UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2016: Paper 1 (GS)

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Which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses on its prorogation.
2. A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha, which has not been passed by the Lok Sabha, shall not lapse on dissolution of the Lok Sabha.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees lapse. They (to be pursued further) must be reintroduced in the newlyconstituted Lok Sabha. However, some pending bills and all pending assurances that are to be examined by the Committee on Government Assurances do not lapse on the dissolution of the Lok Sabha.
The position with respect to lapsing of bills is as follows: A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses (whether originating in the Lok Sabha or transmitted to it by the Rajya Sabha).
A bill passed by the Lok Sabha but pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses.
A bill not passed by the two Houses due to disagreement and if the president has notified the holding of a joint sitting before the dissolution of Lok Sabha, does not lapse. A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by the Lok Sabha does not lapse.
A bill passed by both Houses but pending assent of the president does not lapse.
A bill passed by both Houses but returned by the president for reconsideration of Houses does not lapse.


Which of the following is/are the indicator/indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report?
1. Undernourishment
2. Child stunting
3. Child mortality
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. By raising awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger, the GHI aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger.
To reflect the multidimensional nature of hunger, the GHI combines the following four component indicators into one index: Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished people as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population whose caloric intake is insufficient;

Child wasting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from wasting (that is, low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition); Child stunting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from stunting (that is, low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition); and

Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments).


There has been a persistent deficit budget year after year. Which action/actions of the following can be taken by the Government to reduce the deficit?
1. Reducing revenue expenditure
2. Introducing new welfare schemes
3. Rationalizing subsidies
4. Reducing import duty
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Budget deficit is used to define a status of financial health in which expenditures exceed revenue. Reducing the revenue expenditure will certainly help in bridging the gap. Subsidies are a part of expenditure and rationalizing them would reduce the deficit.

Introducing new welfare schemes will most likely result in increasing expenditure and so will expanding industries which would require capital infusion.


The establishment of “Payment Banks’ is being allowed in India to promote financial inclusion. Which of the following statements is/are correct in this context?
1. Mobile telephone companies and supermarket chains that are owned and controlled by residents are eligible to be promoters of Payment Banks.
2. Payment Banks can issue both credit cards and debit cards.
3. Payment Banks cannot undertake lending activities.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


In August 2015, Reserve Bank of India granted 'in-principle' approval to 11 applicants to start payments banks. These include Reliance Industries, Airtel M Commerce Services, Tech Mahindra, Vodafone mpesa, Aditya Birla Nuvo, Department of Posts, Cholamandalam Distribution Services, Fino PayTech, PayTm, National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL) and Sun Pharma. They can issue debit cards but not credit cards.FDI of 74% is allowed in these banks.


With reference to ‘Li-Fi’, recently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It uses light as the medium for high-speed data transmission.
2. It is a wireless technology and is several time faster than ‘WiFi.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Using light to deliver wireless internet will also allow connectivity in environments that do not currently readily support Wi-Fi, such as aircraft cabins, hospitals and hazardous environments. Light is already used for data transmission in fibre-optic cables and for point to point links, but Li-Fi is a special and novel combination of technologies that allow it to be universally adopted for mobile ultra high speed internet communications. Using the visible light spectrum, Li-Fi technology can transmit data and unlock capacity which is 10,000 times greater than that available within the radio spectrum.


The term "Intended Nationally Determined Contribution" is sometimes seen in the news in the context of:


Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France in December 2015.
The INDCs, which lay out the blueprint for tackling climate change, emphasised eight key goals — sustainable lifestyles, cleaner economic development, reducing emission intensity of GDP, increasing the share of nonfossil fuel based electricity, enhancing carbon sink, adaptation and mobilising finance, technology transfer and capacity building.


Which one of the following is a purpose of ‘UDAY’, a scheme of the Government?


The Union Cabinet had given its approval to a new scheme moved by the Ministry of Power - Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojna or UDAY. UDAY provides for the financial turnaround and revival of Power Distribution companies (DISCOMs), and importantly also ensures a sustainable permanent solution to the problem. Under UDAY, state governments will take over 75 per cent of the debt held by their discoms as of September 30, 2015. Half the debt will be taken over in 2015-16 and 25 per cent in 2016-17. The balance 25 per cent of the debt is to be serviced through state government-guaranteed bonds issued by the discoms.


With reference to ‘IFC Masala Bonds’, sometimes given below is/are correct?
1. The International Financed Corporation, with offers these bonds, is an arm of the World Bank.
2. They are the rupee-denominated bonds and are a source of debt financing for the public and private sector.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Bonds are instruments of debt - typically used by corporates to raise money from investors. Masala bonds have to be explained in the context of Indian corporates raising money from overseas investors.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC), the investment arm of the World Bank, issued a Rs. 1,000 crore bond in November last year. The purpose of the issue was to fund infrastructure projects in India.

Companies including NTPC, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Power Finance Corporation, Power Trading Corporation and Rural Electrification Corporation are likely to launch these Masala Bonds totalling $1 billion in the next three or four months in the UK to gauge the investor appetite. The tenor of these bonds is likely to be limited to a band of five to seven years and these are going to be in smaller denominations ranging from $150-250 million. These will be subject to decisions made by the Boards of the PSU energy companies.


Regarding the taxation system of Krishna Deva, the ruler of Vijayanagar, consider the following statements:
1. The tax rate on land was fixed depending on the quality of the land.
2. Private owners of workshops paid an industries tax.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Vijayanagara rulers followed an oppressive taxation policy. The prosperity of the empire can be explained through their taxation principles in the following lines. They collected variety of taxes ranging on the nature of lands.
The villages were classified into eight types for tax purpose. They were:
1)The brahmadeya villages
2) The devadana villages
3) The mathapura villages
4) The sarvamanya villages
5) The kodagi lands
6) Rakta-kodagal lands
7) Guttagi lands
8) The rest of the villages or lands.
The first four types prevailed prior to the Vijayanagar times. Private owners also paid industries taxes. Merchant guilds were empowered to levy taxes on goods manufactured, sold or transported


Which one of the following books of ancient India has the love story of the son of the founder of Sunga dynasty?


Kalidasa is the most distinguished dramatist and his treatment of the rasa of love in all its possible manifestations in the three plays Malavikagnimitra (Malavika and Agnimitra), Vikramorvasiya (Vikram and Urvasi) and Abhigyana Shakuntala (the recognition of Shakuntala) is unparalleled. He is the poet of love and beauty, and believes in the affirmation of life, the joy of which lies in pure, sacred and ever-widening love


In the context of which of the following do you sometimes find the terms ‘amber box, blue box and green box’ in the news? 


