the green hill slopes and amazing jungles that seem to go for ever. The Bondas are national tribe of people approximately 5000 in number, living in the confined hill regions to the Malkangiri district of southwestern most Orissa, near to the confluence to the three states of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh. The Bonda are scheduled tribe of India and are also known as Remo.
  • Dongaria are indigeneous tribal group in Orissa.

Consider the following liquid assets :

1. Demand deposits with the banks

2. Time deposits with the banks

3. Savings deposits with the banks

4. Currency

The correct sequence of these assets in the decreasing order of liquidity is


Liquidity of currency is highest. Next will come demand liabilities, as they have to be cleared when demanded. Next savings and least liquidity will be of time deposits


In the context of Indian economy, 'open market operations' refers to?


The repo and reverse repo rates are used when RBI purchase or sale the government securities. This route is known as Open Market Operations 


Under the scheduled tribes and other traditional forest Dwellers (recognition of forest rights) act, 2006, who shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forest rights or both? 


The Gram Sabha shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forest rights or both that may be given to the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers within the local limits of its jurisdiction under this Act by receiving claims, consolidating and verifying them and preparing a map delineating the area of each recommended claim in such manner as may be prescribed for exercise of such rights and the Gram Sabha shall, then, pass a resolution to that effect and thereafter forward a copy of the same to the Sub-Divisional Level Committee.


Improper handling and storage of cereal grains and oilseeds result in the production of toxins known as aflatoxin which are not generally destroyed by normal cooking process. Aflatoxin are produced by ? 


Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus.

The term "mould" is a common name having no taxonomic significance. It is applied to a variety of fungi which grow as semi-microscopic organisms, and whose mycelium tends to form a loose meshwork rather than a dense tissue. 


Economic justice as one of the objectives of the Indian constitution has been provided in ? 


Directive Principles strive for the 'economic democracy/justice' while Fundamental rights strive for 'Political democracy/justice' 


Due to improper / indiscriminate disposal of old and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?

1. Beryllium  

2. Cadmium

3. Chromium

4. Heptachlor  

5. Mercury

6. Lead

7. Plutonium  

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Beryllium is used in circuit board, Hard disk drive, Motherboard, Wiring board and Connectors.So Option C is wrong. Mercury is a key part of some modern technologies, including LCD screens ,Laptop and computers so Option A is also wrong.

Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide. So Option D is also wrong. If initially we are sure about Heptachlor then we can easily eliminate A,C and D.

So correct answer is B.


Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by ? 


Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides both combine with water in the atmosphere to create acid rain. 


With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements :  

1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.

2. Food chains are found within the population of a species.

3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 


A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition.


Consider the following pairs:

 Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched? 


Ramganga, a tributary of Ganga passes through Corbett NP but Ganga does. Kaveri and Manas also do not pass through Silent valley and Kaziranga NP respectively. 


Consider the following organisms :

1. Agaricus

2. Nostoc

3. Spirogyra

Which of the above is/are used as biofertilizer/ biofertilizers?


Agaricus:  Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.
Nostoc:- Bioinoculants are the microbial preparations that enhance the uptake of nutrients by plants from the soil, increase the avaliability of the nutrients and stimulate plant growth.
There are two types of organisms which are used as inoculants: symbiotic organisms (such as Rhizobium, Synorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Nostoc, Anabaena, etc.) and non-symbiotic organisms (such as Azotobacter, Azospirilum, Beijerinckia, etc.)
Spirogyra: Spirogyra is a genus of filamentous green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus. 


Which of the following adds/ add nitrogen to the soil?

1. Excretion of Urea by animals

2. Burning of coal by man

3. Death of vegetation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Carnivorous animals feed on herbivorous animals that live on plants. When animals defecate, this waste material is broken down by worms and insects mostly beetles and ants. These small ‘soil animals’ break the waste material into smaller bits on which microscopic bacteria and fungi can act. This material is thus broken down further into nutrients that plants can absorb and use for their growth. Thus nutrie nts are recycled back from animals to plants.
Similarly the bodies of dead animals are also broken down into nutrients that are used by the plants for their growth. Thus the nitrogen cycle on which life is dependent is completed. Statement 2 is wrong as burning of coal does not produce Nitrogen of its compounds. 


In which of the following states is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural Habitat?

1. Tamil Nadu  

2. Kerala

3. Karnataka

4. Andhra Pradesh  

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


The lion- tailed macaque is one of the most endangered primates of India , confined in distribution to the rainforests of southern Western Ghats. Habitat specialists, they have adapted themselves to the evergreen environments available in the south Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 


Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two ? 


Please remember Chaitya≈Church , Vihara≈Monastery Both early Chaityas and Viharas were made by woods and later stonecut Chaityas and Viharas were made. So we eliminate the second statement. Chaitya was a rectangular prayer hall with a  stupa placed in the centre, the purpose was prayer. The Chaitya was divided into three parts, and had an  apsidal ending, that is, a semicircular rear end, The central part of the hall (also called the nave) was  separated from the two aisles by two rows of  pillars, The chaityas also had polished interior walls, semicircular roofs and horse-shoe shaped windows  called the Chaitya windows. Viharas were the residences of the monks. 


Which one of the following describes best the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism ? 


According to the constitution of India, which of the following are fundamental for the governance of the country? 


Article 37 says that Directive Principles are fundamental for the governance of country


The people of India agitated against the arrival of Simon commission because ?  


The Simon Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament of United Kingdom that came to India in 1928 to study constitutional reform. The people of India were outraged, as the Simon Commission, which was to determine the future of India, did not include a single Indian member in it.


Quit India movement was launched in response to ?  


The Cripps Mission Proposal , which included terms like establishment of Dominion, establishment of a Constituent Assembly and right of the Provinces to make separate constitutions, These would be, however, granted after the cessation of the Second World War,So fail to satisfy Indian Nationalists. According to the Congress this Declaration only offered India a promise that was to be fulfilled in the future. Commenting on this Gandhi said; "It is a post dated cheque on a crashing bank and in CWC meeting at wardha july 1942 accepted the idea of Struggle


The balance of payments of a country is a systematic record of ?  


The balance of payments (BoP) record the transactions in goods, services and assets between residents of a country with the rest of the world for a specified time period typically a year. so best option is A.


The Reserve bank of India regulates the commercial banks in matters of :

1. Liquidity of assets

2. Branch expansion  

3. Merger of banks

4. Winding-up of banks

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


All statemets are implied from the fact that RBI is regulator of Banks. One could think that merger might come under CCI only but its comes both under CCI and RBI.

1. CRR, SLR etc.
2. Press Information Bureau English ReleasesAs per Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) Branch Authorisation Policy, general permission has been granted to domestic Scheduled Commercial Banks (other than RRBs) to open branches / mobile branches / Administrative Offices / CPCs (Service Branches),
(i) in Tier 3 to Tier 6 centres (with population up to 49,999) and
(ii) in rural, semi-urban and urban centres of the North-Eastern States and Sikkim subject to reporting. Opening of branches by these banks in Tier 1 and Tier 2 centres (centres with population of 50,000 and above) requires prior approval of RBI except in North Eastern States and Sikkim.
Banks apply for authorisations for opening of branches in Tier 1 and Tier 2 centres in their Annual Branch Expansion Plan.
3. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the banking space may require clearance from fair market watchdog, Competition Commission of India (CCI), as well as the sector regulator, Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Earlier, the indications were that only involuntary mergers and acquisitions, the ones directed by the RBI, would go to the central bank along with the CCI. However, all mergers and acquisitions may now come under both. While the CCI will look at the competition part of such deals, the RBI will see prudential aspects.
4. RBI issued order to windup few banks in recent past. ( Sahara India Financial Corp (SIFCL), the parabanking arm of Sahara India Pariwar, Siddharth Cooperative Bank, some Banks from Gujarat). Implied from deposit insurance and credit guarantee corporation (DICGC) scheme.


An increase in the bank rate generally indicates that the ? 


a is wrong, as increase in bank rate generally implies an increase in RoI. b is obviously wrong. c is wrong as in easy money policy, central bank provides money at a cheaper rate so that market supply can increase


In India deficit financing is used for raising resources for ? 