In WTO terminology, subsidies in general are identified by “Boxes” which are given the colours of traffic lights: green (permitted), amber (slow down — i.e. be reduced), red (forbidden). In agriculture, things are, as usual, more complicated. The Agriculture Agreement has no Red Box, although domestic support exceeding the reduction commitment levels in the Amber Box is prohibited; and there is a Blue Box for subsidies that are tied to programmes that limit production.

The 'amber box': For agriculture, all domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the amber box.
The 'green box': In order to qualify for the "green box", a subsidy must not distort trade, or at most cause minimal distortion. These subsidies have to be government-funded (not by charging consumers higher prices) and must not involve price support.
The 'blue box': The blue box is an exemption from the general rule that all subsidies linked to production must be reduced or kept within defined minimal ("de minimis") levels. It covers payments directly linked to acreage or animal numbers, but under schemes which also limit production by imposing production quotas or requiring farmers to set aside part of their land. Countries using these subsidies - and there are only a handful - say they distort trade less than alternative amber box subsidies. 

Currently, the only members notifying the WTO that they are using or have used the blue box are: the EU, Iceland, Norway, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and the US (now no longer using the box). 


Which of the following is/are included in the capital budget of the Government of India?
1. Expenditure on acquisition of assets like roads, buildings, machinery, etc
2. Loans received from foreign governments.
3. Loans and advances granted to the States and Union Territories.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


The Capital Budget is an account of the assets as well as liabilities of the central government, which takes into consideration changes in capital. It consists of capital receipts and capital expenditure of the government. This shows the capital requirements of the government and the pattern of their financing The main items of capital receipts are loans raised by the government from the public which are called market borrowings, borrowing by the government from the Reserve Bank and commercial banks and other financial institutions through the sale of treasury bills, loans received from foreign governments and international organisations, and recoveries of loans granted by the central government.
Capital Expenditure: There are expenditures of the government which result in creation of physical or financial assets or reduction in financial liabilities. This includes expenditure on the acquisition of land, building, machinery, equipment, investment in shares, and loans and advances by the central government to state and union territory governments, PSUs and other parties


What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification?
1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive inter-national partnerships.
2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions.
3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Desertification, along with climate change and the loss of biodiversity, were identified as the greatest challenges to sustainable development during the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. Established in 1994, UNCCD is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
The Convention addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found.
The Convention's 195 parties work together to improve the living conditions for people in drylands, to maintain and restore land and soil productivity, and to mitigate the effects of drought.
The UNCCD is particularly committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating desertification and land degradation.
The UNCCD secretariat facilitates cooperation between developed and developing countries, particularly around knowledge and technology transfer for sustainable land management.


Recently, which one of the following currencies has been proposed to be added to the basket of IMF’s SDR?


The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund decided to include the Chinese currency, the renminbi (yuan), into its basket of currencies that make up the IMF’s Special Drawing Right (SDR). The decision was taken during the IMF’s five-yearly review of the basket of currencies.

SDRs are artificial currency created to augment international liquidity. It is neither a currency nor a claim on IMF rather it supplements the existing reserves of member countries of IMF. To be included as SDR a currency must be freely usable, widely used and widely traded. U.S. dollar, the euro, British pound and the Japanese yen form the SDR basket. IMF has decided to include Yuan in the SDR basket with effect from October 1, 2016. The respective weights of the U.S. dollar, euro, Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen, and pound sterling are 41.73 percent, 30.93 percent, 10.92 percent, 8.33 percent.


With reference to the International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC), consider the following statements:
1. IMFC discusses matters of concern affecting the global economy, and advises the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on the direction of its work.
2. The World Bank participates as observer in IMFC’s meetings.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The IMFC advises and reports to the IMF Board of Governors on the supervision and management of the international monetary and financial system, including on responses to unfolding events that may disrupt the system although the IMFC has no formal decision-making powers, in practice, it has become a key instrument for providing strategic direction to the work and policies of the IMF. A number of international institutions, including the World Bank, participate as observers in the IMFC’s meetings.


‘Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan’ is a national campaign to


Campaign has started in 2001 known as ‘Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan’, (National Campaign for Dignity and Elimination of Manual Scavenging) has proven to be a very innovative and effective program to eliminate manual scavenging practice. Campaign has liberated 11,000 women manual scavengers in various parts of India and urged them to give up this caste-based, unconstitutional practice. In its efforts campaign attain to social, economic, political and cultural rehabilitation of Manual Scavenger.


With reference to the cultural history of medieval India, consider the following statements:
1. Siddhas (Sittars) of Tamil region were monotheistic and condemned idolatry.
2. Lingayats of Kannada region questioned the theory of rebirth and rejected the caste hierarchy
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The twelfth century witnessed the emergence of a new movement in Karnataka, led by a Brahmana named Basavanna (1106-68) who was initially a Jaina and a minister in the court of a Chalukya king. His followers were known as Virashaivas (heroes of Shiva) or Lingayats (wearers of the linga).The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the “pollution” attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas. They also questioned the theory of rebirth. These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised within the Brahmanical social order. Siddhas (Sittars) Saiva school in Tamil Nadu which held the monotheistic puritan creed and roundly condemned idolatry, there history are not known they seem to be known as most active during 16th and 17th century.


Which of the following best describes the term “import cover”, sometimes seen in the news?


Import cover is an important indicator of the stability of the currency. It measures the number of months of money available in the national bank to cover the cost of imports or the stock of foreign exchange reserves in terms of months of retained imports of goods as at end of year. During the currency crisis of 2013, when foreign exchange reserves fell to around $275 billion, import cover dipped to around seven months.


Community sometimes mentioned in the news in the affairs of
1. Kurd : Bangladesh
2. Madhesi : Nepal
3. Rohingya : Myanmar
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?


The Madhesi also referred to as Teraibasi Nepali are an indigenous ethnic group of Nepalese people who are natives of the Madhesh plains of Southern Nepal in Terai belt of South Asia.
Between 25 and 35 million Kurds inhabit a mountainous region straddling the borders of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and Armenia. They make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in the Middle East, but they have never obtained a permanent nation state.