Deficit financing is defined as financing the budgetary deficit through public loans and creation of new money. Deficit financing in India means the expenditure which in excess of current revenue and public borrowing. the government may cover the deficit in the following ways.

  1. By running down its accumulated cash reserve from RBI.
  2. Issue of new currency by government it self.
  3. Borrowing from reserve bank of India and RBI gives the loans by printing more currency notes.

Objectives of deficit financing:

1. To finance war: Deficit financing has generally being used as a method of financing war expenditure. During the war time through normal methods of raising resources. It becomes difficult to mobilize adequate resources. Therefore government has to adopt deficit financing.

2. Remedy for depression : In developed countries deficit financing is used as on instrument of economic policy for removing the conditions of depression. Prof. Keynes has also advocated for deficit financing as a remedy for depression and unemployment.

3. Economic development: The main objective of deficit financing in an under developed country like India is to promote economic development. The use of deficit financing in fact becomes essential for financing the development plan especially in underdeveloped countries.

4. Mobilization of Resources : deficit financing is also used for the mobilization of surplus, ideal and unutilized resources in the country.

5. For granting subsidies : In a country like India government grants subsidies to the producers to encourage them to produce a particular type of commodity, granting subsidies is a very costly affair which we cannot meet with the regular income this deficit financing becomes must for it.

6. Increase in aggregate demand : Deficit financing loads to increase in aggregate demand through increased public expenditure. This increase the income and purchasing power of the people as a consequence there is an increase availability of goods and services and the production and employment level also increase.

7. For payment of interest: Loan which are taken by the govt. are supposed to be repaid with their interest for that government needs money deficit financing is an important tool to get the income for the repayment of loan along with the interest.

8. To overcome low tax receipts.

9. To overcome the losses of public sector enterprises

10. For implementing anti poverty programme.


Which of the following characterizes/ characterize the people of Indus civilization?

1. They possessed great palaces and temples.

2. They worshipped both male and female deities.

3. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.  

Select the correct statement/ statements using the codes given below. 


There were no temples in Indus Civilization and we have discussed a lot about the horses over there


Which of the following diseases can be transmitted from one persons to another through tattooing ?

1. Chikungunya

2. Hepatitis B


Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Currently there are some 200+ communicable diseases that can be transmitted through tattooing. Hepatitis B:- Hepatitis B and C can lead to serious, permanent liver damage and are known to be transmittable through tattooing. Hepatitis can survive outside its host for up to two weeks and can resists most normal forms of disinfection. Also, studies show that the ratio of hepatitis transmission through accidental needle stick is much greater than that of HIV. About one in five as opposed to one in 200 for HIV.

HIV/AIDS:- The term needle in tattooing is a misnomer since tattoos are not applied by needles but rather with pins. A needle is typically a hollow core implement that is used primarily for intravenous injections such as a syringe or IV needle. Tattoo 'needles' are solid core and push the ink into the skin rather than inject it. This requires that the ink, and any contaminated blood mixed with it, must adhere to the outside surface of the pins causing the virus to come into contact with the open air


Which of the following statements is/are applicable to Jain doctrine?

1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance.

2. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul.

3. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


The Jain doctrine has so much stress on Karma, which is known by its uncompromising sincerity and steadfast faith in dealing with Karma through penance and austerities. This doctrine has no place for God's grace or God as the dispenser of fruits of deeds.  This is how the Santhara is one of the most revered acts in Jainism. The second and third statements are also correct. The jain doctrine says that the Karma particles cover the soul and to liberate the soul, that had to be ended. 


Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms? 


The ecological niche is the ecological role and space that an organism fills in an ecosystem.The ecological niche involves both the place where an organism lives and the roles that an organism does in its habitat. For example, the ecological niche of a sunflower growing in the backyard includes absorbing light, water and nutrients (for photosynthesis), providing shelter and food for other organisms (e.g. bees, ants, etc.), and giving off oxygen into the atmosphere.


Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among ? 


Major Chemical Pollutants in Photochemical Smog:-
1) Nitrogen Oxides(NO and NO2)
2) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
3) Ozone (O3)
4) Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN)


Consider the following minerals:

1. Calcium

2. Iron

3. Sodium

Which of the minerals given above is/are required by human body for the contraction of muscles? 


Calcium: Calcium is essential for activating enzymes which cause muscle contraction.

Iron: Iron helps support continued muscle function by supporting energy production in your muscle cells, so that muscle fibers always have the energy they need to contract properly. Iron also helps muscles store oxygen to fuel muscle contractions, and promotes healthy circulation so that muscles can get additional oxygen from bloodstream.

Sodium: One need sodium for muscle contraction because it balances potassium to maintain membrane potential.


What will follow if a money bill is substantially amended by the Rajya Sabha ? 


Although Rajya Sabha can't amend or reject the money bill, but it can make recommendations, which lok sabha may or may not accept. So statement 1 is correct.


Which one of the following statements is correct?  


Statement 1 - Same person can be appointed as Governor of two or more states at the same time.
Statement 2 - Judges of HC are also appointed by President
Statement 4 - In case of UTs, CM is appointed by President.


Which of the following pairs is correctly matched ? 

  • Atlas mountain easy question, was also in news related to terrorism and coup in Mali/ sahel region
  • Abyssinian plateau is in Ethiopia (in Africa) ( in world history, we study abyssinia defeating Italy in 1896)
  • Guiana Highland : In South America
  • Okavango basin/swamp : In Southern part of in Africa.

With reference to the history of Indian rock-cut architecture, consider the following statements :

1. The caves at Badami are the oldest Surviving rock-cut caves in India.

2. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.

3. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?  


The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BC, Maurya period, of Ashoka (r. 273 BC to 232 BC.) and his son, Dasaratha. hese caves were used by ascetics from the Ajivika sect, founded by Makkhali Gosala.

Ellora is a World Heritage Site The 12 Buddhist (caves 1–12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30–34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history


Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) allows genes to be transferred :

1. Across different species of plants

2. From animals to plants

3. From microorganisms to higher organisms

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Recombinant DNA is the general name for taking a piece of one DNA, and and combining it with another strand of DNA. All three options in the question are correct.

Examples of these methods are:
1) The gene 'Chitinase' has source organism 'Rice' and characteristic conferred on transformed plants is Fungal resistance.
2)The gene '2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase' has source organism 'Rat' and characteristic conferred on transformed plants is Virus resistance .
3)Human Proteins 'Somatostatin' have been synthesized from genes in bacteria and used in the treatment of Growth disorders.


The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who visited India recorded the general conditions and culture of India at that time. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct ?

1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.

2. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.

3. The tradesmen had to play duties at ferries and barrier stations. Select the correct answer using the codes given below.  


Violent crime was rare, but the roads and river routes were exposed to brigands as Hiuen - tsang fell victim to them more than once. Criminal law was exceptionally severe. Imprisonment for life was the ordinary penalty for violation of the statute law and conspiracy against the sovereign; prisoners were not treated as human beings. but on festive and joyous occasions they were, however, released. The punishment were of cruel nature as mutilation of the nose, ears, hands or feet being inflicted as the penalty of serious offences. Sometimes the offenders were deported to another country. Ordeals by fire, water or poison were sometimes taken recourse to establish the innocence or guilt of a person. The severity of the criminal law acted as a deterrent to violation of law.


Consider the following :  

1. Star tortoise

2. Monitor lizard

3. Pygmy hog

4. Spider monkey

Which of the above are naturally found in India? 


Spider Monkeys live in tropical climates, specifically the evergreen forests of Central and South America. They can also be found as far north as Mexico but not in India.


Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India ?

1. Arsenic

2. Sorbitol

3. Fluoride

4. Formaldehyde

5. Uranium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 


Punjab is the first state to report presence of uranium in drinking water in rural areas with almost 70 per cent samples sent to Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) testing positive for presence of the radioactive material


With reference to Indian history, the members of the constituent assembly from the provinces were? 


The Assembly members were elected to it indirectly by the members of the individual provincial legislative assemblies


Consider the following animals :  

1. Sea cow

2. Sea horse

3. Sea lion  

Which of the above is/are mammal/ mammals? 


Mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including sweat glands modified for milk production, hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain.

Sea Cow: Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), also called Steller’s sea cow, very large aquatic mammal.