The Rohingya are an ethnic Muslim minority in the majority Buddhist Myanmar. Many of their enemies refuse to acknowledge that the Rohingya are an ethnically distinct group. They claim instead that the Rohingya are Bengali and that their presence in Myanmar is the result of illegal immigration (more on that later). The Rohingya, for their part, claim to be pre-colonial residents of Myanmar’s Rakhine state, the Middle East Institute explains, with the earliest known appearance of the term Rohingya in 1799


With reference to ‘Organization for the prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)’ consider the following statements:
1. It is an organization of European Union in working relation with NATO and WHO
2. It monitors chemical industry to prevent new weapons from emerging
3. It provides assistance and protection to State (parties) against chemical weapons threats.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


OPCW is the Hague-based autonomous body, which works within the framework of the United Nations, was established in 1997 by the Chemical Weapons Convention to carry out its mandate.

OPCW Member States share the collective goal of preventing chemistry from ever again being used for warfare, thereby strengthening international security. To this end, the Convention contains four key provisions: destroying all existing chemical weapons under international verification by the OPCW monitoring chemical industry to prevent new weapons from re-emerging; providing assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats; and fostering international cooperation to strengthen implementation of the Convention and promote the peaceful use of chemistry.


With reference to ‘Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana’, consider the following statements:
1. Under this scheme, farmers with have to pay a uniform premium of two percent for any crop they cultivate in any season of the year.
2. This scheme covers post-harvest losses arising out of cyclones and unseasonal rains.
Which of the statements given about is/are correct?


Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is the new crop damage insurance scheme that has been approved by the Union Cabinet in January 2016. It will replace the existing two crop insurance schemes National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and Modified NAIS. The new scheme will come into force from the Kharif season starting in June this year.
One of the highlights included there will be a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops. In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%. Also POST-HARVEST LOSSES includes (individual farm basis): Coverage is available upto a maximum period of 14 days from harvesting for those crops which are kept in "cut & spread" condition to dry in the field after harvesting, against specific perils of cyclone / cyclonic rains, unseasonal rains throughout the country.
Hence only statement 2 is correct.


In which of the following regions of India are you most likely to come across the ‘Great Indian Hornbill’ in its natural habitat?


The great hornbill, a magnificent bird reaching a length of three-and-a-half feet, is distinguished by a big yellow beak with a casque and striking tail feathers the magnificent birds which were a common sight in the Western Ghats are rarely seen, due to deforestation. habitat loss threatens its future, and hunting has depleted populations. It is protected at the highest level under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, but that can do little to save the habitat.


Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)’?
1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.
2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.
3. One of the Chief Ministers of the State through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


The Central Government set up the ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority’ (NGRBA) in 2009 and mandated it to take up regulatory and developmental functions with sustainability needs for effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach for comprehensive planning and management.
The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD & GR) is the nodal Ministry for the NGRBA. The authority is chaired by the Prime Minister and has as its members the Union Ministers concerned, the Chief Ministers of the States through which Ganga flows, viz., Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, among others. This initiative is expected to rejuvenate the collective efforts of the Centre and the States for cleaning the river. NGRBA functions include development of a Ganga River Basin Management Plan, regulation of activities aimed at prevention, control and abatement of pollution, to maintain water quality and to take measures relevant to the river ecology in the Ganga basin states. It is mandated to ensure the maintenance of minimum ecological flows in the river Ganga and abate pollution through planning, financing and execution of programmes including that of
1) Augmentation of Sewerage Infrastructure
2) Catchment Area Treatment
3) Protection of Flood Plains
4) Creating Public Awareness


Why does the Government of India promote the use of ‘Neem-coated Urea’ in agriculture?


Urea is an important supplier of nitrogen, which is necessary for the development of plants. But only 30-40 per cent of nitrogen present in the urea is utilised by crops. The rest gets degraded.
When ordinary urea is applied, it gets converted to ammonium carbamate. Some of this gets converted to ammonia gas in what is called ammonia volatilisation.
About 8-10 per cent nitrogen is lost during volatilization. The rest of the ammonium carbamate undergoes chemical transformation and nitrates are formed. Some of these are absorbed by the plants. The rest are either leached into the underground water or are denitrified to gaseous nitrogen and nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen). Neem has properties that check nitrogen loss at each stage. It slows down the process of nitrate formation and hence excess nitrate is not available for denitrification.
When farmers use this urea, the slow release of nitrogen helps the fertility of the soil. Therefore, there will be more yield to the extent of 15-20%. Also, the higher usage of neem-coated urea would check diversion of urea for industrial use. Neem coated urea also works as insecticide.


Consider the following statements:
1. The Chief Secretary in a State is appointed by the Governor of that State.
2. The Chief Secretary in a State has a fixed tenure
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The incumbent to the post of Chief Secretary is chosen by and appointed by the Chief Minister and the Ministers of the State. The trend is that the Chief Minister consults the Union Government regarding the appointment of the Chief Secretary but, this consultation is not obligatory. There is no fixed tenure for the post of Chief Secretary. Administrative reform commission in 1969 had recommended that a Chief secretary should have a minimum tenure of three to four years.


With reference to ‘Stand-up India Scheme’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Its purpose is to promote entrepreneurship among SC/ST and women entrepreneurs.
2. It provides for refinance through SIDBI.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


"Stand Up India Scheme" was initiated to promote entrepreneurship among Scheduled Castes, Schedule Tribes and Women.
The scheme will provide financial aid through the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) with an initial amount of Rs 10,000 crore. The system will personally guide each entrepreneur through the pre-loan and operational phases.
The scheme will also familiarise the entrepreneurs with factoring services, emarket places and registration with online platforms and other aspects of web entrepreneurship.


The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems. What is the overall goal of this initiative?
1. To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS so as to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity
2. To identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapes, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities
3. To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such indentified GIAHS
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Statement 1 is incorrect. GIAHS aims to protect traditional agricultural systems. It will not provide any modern technology and training.

Statement 2 is correct. GIAHS aims to identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapes, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities.

Statement 3 is also incorrect. There is no such provision.


Which of the following is/are tributary/tributaries of Brahmaputra?
1. Dibang
2. Kameng
3. Lohit
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


All the given rivers Dibang, Kameng and Lohit are the tributaries of Brahmaputra.


The term ‘Core Banking Solution’ is sometimes such in the news. Which of the following statements best describes/describe this term?
1. It is a networking of a bank’s branches which enables customers to operate their accounts from any branch of the bank on its network regardless of where they open their accounts.
2. It is an effort to increase RBI’s control over commercial banks through computerization.
3. It is a detailed procedure by which a bank with huge non-performing assets is taken over by another bank.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Only statement 1 is correct. Core banking solution enables customers to operate their accounts, and avail banking services from any branch of the bank on CBS network, regardless of where they oepn and maintain their account.


Consider the following pairs:
Terms sometimes seen in the news their origin
1. Annex-I Countries: Cartagena Protocol
2. Certified Emissions Reductions: Nagoya Protocol
3. Clean Development Mechanism: Kyoto Protocol
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?


The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), created multilaterally under the UNFCCC is one of the mitigation instruments under the Kyoto Protocol.
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emissionreduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
Annex-I countries are parties to Kyoto protocol.


In the context of the developments in bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refer to


Bioinformatics refers to the application of computer technology to the management of biological information.
Transcriptome refers to the full range of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules expressed from the genes of an organism.


‘Mission Indradhanush’ launched by the Government of India pertains to


Mission Indradhanush: It was launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on 25th Dec 2014. The objective is to ensure that all children under the age of two years as well as pregnant women are fully immunized with seven vaccine preventable diseases. By 2020, provide vaccination to all children who are either unvaccinated or partially vaccinated against:
Pertussis (Whooping cough) Tetanus,
Measles and
Hepatitis B.

The aim is to reach atleast 90% vaccination. At present the immunisation is around 65%.


Which of the following best describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?
1. Incorporating environment benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’.
2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agriculture output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future.
3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.
Select the correct answer using the code given below


The National Mission for Green India (GIM) is one of the eight Missions outlined under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It aims at protecting; restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.
It envisages a holistic view of greening and focuses on multiple ecosystem services, especially, biodiversity, water, biomass, preserving mangroves, wetlands, critical habitats etc. along with carbon sequestration as a cobenefit.
Statements 1 and 2 are not the aims of Green India Mission.


With reference to pre-packaged items in India, it is mandatory to the manufacturer to put which of the following information on the main label, as per the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labelling) Regulations, 2011?
1. List of ingredients including additives
2. Nutrition information
3. Recommendations, if any made by the medical profession about the possibility of any allergic reactions
4. Vegetarian/non-vegetarian
Select the correct answer using the code given below


Every pre-packaged items in India the following information on the label:
1. Name of the food
2. list of ingredients
3. declaration of food additives
4. Net quantity or net weight
5. Batch identification
6. Name and address of the manufacturer
7. Date Marking
8. Veg/ Non veg declaration


'Project Loon', sometimes seen in the news, is related to


Project Loon is a research and development project being developed by Google X with the mission of providing Internet access to rural and remote areas. The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 4G-LTE speeds.
By partnering with Telecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum Google is trying to enable people to connect to the balloon network directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices. Microsoft is planning to use unused TV spectrum to provide internet access in remote areas.


‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the


It is the mechanism of selling the surplus solar power where meters measure the solar power exported to the grid; the consumer is given credit for the exported power, lightening the bill.


India’s ranking in the ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following has declared that ranking?


World bank's Ease of doing business report, India's position has improved from 142 to 130. This is on account of ease of starting a business, dealing with construction permit and getting electricity permits. Now, companies can get connected to the grid and get on with their business, 14 days sooner than before. The number of days it takes to start a new business has gone up marginally from last year, from 28.4 to 29

Credit is one area where India performs poorly and needs to improve. Access to credit and ease of paying taxes has worsened, according to the World Bank’s Doing Business Report 2016.


Banjaras during the medieval period of Indian history were generally


There were many kinds of traders in medieval period these included the Banjaras .They were the most important trader nomads. Their caravan was called tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khalji used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets. Emperor Jahangir wrote in his memoirs that the Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns.


Who of the following had first deciphered the edicts of Emperor Ashoka?


It was James Prinsep in 1837 who succeeded in deciphering an ancient inscription on a large stone pillar in Delhi which was the edict of Emperor Ashoka.


With reference to the ‘Gram Nyayalaya Act’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. As per the Act, Gram Nyayalayas can hear only civil cases and not criminal cases
2. The Act allows local social activists as mediators/reconciliators.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Gram Nyayalayas are mobile village courts in India established under Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 for speedy and easy access to justice system in the rural areas.

1st statement is not correct. Gram Nyayalaya exercises the powers of both Criminal and Civil Courts.

The Gram Nyayalaya are supposed to try to settle the disputes as far as possible by bringing about conciliation between the parties and for this purpose, it can make use of the conciliators such social activists/mediators.


With reference to the ‘Trans-Pacific Partnership’, consider the following statements:
1. It is an agreement among all the Pacific Rim countries except China and Russia.
2. It is a strategic alliance for the purpose of maritime security only.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The Trans-Pacific Partnership was signed by only 12 member nations of Pacific rim, not all the Pacific Rim countries except China and Russia. The members are: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam.
It is not a strategic alliance. It is a trade alliance.


Consider the following statements:
The India-Africa Summit
1. Held in 2015 was the third such Summit
2. Was actually initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The 3rd India-Africa summit was held in New Delhi in October 2015. The previous two gatherings were held in 2008 in New Delhi and in 2011 in Addis Ababa.


What is/are the purpose/purposes of the ‘Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)’ announced by RBI?
1. These guidelines help improve the transparency in the methodology followed by banks for determining the interest rates on advances
2. These guidelines help ensure availability of bank credit & interest rates which are fair to the borrowers as well as the banks
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


To ensure better transmission and transparency of rates, the RBI introduced the MCLR framework, under which banks have to calculate their cost of funds based on the latest rates offered on deposits or borrowings. This was to ensure that changes in deposit rates were immediately reflected on banks’ cost of funds.

Apart from helping improve the transmission of policy rates into the lending rates of banks, these measures are expected to improve transparency in the methodology followed by banks for determining interest rates on advances. The guidelines are also expected to ensure availability of bank credit at interest rates which are fair to the borrowers as well as the banks.

Further, marginal cost pricing of loans will help the banks become more competitive and enhance their long run value and contribution to economic growth.


What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’ a breed found in India?
1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometers in seawater.
2. It survives by grazing on mangrows.
3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.
Selected the correct answer using the code given below:


The Kharai camel grazes on mangroves and is tolerant to saline water. It is found only in Gujarat’s coastal areas. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometers into the sea in search of mangroves. 3rd statement is incorrect. It can be domesticed. Given the breed’s ability to survive both on land and sea, the Kharai camel is one of the most preferred choices of graziers in the arid coastal region of Kachchh. People consume its milk, while male calves are sold for economic returns.


Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?


Scientists at the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) discovered the new species of banana from a remote tropical rain forest on the Little Andaman islands.
The new species has orangecoloured fruit pulp and is about 11 metres high, whereas as the usual banana species is about three to four metres high.


Which one of the following is the best description of ‘INS Astradharini’, that was in the news recently? 


INS Astradharini is India’s first totally indigenously designed (95%) and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel (TLRV).


What is ‘Greased Lightning-10 (GL-10)’, recently in the news?


The Greased Lightning or GL10 is the electric plane with 10 engines tested by NASA that can take off and land like a helicopter and fly efficiently like an aircraft.


With reference to ‘Initiative for Nutritional Security through intensive Millets Promotion’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. This initiative aims to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies, and to demonstrate value addition techniques, in an integrated manner, with cluster approach.
2. Poor, small, marginal and tribal farmers have larger stake in this scheme.
3. An important objective of the scheme is to encourage farmers of commercial crops to shift to millet cultivation by offering them free kits of critical inputs of nutrients and micro-irrigation equipment.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


The statement 1 is correct. The Initiative for Nutritional Security through Intensive Millets Promotion aims to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies in an integrated manner with cluster approach.

Statement 2 is also correct. Millets are mainly grown in regions of low annual rainfall and poor arid soil. It is poor, small, marginal and tribal farmers, who cannot afford costly irrigation practices, depend on cultivation of millets. Hence these farmers benefit from the scheme and have a larger stake in this scheme.
Statement 3 is not correct. There is no such provision of encouraging farmers of commercial crops to shift to millet cultivation.


The ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the


The Swadeshi and Boycott were adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the agitation against the Partition of Bengal in Swadeshi movement.


With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:
1. The concept of Bodhisattva is central to Hinayana sect of Buddhism.
2. Bodhisattva is a compassionate one on his way to enlightenment.
3. Bodhisattva delays achieving his own salvation to help all sentient beings on their path to it.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Bodhisattva in Buddhism is one who seeks awakening or enlightment. This concept is central to Mahayana sect of Buddhism.

In Mahayana Buddhism, bodhisattva refers to a human being committed to the attainment of enlightenment for the sake of others. A Bodhisattva may delay achieving his own salvation to help all sentinent beings on their path to it.


‘Doctors Without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontiercs)’, often in the news, is


Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctors without Borders, an international NGO has warned India that it will no more remain ‘the pharmacy of the developing world’ if the proposed proposals in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement are adopted.


With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.
2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the code given below


The initiative on 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) is an important partner in implementing the CBD programme of work on incentive measures, and in particular its work on valuation. This major international initiative, funded by the European Commission, Germany, United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden, and managed by the United Nations Environment Programme as part of its Green Economy Initiative (GEI), seeks to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions moving forward.

Members of the TEEB Advisory Board include the Executive Director of UNEP, the Executive Secretary of the CBD and the Director General of IUCN, amongst others.


With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:
1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India.
2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Red Sanders, botanical name Pterocarpus santalinus, is a non-fragrant variety of sandalwood that mostly grows in rocky, hilly regions. Saplings reach 8 to 10 m in 3-4 years, but growth slows down after that. The trunks are slender, and it takes at least 20-25 years for the tree’s beautiful, deep red wood to be of use.

It is found in the thorny scrub/dry deciduous forests of the central Deccan, between 500 ft and 3000 ft. only in a small pocket roughly 5,200 sq km in the Palakonda and Seshachalam hills in the districts of Kadapa and Chittoor, in some contiguous areas of Anantapur district, in the Nallamalla forests in Kurnool and Prakasam, and in parts of Nellore district. Some contiguous patches in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka see some wild growth.

Red Sanders is a protected species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora.


Which of following statements is/are correct? Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
1. Protection of biodiversity
2. Resilience of forest ecosystems
3. Poverty reduction
Select the correct answer using the code given below


Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) attempts to create financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. REDD+ goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
It is predicted that financial flows for greenhouse gas emission reductions from REDD+ could reach up to US$30 billion a year. This significant north-south flow of funds could reward a meaningful reduction of carbon emissions and support new, pro-poor development, help conserve biodiversity and secure vital ecosystem services.


What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol?


The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol, developed by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD), sets the global standard for how to measure, manage, and report greenhouse gas emissions. Many companies and organizations around the world are using GHG Protocol standards and tools to manage their emissions and become more efficient, resilient, and prosperous organizations.


With reference to ‘Financial Stability and Development Council’, consider the following statements:
1. It is an organ of NITI Aayog.
2. It is headed by the Union Finance Minister.
3. It monitors macroprudential super-vision of the economy.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) under the chairmanship of union Finance Minister was set up by the government as the apex-level forum in December 2010.


With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:
1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development.
2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.


Satya Shodhak Samaj organized


In Poona, Jyotirao Phooley, though a Mali by caste and of comparatively little education started the association called the Satyashodhak Samaj in 1873 for asserting the worth of man irrespective of caste. He demanded representation of all classes of the Hindus in all the local bodies, in services and institutions and also established a primary school for the so-called untouchables in Poona.


Which of the following statements is/are correct? Viruses can infect
1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Plants
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Viruses are too small to be seen by the naked eye. They can't multiply on their own, so they have to invade a 'host' cell and take over its machinery in order to be able to make more virus particles.Virus infects all of the given organisms (Bacteria, Fungi and Plant).
Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have doublestranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes.
Many different viruses can infect plants. Certain crops are well known to be affected by virus diseases including geraniums, roses, Easter lilies, dahlias, gladiolus, and tulips. The Virus that Infects Bacteria. Coliphage T4 is a virus that looks like an alien landing pod. With its six legs, the bacteriophage attaches to the surface of the much larger bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). Once attached, the bacteriophage injects DNA into the bacterium.


The term ‘Base Erosion and profit shifting’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of


The 2015 final reports of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-led project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) — which refer to the erosion of a nation’s tax base due to the accounting tricks of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and the legal but abusive shifting out of profits to low-tax jurisdictions respectively — lays out 15 action points to curb abusive tax avoidance by MNEs. As a participant of this project, India is expected to implement at least some of these measures.