Sea Horse: Sea horse is a vertabrate fish .

Sea Lion: It is warm blooded, gives birth to live young, has hair, and the female produces milk. All these are characteristics of mammals.


Consider the following statements :

1. An amendment to the constitution of India can be initiated by an introduction of a bill in the Lok sabha only.

2. If such an amendment seeks to make changes in the federal character of the constitution, the amendment also requires to be ratified by the legislature of all the states of India.  

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?  


Statement 1 - it can be initiated in any house.
Statement 2 - The amendment is required to be ratified by only not less than half states of India.


Consider the following statements :  Attorney general of India can  

1. Take part in the proceedings of lok sabha  

2. Be a member of a committee of the lok sabha

3. Speak in the lok sabha

 4. Vote in the lok sabha

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 

  • He has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of Parliament or their joint sittings and in any committee of the Parliament of which he may be named a member, but without the right to vote.
  • Thus, first three statements are correct, fouth is wrong.
  • Final answer (C) 1, 2 and 3 only.

With reference to the usefulness of the by-products of sugar industry, which of the following statements is/are correct ?

1. Bagasse can be used as biomass fuel for the generation of energy.

2. Molasses can be used as one of the feedstock for the production of synthetic chemical fertilizers.

3. Molasses can be used for the production of ethanol. Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Option 1:- When burned by a sugar mill, bagasse, the fibrous material leftover after juice is extracted from sugarcane, usually produces enough electricity to power all of the mill’s operations and then some.
Option 2:- Molasses fertilizer is an organic fertilizer.
Option 3:- Sugarcane ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel produced by the fermentation of sugarcane juice and molasses. Sugarcane ethanol has emerged as a leading renewable fuel for the transportation sector


Variations in the length of daytime and night-time from season to season are due to? 


On its path around the sun, the earth's axis always remains inclined to one side. Because of this constant inclination in one direction, the Northern Hemisphere remains inclined towards the sun or faces the sun during one half of the year. Therefore, a larger part of this hemisphere receives sunlight. Every point in this hemisphere takes a longer time to go out of the sunlight, with the result that the days are longer. In contrast, the Southern Hemisphere is away from the sun. It, therefore, has shorter days and longer nights. During the other half of the year, the Southern Hemisphere is inclined towards the sun. Hence, it has longer days and shorter nights.


The Narmada river flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why ?

1. It occupies a linear rift valley.

2. It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.

3. The land slopes to the west from central India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.  


The Narmada and the Tapi flow through the rift valley.

Statement 3 is wrong as land slopes to the east in the region.

Statement 2 is factually correct however, is not the reason for the rivers to flow to the west.


On the planet earth, most of the freshwater exists as ice caps and glaciers. Out of the remaining freshwater, the largest proportion?  


Out of all the water on Earth, salt water in oceans, seas and saline groundwater make up about 97% of it. Only 2.5– 2.75% is fresh water, including 1.75–2% frozen in glaciers, ice and snow, 0.7–0.8% as fresh groundwater and soil moisture, and less than 0.01% of it as surface water in lakes, swamps and rivers 


Consider the following pairs :
1. Nokrek biosphere reserve : Garo Hills
2. Logtak (Loktak) lake : Bakail Range
3. Namdapha national park : Dafla Hills
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

  • As per tourism website of Meghalaya government, Nokrek is the highest peak in Garo Hills.=>#1 is right.
  • If you observe the school atlas, Loktak lake and Barail range are away from eachother =>#2 is wrong.
  • Eliminate options accordingly, Thus answer=>A only 1.

Consider the following :
1. Electromagnetic radiation
2. Geothermal energy
3. Gravitational force
4. Plate movements
5. Rotation of the earth
6. Revolution of the earth
Which of the above are responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?


Electro-magnetic radiation causes temperature change which induces metamorphism of rocks. Gravity besides being a directional force activating all downslope movements of matter also causes stresses on the earth’s materials. Plate movement results into continent building. The energy emanating from within the earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes. This energy is mostly generated by radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction and primordial heat from the origin of the earth. This energy due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere. Due to variations in geothermal gradients and heat flowfrom within, crustal thickness and strength, the action of endogenic forces are not uniform and hence the tectonically controlled original crustal surface is uneven.