Recently, India’s first ‘National Investment and Manufacturing Zone’ was proposed to be set up in


Andhra Pradesh is set to house India's first national investment and manufacturing zone after the state assured the Centre of availability of 10 sq km of land in one place in Prakasham district.
The imminent final approval for the NIMZ, which is expected to give a fillip to Make in India campaign, comes four years after the concept was mooted to boost manufacturing in the country and two years after the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion gave an inprinciple nod to Andhra Pradesh in this regard.


What is/are the purpose of ‘District Mineral Foundations” in India?
1. Promoting mineral explorative activities in mineral-rich districts
2. Protecting the interests of the persons affected by mining operations
3. Authorizing State Governments to issue licenses for mineral exploration
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


District Mineral Foundation (DMF) is a trust set up as a non-profit body, in those districts affected by the mining works, to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining related operations. It is funded through the contributions from miners.
Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.


‘SWAYAM’, an initative of the Government of India, aims at


Study Webs of ActiveLearning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM), is a Web portal where Massive Open On-line Courses (MOOCs) will be available on all kinds of subjects. SWAYAM is the Indian electronic e-education platform which proposes to offer courses from the high school stage to Post-Graduate stage in an interactive electronic platform. The IT platform for SWAYAM is going to be built and is expected to be operationalized by 31st March 2016 with a capacity to host nearly 2,000 courses.


The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to


On 20th August, 1917 Lord Montague, the Secretary of State for India, made the following declaration in British Parliament: “ The Policy of His Majesty’s government… is that of increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration, and the gradual development of selfgoverning institutions, with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire.
Importance of Montagu's Statement- From now onwards, the demand by nationalists for selfgovernment or Home Rule could not be termed as seditious since attainment of self-government for Indians now became a government policy, unlike Morley's statement in 1909 that the reforms were not intended to give self-government to India.


What is/are common to the two historical places known as Ajanta and Mahabalipuram?
1. Both were built in the same period.
2. Both belong to the same religious denomination.
3. Both have rock-cut monuments.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, a World Heritage Site, are 30 rock-cut cave Buddhist temples carved into the sheer vertical side of a gorge near a waterfall-fed pool located in the hills of the Sahyadri mountains. Guntapalle is a rock-cut cave site near Eluru. The other important site where rock-cut stupas have been excavated is Anakapalle near Vishakhapatanam.

The Pallavas were one of the ancient South Indian dynasties that were active in the Andhra region from the second century CE onwards and moved south to settle in Tamil Nadu. Their early buildings, it is generally assumed, were rockcut, while the later ones were structural. The tradition of rock-cut cave continued in the Deccan and they are found not only in Maharashtra but also in Karnataka, mainly at Badami and Aihole, executed under the patronage of the Chalukyas; in Andhra Pradesh in the area of Vijayawada; and in Tamil Nadu, mainly at Mahabalipuram, under the patronage of the Pallavas.


With reference to ‘Bitcoins’ sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Bitcoins are tracked by the Central Banks of the countries.
2. Anyone with a Bitcoin address can send and receive Bitcoins from anyone else with a Bitcoin address.
3. Online payments can be sent without either side knowing the identity of the other.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Bitcoin is a digital currency that is not tied to a bank or government and allows users to spend money anonymously. The coins are created by users who ''mine'' them by lending computing power to verifying other users' transactions. They receive bitcoins in exchange. The coins also can be bought and sold on exchanges with U.S. dollars and other currencies.

Bitcoins have become popular because transactions can be made anonymously, making the currency popular with libertarians as well as tech enthusiasts, speculators - and criminals.


Consider the following statements:
1. New Development Bank has been set up by APEC.
2. The headquarters of New Development Bank is in Shanghai.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The New Development Bank (NDB) BRICS group of nations comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa . To begin with, the bank will start operating with $50 billion in initial capital with the five BRICS contributing $10 billion each. According to the pact, the capital of the bank will be divided equally among the five participating nations and initially it will focus on infrastructure projects member countries. The headquarters of the bank will be located in Shanghai, China.

Eminent banker Kundapur Vaman Kamath was appointed as first President New Development Bank (NDB) of BRICS nations.
The Bank shall mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging economies and developing countries, complementing the existing efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development

Unlike the World Bank, which assigns votes based on capital share, in the New Development Bank each participant country will be assigned one vote, and none of the countries will have veto power.


‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to


The Kasturirangan panel was set up to study the Gadgil committee report on the Western Ghats. The Kasturirangan report seeks to bring just 37% of the Western Ghats under the Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) zones — down from the 64% suggested by the Gadgil report.

Recommended prohibition on development and commercial activities like mining, thermal power plants, polluting industries and large housing plans in Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) zones.


Consider the following:
1. Calcutta Unitarian Committee
2. Tabernacle of New Dispensation
3. Indian Reforms Association Keshab Chandra Sen is associated with the establishment of which of the above?


Raja Ram Mohan Roy along with Dwarka Nath Tagore and William Adam established Calcutta Unitarian committee and 1823. Keshubh Chandra was not associated with it.

On 24th January 1868, Keshub laid the foundation stone of his new church, the Brahmo Samaj of India Tabernacle of New Dispensation and the newly constructed chapel was consecrated on 22nd August 1869.


Recently, which of the following States has explored the possibility of constructing an artificial inland port to be connected to sea by a long navigational channel?


Government of Rajasthan is planning to develop Inland Shipping Port at Jalore which would be connected to the Arabian Sea by developing a channel along the Kutch Creek.


With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 20C or even 1.50C above pre-industrial levels.
3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate S 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


21st Conference of Parties (COP21) also known as Paris Agreement successfully concluded in Paris under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The agreement is scheduled to go into effect from 2020. (Statement 1 is not correct).
One of the main focus of the agreement is to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre- industrial level and on driving efforts to limit it even further to 1.5°C. It covers all the crucial areas identified as essential for a comprehensive and balanced agreement, including mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage, finance, technology development and transfer, capacity building and transparency of action and support. A marked departure from the past is the Agreement’s bottom-up approach, allowing each nation to submit its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, rather than trying to repeat a top-down approach advocated by the Kyoto Protocol, giving each country an emission reduction target. Statement 3 is not correct.


Consider the following statements:
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Statement 1 is not correct: The ‘Club of Rome’ is a global think tank is a global think tank which in its 1972 book “Limits to Growth” talked about sustainability; however they didn't propose Sustainable Development Goals. As per the resolution of UN General Assembly in September, 2015 the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been adopted by 193 member nations.

Statement 2 is correct: These developmental schemes are mostly addressing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are targeted to be achieved by 2030.