Which of the following bodies does not/do not find mention in the constitution?
1. National development council
2. Planning commission
3. Zonal councils
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


NDC and Planning Commission are non-constitutional and nonstatutory bodies while Zonal councils were set up vide Part-III of 'States Re-organisation Act, 1956'


The demand for the Tebhaga Peasant Movement in Bengal was for___?


The Tebhaga movement was a militant campaign initiated in Bengal by the Kisan Sabha (peasants front of Communist Party of India) in 1946. At that time share-cropping peasants (essentially, tenants) had to give half of their harvest to the owners of the land. The demand of the Tebhaga (sharing by thirds) movement was to reduce the share given to landlords to one third.


The parliament can make any law for whole or any part of India for implementing international treaties?


The constitution empowers parliament to make laws on any matter in state list under five extra ordinary circumstances - Rajya sabha passes resolution, national emergency, states make a request, to implement international agreements, during president's rule.


Which one of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?


Open Ocean-125


Contour Bunding is a method of soil conservation used in ?


Contour bunding (or contour bundling), involves the placement of lines of stones along the natural rises of a landscape. It helps to capture and hold rainfall before it can become runoff, which reduces soil erosion and retards overall water loss


The government enacted the Panchayat extension to scheduled areas (PESA) act in 1996, which one of the following is not identified as its objectives?


Since the laws do not automatically cover the scheduled areas, the PESA Act was enacted to enable the law in these areas.
The Act extended the provisions of Panchayats to the tribal areas of nine states that have Fifth Schedule Areas. Most of the North eastern states under Sixth Schedule Areas (where autonomous councils exist) are not covered by PESA, as these states have their own Autonomous councils for governance. 


Rainbow is produced when sunlight falls on drops of rain. Which of the following physical phenomena are responsible for this ?
1. Dispersion
2. Refraction
3. Internal reflection
Select the correct answer using the codes given below ?


Option:-1 Each individual droplet of water acts as a tiny prism that both disperses the light and reflects it back to our eye.
Option:-2 Since water is more dense than air, light is refracted as it enters the drop.
Option:-3 Some of the light will reflect off the back of the drop if the angle is larger than the critical angle (48° for water).


In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of___?


Ecological succession typically begins when the existing biological community has been cleared away by human activity or natural disturbance such as a fire or severe storm.
The population of trees that once lived in this area can’t grow back because the fire has changed the ground composition. Without tree roots to act as anchors, rain washes away the soil and the ground becomes rocky and barren. This rocky ground, however, proves ideal to lichens, the pioneer population. Mosses and herbs are well suited to living in the shallow soil environment created by the lichen, and they replace the lichen as the dominant population.
Grasses intercept most of the rainwater before it reaches the roots of the shrubs. Because the grasses limit the supply of water to the shrub seedlings, they maintain the integrity of the ecosystem as a grass ecosystem.


Many transplanted seedlings do not grow because?


Newly transplanted trees or shrubs experience some degree of transplant shock. This is simply the plant reacting to having been moved. It is generally caused by damage to the roots of the plant during the transplant. While the thickest roots are nearest to the root ball, the most important roots, those that actually "do the work", are located the farthest away from the plant. These tiny roots are covered by even tinier hairs which absorb most of the water that is eventually carried to the top-growth of the plant. During a transplant, these fine roots are usually destroyed either by being cut to keep the root ball size down, by drying out (some accounts say it only takes 3-4 minutes of exposure to air for these to die), or simply by being jarred and jostled around in the move. As a result of the loss of these feeder roots, the plant is not able to draw the amount of moisture it requires to thrive and grow. The resulting imbalance between the moisture demands of the topgrowth and the reduced ability of the roots to meet those demands manifests as transplant shock.


Economic growth in country X will necessarily have to occur if?


a and d statement does not say anything about the country X, only the general world economy. In b, if there is population growth without any avenues for the economy to absorb them, it will have a deteoriarating effect. c is the most appropriate option, as whenever there is capital formation in country it will lead to growth


Which of the following statements is/are correct ?
1. Viruses lack enzymes necessary for the generation of energy.
2. Viruses can be cultured in any synthetic medium.
3. Viruses are transmitted from one organism to another by biological vectors only.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Option 1 is right because viruses do not have the chemical machinery needed to survive on their own.