A recent movie titled The Man Who Knew Infinity is based on the biography of


‘The Man Who Knew Infinity’, movie is based on a book by the same name written by Robert Kanigel on the life and times of Ramanujan. The 46th IFFI opened with the film


Consider the following statements:
1. The minimum age prescribed for any person to be a member of Panchayat is 25 years.
2. A Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution continues only for the remainder period.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The minimum age for contesting elections to panchayats is 21 years.
In case of dissolution of Panchayats before expiry of its term, it is mandatory to hold elections within 6 months of its dissolution. Every Panchayat shall continue for full term of 5 years. However, a Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution shall continue for only the reminder of the period. If the period is less than 6 months then it is not mandatory to held the elections.


India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?


ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.


In the context of the history of India, consider the following pairs:
Term  :  Description
1. Eripatti : Land, revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of the village tank
2. Taniyurs : Villages donated to a single Brahmin or a group of Brahmins
3. Ghatikas : Colleges generally attached to the temples
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?


Taniyur, is a large village under Chola administrative division.

Eripatti was a special category of land known in South india. This land was donated by individuals, revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of the village tank.

Land grants and generous donations were given to educational institutions like Ghatikas and Mathas. Mathas were residential schools for early education in Pallava kingdoms.


Consider the following statements:
1. The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
2. The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


India and France have launched an International Solar Alliance to boost solar energy in developing countries.
The initiative was launched at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris. It will be a common platform for cooperation among solar resource rich countries lying fully or practically between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

It will not duplicate or replicate the efforts that others (like International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), International Energy Agency (IEA), Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), United Nations bodies, bilateral organizations etc.) are currently engaged in, but will establish networks and develop synergies with them.


‘European Stability Mechanism’, sometimes seen in the news, is an


The European Stability Mechanism is a European Union agency that provides financial assistance, in the form of loans, to eurozone countries or as new capital to banks in difficulty.


Which of the following is/are the advantage/advantages of practicing drip irrigation?
1. Reduction in weed
2. Reduction in soil salinity
3. Reduction in soil erosion
Select the correct answer using the code given below.


Advantages of Drip Irrigation
1. Maximum use of available water.
2. No water being available to weeds.
3. Maximum crop yield.
4. High efficiency in the use of fertilizers. 5. Less weed growth and restricts population of potential hosts.
6. Low labour and relatively low operation cost.
7. No soil erosion.
8. Improved infiltration in soil of low intake.
9. Ready adjustment to sophisticated automatic control.
10. No runoff of fertilizers into ground water.
11. Less evaporation losses of water as compared to surface irrigation.
12. Improves seed germination.
13. Decreased to tillage operations.
Disadvantages of Drip Irrigation: In spite of the fact that drip irrigation has so many potential benefits , they’re a certain limitation also, there are as follow:
1. Sensitivity to clogging
2. Moisture distribution problem
3. Salinity hazards
4. High cost compared to furrow.
5. High skill is required for design, install and operation.


Regarding ‘DigiLocker’, sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a digital locker system offered by the Government under Digital India Programme.
2. It allows you to access your e-documents irrespective of your physical location.
Select the correct answer using the code given below


Digital Locker is one of the key initiatives under the Digital India Programme.
Digital Locker is aimed at minimising the usage of physical documents and enable sharing of edocuments across agencies.


Recently, linking of which of the following rivers was undertaking?


The plan is to eventually divert water from the Polavaram dam, since the dam is still under construction and will take at least 4 to 5 years to be ready, the Chandrababu Naidu government decided to divert Godavari water from the Pattiseema Lift Irrigation Scheme. This plan kicked off on September 16, 2015.


In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Carbon monoxide
3. Nitrogen dioxide
4. Sulphur Dioxide
5. Methane
Select the correct answer using the code given below


National Air Quality Index: There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
The AQI considers eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period) National Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed.


With reference to ‘Astrosat’, the astronomical observatory launched by India, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Other than USA and Russia, India is the only country to have launched a similar observatory into space.
2. Astrosat is a 2000 kg satellite placed in an orbit at 1650 km above the surface of the Earth.
Select the correct answer using the code given below


ASTROSAT is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observatory. ASTROSAT will observe universe in the optical, Ultraviolet, low and high energy X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. India’s observatory will be the fourth in space, after the Hubble(USA), Russia’s Spektr R and Suzaku of Japan.
ASTROSAT with a lift-off mass of about 1513 kg was launched into a 650 km orbit inclined at an angle of 6 deg to the equator by PSLV-C30. ASTROSAT will observe universe in the optical, Ultraviolet, low and high energy X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, whereas most other scientific satellites are capable of 


With reference to the economic history of medieval India the term ‘Araghatta’ refers to


The 'ara-ghatta' originates from the blend of the words "ara" which means talked and "ghatta" which means pot. There is confirmation to contend that this arrangement of lifting water from open wells was presumably designed in the India of the past.


With reference to the cultural history of India, the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories and epic tales was the profession of who of the following?


During Gupta period, the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories or epic tales was the work of a different group of people, the sutas and magadhas.


Which of the following is not a member of ‘Gulf Cooperation Council’?


The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, originally known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), is a regional inter governmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf, except for Iraq. Its member states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.


What is/are the purpose/purposes of Government’s ‘Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme’ and Gold Monetization Scheme?
1. To bring the idle gold lying with India households into the economy
2. To promote FDI in the gold and jewellery sector
3. To reduce India’s dependence on gold imports
Select the correct answer using the code given below


The government had launched three ambitious schemes to reduce the physical demand for gold and fish out 20,000 tonnes of the precious metal worth $800 billion lying idle with households. PM launched the maiden sovereign gold bond, gold monetisation and the Indian gold coin scheme. The main objectives of the schemes is to reduce India's gold imports and bring all the gold lying idle with individuals and households.


Recently, for the first time in our country, which of the following State has declared a particular butterfly as ‘State Butterfly’?


The Blue Mormon is a large, swallowtail butterfly found primarily in Sri Lanka and India, mainly restricted to the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, South India and coastal belts. It may occasionally be spotted in the Maharashtrian mainland between Vidarbha and Western Maharashtra. It is reportedly the second largest butterfly found in India, just smaller than the southern birdwing.
Not uncommon. Not thought to be threatened. Occurs throughout the year but more common in the monsoon and immediately after it. Maharashtra has become the first State in the country to have a ‘State butterfly.’ Thus all statements are wrong.