Option 2 is wrong because they seek out host cells in which they can multiply. Viruses can't be grown on synthetic media (e.g. agar [a type of geletin]) but they can be grown on cultures of bacteria. Bacteria reproduce and live like any other living organism would, it takes in nutrients and reproduces using binary fission (like mitosis).Viruses on the other hand are like little aliens. They really aren't "living" since they don't absorb nutrients or produce waste.


Which of the following leaf modifications occurs/occur in desert areas to inhibit water loss ?
1. Hard and waxy leaves
2. Tiny leaves or no leaves
3. Thorns instead of leaves
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  • Thorn is not a ‘leaf modification’, it is an ‘aerial modification of stem’.
  • Spine” is a leaf modification to protect the plant and help in reducing transpiration.
  • Some desert plants like Opuntia , have no leaves – they are reduced to spines–and the photosynthetic function is taken over by the flattened stems. (Ref: NCERT Biology class12 ch.13 page225)
  • Even Goh Cheng Leong Page 136 mentioned that “Desert plants have few or no leaves, and the foliage is either waxy, leathery, hairy or needle shaped to reduce water loss through transpiration. Some of them are entirely leafless, with pricks or thrones.”

The known forces of nature can be divided into four classes, viz., gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force andstrong nuclear force. With reference to them, which one of the following statements is not correct?


Gravity, the weakest of the four forces, is about 10-36 times the strength of the strong force. This weakness is easily demonstrable on a dry day, when we rub a comb across shirt to give it static electricity and when we hold it over a piece of paper on a desk the piece of paper lifts off the desk. It takes an entire planet to keep the paper on the desk, but this force is easily overcome with everyday materials employing the electromagnetic force.


The efforts to detect the existence of Higgs boson particle have become frequent news in the recent past. What is/ are the importance/ importances of discovering this particle?
1. It will enable us to under-stand as to why elementary particles have mass.
2. It will enable us in the near future to develop the technology of transferring matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them.
3. It will enable us to create better fuels for nuclear fission.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Option 1: The Higgs boson has long been thought the key to resolving the mystery of the origin of mass. The Higgs boson is associated with a field, called the Higgs field, theorized to pervade the universe. As other particles travel though this field, they acquire mass much as swimmers moving through a pool get wet, the thinking goes.
Option 2 and 3 : (Scientist are not sure about these discoveries yet so should be considered as Wrong/Doubtful) How many new discoveries will Higgs Boson help to make for the world? Higgs Boson is not a main item that will open the way for teleportation but it will help to understand about mass, item and travel in time and space. In the close or far future, Higgs Boson may help us to create an unbelievable energy source


Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to?
1. Resist drought and increase absorptive area
2. Tolerate extremes of ph
3. Resist disease infestation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


All three options are correct.
Option-1:- Re-introduction of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi into agricultural soils has been shown to increase crop yields in nutrient poor soils, increase yields for agricultural plants that have large requirement for nutrients and water, and restore structure and fertility to degraded soils. The resulting soil structure allows air and water movement into the soil, encouraging root growth and distribution, allows intra-aggregate organic matter to be slowly decomposed by microbes and converted into plant-available nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to wind and water erosion.

Option-2:- Anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., <pH5) are particularly vulnerable to P limitation. Results from previous studies in these systems are mixed with evidence both for and against P limitation. Shifts in mycorrhizal colonization and community structure help temperate forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake

Option-3:- Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) enhance plant growth through increased nutrient uptake, stress tolerance and disease resistance. As an integral part of the root system, they interact with other microorganisms in soil and result in increased root exudation approaching about 25% of the plant dry matter production. Roots support a multitude of microorganisms that, in concert, can have profound influence on growth and survival of the plant. VAM fungi can alter the root exudation pattern, enhance chitinolytic activity and alter photosynthetic/respiratory deficiencies. VAM-positive plants are known to exhibit varied resistance towards soil-borne and foliar pathogens. The known interactions include a number of mechanisms, such as exclusion of the pathogen, lignification of plant cell walls, changed phosphate nutrition resulting in altered exudation by roots, and formation of inhibitory low molecular weight compounds.


Who among the following constitute the National Development Council?
1. The prime minister
2. The chairman, finance commission
3. Ministers of the union cabinet
4. Chief ministers of the state
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


The National Development Council is presided over by the Prime Minister of India and includes all Union Ministers, Chief Ministers of all the States and Administrators of Union Territories and Members of the Planning Commission. Ministers of State with independent charge are also invited to the deliberations of the Council.


The national income of a country for a given period is equal to the __? 


NNP at factor cost ≡ National Income (NI ) so A is the best option. No other option mentions Nationals.


Which of the following grants/ grant direct credit assistance to rural households?
1. Regional rural banks
2. National bank for agriculture and rural development
3. Land development Banks
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


NABARD do not provide direct assistance. It "refinance" the assistance by other institutions


Consider the following statements:
The parliamentary committee on public accounts:
1. Consists of not more than 25 members of the Lok Sabha
2. Scrutinizes appropriation and finance accounts of the government
3. Examines the report of the comptroller and auditor general of India
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • The Public Accounts Committee consists of not more than 22 members comprising 15 members elected by Lok

Sabha every year from amongst its members.

  • The Public Account Committee carries out the examination of the Appropriation Accounts relating to the

Railways, Defence Services, P&T Department and other Civil Ministries of the Government of India and Reports
of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India thereon as also the Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-
General on Revenue Receipts mainly form the basis of the deliberation of the Committee.

  • The Comptroller and Auditor General is the “friend, philosopher and guide” of the Committee. He attends the

sittings of the Committee and assists it in its deliberations.


Consider the following Bhakti saints :
1. Dadu Dayal
2. Guru Nanak
3. Tyagaraja
Who among the above was/were preaching when the Lodi dynasty fell and Babur took over ?


Guru Nanak ( 1469 – 1539)
Dadu Dayal (1544–1603)
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam (1767 – 1847)
Lodi dynasty fell and Babur took over: 1526


With reference to the food chains in Ecosystems which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/ organisms ?
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Most viruses need a living host organism-they are more like a parasite.
Viruses reproduce by sticking their DNA into living cells and their DNA "takes over" the living cell and uses the living cells' tools to replicate the virus' DNA and make more viruses. Bacteria that are used in decomposition need the dead animals' flesh for food.


The most important fishing grounds of the world are found in the regions where?


Planktons are abundant where warm and cold currents meet. That make these areas important fishing grounds of the wolrd. 


Which of the following is/ are unique characteristic / characteristics of equatorial forests?
1. Presence of tall, closely set trees with crowns forming a continuous canopy
2. Coexistence of a large number of species
3. Presence of numerous varieties of epiphytes
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Equatorial forests are forest ecosystems, found in the Tropical region. It is known for its highly varied forest types and variety of trees, which grow close to each other. The change from one forest type to another can happen within 100 metres, in Equatorial forests. The forest types and trees include tropical rainforest, moist evergreen forest and tropical deciduous forest.


Which of the following constitute capital account?
1. Foreign loans
2. Foreign direct investment
3. Private remittances
4. Portfolio investment
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


Private Remittances forms a part of current account and not capital account


Consider the following historical places :
1. Ajanta caves
2. Lepakshi temple
3. Sanchi stupa
Which of the above places is/ are also known for mural paintings ?


The paintings in the Ajanta caves predominantly narrate the Jataka tales. These are Buddhist legends describing the previous births of the Buddha. These fables embed ancient morals and cultural lores that are also found in the fables and legends of Hindu and Jain texts. The Jataka tales are exemplified through the life example and sacrifices that the Buddha made in hundreds of his past incarnations, where he is depicted as having been reborn as an animal or human.

Lepakshi is a village in the Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, India.It is located 15 km (9.3 mi) east of Hindupur and approximately 120 km (75 mi) north of Bangalore." 'Le pakshi' said Lord Rama to Jatayu, the bird, asking it to get up," says the guide a bit dramatically narrating the episode from Ramayana. The temples are the location of mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings and Kannada inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila, "tortoise shaped hill", are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and Durga.