Consider the following statements:
The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO
1. is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission
2. Made India the second country to have a spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA
3. Made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbits the Mars in its very first attempt.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Statements 1 and 3 are correct.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) has various achievements to its credit after it was inserted into Mars orbit on September 24, 2014. The details of significant achievements of MOM include
i. First interplanetary mission realized by India and first Indian spacecraft to incorporate full scale onboard autonomy to overcome the long distances and the communication gaps due to non-visibility periods.
ii. First Indian spacecraft to successfully survive Van Allen belt crossing 39 times.
iii. First Indian spacecraft to escape the Sphere Of Influence of Earth and orbit Sun.
iv. First Mars mission in the world to succeed Mars Orbit Insertion in first attempt. 
v. Most economical interplanetary mission in the world and paved way for costeffective access to deep space. The launch vehicle, Spacecraft and Ground Segment have been realised with a budget of Rs 450 Cr. Statement 2 is not correct. Since the first successful flyby in 1965, four entities have successfully made it to Mars: NASA, the Soviet Union, the European Space Agency and the Indian Space Research Organization, while others, including Japan and China, have tried.


What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?


Surat Split refers to the splitting of the Congress party into 'Moderates' and 'Extremists' after a clash at the session. The extremists were led by Lokmanya Tilak, Lajpat Rai and Sri Aurobindo and the moderates were led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta and Surendranath Banerjee. The divided Congress re-united in the crucial Lucknow session of congress in 1916.


The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War


Cripps Mission was sent to India under the president ship of Stafford Cripps in march 1942. The intention was to get Indian support for Britishers in the ongoing World War II. It proposed: An Indian Dominion that will be free to decide its relations with the commonwealth and United Nations A constituent assembly to be convened to frame a new constitution.
Any province not willing to join the Union could have a separate constitution and form a separate.
Other points in the proposal were- Acceptance of Indian constitution by British government would be subject to condition that any province would have the right to have separate union and a treaty to be negotiated to effect the power transfer to safeguard racial and religious minorities Defense of India to remain in British hands.


Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?


Bagelkhand or Baghelkhand is a region and also a mountain range in central India that covers the northeastern regions of Madhya Pradesh and a small area of western Uttar Pradesh. Bodhgaya is in Bihar.
The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of the Rajput Chandela dynasty. The building activity started almost immediately after the rise of their power, throughout their kingdom to be later known as Bundelkhand. 
Vidarbha is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division. Shirdi is a town and falls under Ahmednagar District in Maharashtra. It is not in Vidarbha region. Tirupati lies in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.


The Parliament of India acquires the power to legislate on any item in the State List in the national interest if a resolution to that effect is passes by the


If Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting saying that it is “necessary or expedient in the national interest” that Parliament should make a law on a matter enumerated in the State List, Parliament becomes empowered to make a law on the subject specified in the resolution, for the whole or any part of the territory of India. Such a resolution remains in force for a maximum period of one year but this period can be extended by one year at a time by passing a similar resolution further.


Belt and road Initiative’ is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of


It is a developmental strategy and framework, unveiled by Chinese leader Xi Jinping in September and October 2013 in announcements revealing the SREB (Silk Road Economic Belt) and MSR (Maritime Silk Road), respectively.
The “belt and road” run through the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa.
It focuses on connectivity and cooperation among countries primarily in Eurasia, which consists of two main components, the land-based SREB and oceangoing MSR and it is known as “One Belt One Road”(OBOR).
The “belt and road” would be serviced by a network of roads, high-speed railways, fibre-optic lines, transcontinental submarine optical cable projects, and satellite information passageways.


Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana is aimed at


Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana is aimed at bringing sole-proprietors or entrepreneurs of Small & Medium Enterprises into formal financial system.


In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?
1. Cambay Basin
2. Cauvery basin
3. Krishna-Godavari Basin
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Shale gas is the natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. ONGC sought permission for drilling 11 exploratory wells for shale oil and shale gas in Cambay basin at Mehsana, Ahmedabad and Bharuch districts of Gujarat, one well in Cauvery basin at Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu and five wells in KG Basin at East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh. Other regions in India where shale gas resources are found - Cauvery, Ganga & Assam and Assam - Arakan; Gondwana basin (including Damodar).


‘Global Financial Stability Report’ is prepared by the


Global Financial Stability Report is published by International Monetary Fund.
The financial stability report assesses the risks faced by the global financial system.
The latest report released, warns that global output could decline 3.9 per cent by 2021 if action is not taken to address the risks faced by the financial system. The main message of this report is that additional measures are needed to deliver a more balanced and potent policy mix for improving the growth and inflation outlook and securing financial stability.


Regarding ‘Atal Pension Yojana’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a minimum guaranteed pension scheme mainly targeted at unorganized sector workers
2. Only one member of a family can join the scheme
3. Some amount of pension is guaranteed for the spouse for life after subscriber’s death
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Statements 1 and 3 are correct: To address the longevity risks among the workers in unorganised sector and to encourage the workers in unorganised sector to voluntarily save for their retirement, APY was launched.
Statement 2 is not correct: Atal Pension Yojana (APY) is open to all bank account holders who are not members of any statutory social security scheme. It doesn't bar the number of family members from a family.


The term ‘Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership’ often appears in the news in the context of the affairs of a group of countries known as​


Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Agreement among ASEAN + Six FTA Partners (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand): Based on the Declaration of the Leaders during the ASEAN Summit in November 2012, negotiations for a comprehensive economic partnership between the 10 ASEAN member states and its six FTA partners commenced in May 2013. Ten rounds of negotiations have so far been held. The 10th round was held from 8 to16 October 2015 in Busan, Korea.
The negotiations cover a number of areas like trade in goods, services, investment, intellectual property, economic and technical cooperation, competition, ecommerce and legal and institutional issues.
Papua New Guinea is not a member of ASEAN.


On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label?
1. Ceiling fans
2. Electric geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select the correct answer using the code given below:


The Bureau initiated the Standards & Labeling programme for equipment and appliances in 2006 to provide the consumer an informed choice about the energy saving and thereby the cost saving potential of the relevant marketed product. The scheme is invoked for 21 equipment/appliances, i.e. Room Air Conditioners, Tubular Fluorescent Tube Lights, Frost Free Refrigerators, Distribution Transformers, Induction Motors, Direct Cool Refrigerator, electric storage type geyser, Ceiling fans, Color TVs, Agricultural pump sets, LPG stoves, Washing machine, Laptops, ballast, floor standing ACs, office automation products, Diesel Generating sets & Diesel pumpsets.