20 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Test: Animal Tissues - 1
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Tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.
Simple Squamous Epithelia Simple squamous epithelia are tissues formed from one layer of squamous cells that line surfaces. Squamous cells are large, thin, and flat and contain a rounded nucleus. Like other epithelial cells, they have polarity and contain a distinct apical surface with specialized membrane proteins. These epithelia are common where absorption or transport of materials is important. They also play a role in diffusion, osmosis and filtration. This makes them important in the kidney, in the alveoli of lungs and in the walls of capillaries.
Since this epithelium is made of a single layer of thin cells that are tightly packed together, it is the ideal medium for selective transmembrane transport. Some substances, such as oxygen from the lungs travel mostly along their concentration gradient towards the blood. Others are actively transported using membrane-bound carrier proteins.
The three principal shapes associated with epithelial cells are - squamous, cuboidal and columnar. Squamous epithelium has cells that are wider than their height (flat and scale-like). This is found as the lining of the mouth, oesophagus, the blood vessels and in the alveoli of the lungs.
Rhinocerotidae: The "horns" of rhinoceroses are made of keratin, the same substance as fingernails, and grow continuously, but do not have a bone core. Chamaeleonidae: Many chameleons, most notably the Jackson's Chameleon, possess horns on their skulls, and have a keratin covering.
These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimetres large) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells.
Connective tissue - Connective tissue is a type of tissue that has a matrix as its main component. - The matrix is a gel-like substance that surrounds the cells and gives the tissue its structural and functional properties. - It is composed of protein fibers, ground substance, and cells. - The matrix provides support, protection, and flexibility to the tissue. - It also facilitates the exchange of nutrients and waste products between cells and blood vessels. - Connective tissue is found throughout the body and serves various functions, such as binding and connecting different tissues and organs, providing structural support, and participating in immune responses. - Examples of connective tissue include bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, blood, and tendons. Muscular tissue - Muscular tissue does not have a matrix as its main component. - It is primarily composed of contractile cells called muscle fibers. - Muscular tissue is responsible for movement and generating force. - There are three types of muscular tissue: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. - Skeletal muscle is attached to bones and is responsible for voluntary movements. - Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and is responsible for pumping blood. - Smooth muscle is found in the walls of organs and blood vessels and is responsible for involuntary movements. Nervous tissue - Nervous tissue does not have a matrix as its main component. - It is primarily composed of specialized cells called neurons. - Nervous tissue is responsible for transmitting and processing information in the body. - Neurons transmit electrical signals, while supporting cells called neuroglia provide structural and functional support to neurons. - Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Epithelial tissue - Epithelial tissue does not have a matrix as its main component. - It is primarily composed of tightly packed cells that form a protective barrier. - Epithelial tissue lines the surfaces and cavities of the body. - It serves functions such as protection, absorption, secretion, and sensory reception. - There are different types of epithelial tissue, including simple epithelium (single layer of cells), stratified epithelium (multiple layers of cells), and pseudostratified epithelium (appear stratified but all cells touch the basement membrane). Therefore, the correct answer is Connective tissue.
Wrinkling in old age is due to collagen. Because intrinsic aging is the natural aging process that place over the years regardless of outside influence. After the age of 20, A person produces about 1percent less collagen in the skin each year. As a result the skin becomes thinner with age.
The dermis forms the bulk of the mammalian skin. It is composed of an association of connective tissue fibres, mainly collagen, with a ground substance of mucopolysaccharide materials (glycosaminoglycans), which can hold a quantity of water in its domain.
D is the correct option.The fat stored in adipose tissue comes from dietary fats or is produced in the body. hormone signaling; adipose tissueWhen hormones signal the need for energy, fatty acids and glycerol are released from triglycerides stored in fat cells (adipocytes) and are delivered to organs and tissues in the body.
Answer: b. Bone with muscles Explanation: Tendons are strong, flexible connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. They play a crucial role in transmitting the force generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement to occur. Here is a more detailed explanation:
- Tendons are fibrous connective tissues composed mainly of collagen fibers. - They are tough and inelastic structures that attach muscles to bones. - Tendons are responsible for transmitting the force generated by muscles to the bones, enabling movement and joint stability.
Function of tendons:
- Tendons act as a link between muscles and bones, allowing the transfer of forces from the muscles to the bones. - They provide stability to joints and help maintain proper alignment during movement. - Tendons also protect muscles from excessive stretching and provide a mechanical advantage for muscle contraction.
- Tendons can be subject to injuries such as strains, tears, and ruptures. - These injuries can occur due to overuse, trauma, or degenerative changes. - Proper rest, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgical intervention may be required for tendon injuries to heal.
Different types of connective tissues:
- Cartilage: Connective tissue that provides support and cushioning between bones, such as in the joints. - Bone: Connective tissue that forms the skeletal system and provides support, protection, and movement. - Ligament: Connective tissue that connects bone to bone, providing stability to joints. - Tendon: Connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, enabling movement and joint function.
- Tendons are specialized connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. - They play a crucial role in transmitting the force generated by muscles to the bones, enabling movement and joint stability. - Tendon injuries can occur and may require rest, rehabilitation, or surgery for proper healing. - Tendons are distinct from other connective tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, and bones, each serving different functions in the body.
Cartilage is produced by chondroblasts. explanation :-chondroblasts connective tissue is comprised of living cells within an extracellular matrix. the extracellular matrix in cartilage is produced by specialized cells called chondroblasts.
OSTEOBLASTS are the cells that form new bone. They also come from the bone marrow and are related to structural cells. They have only one nucleus.Osteoblasts work in teams to build bone. They produce new bone called "osteoid" which is made of bone collagen and other protein.
Importance of Bone Marrow Bone marrow plays a crucial role in the production and maintenance of blood cells in the body. It is a spongy tissue found inside the bones, primarily in the long bones and the pelvic bones. The bone marrow contains stem cells that give rise to the different types of blood cells, including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. The importance of bone marrow can be understood by its functions related to blood cell production and maintenance: 1. Production of Red Blood Cells (RBC): - The bone marrow is responsible for the continuous production of RBCs, which carry oxygen to different tissues and organs. - RBCs are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow through a process called erythropoiesis. - The bone marrow provides a suitable environment for the development and maturation of RBCs. 2. Production of White Blood Cells (WBC): - The bone marrow is also involved in the production of different types of WBCs, which play a vital role in the immune system. - WBCs defend the body against infections, foreign substances, and abnormal cells. - Different types of WBCs, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, are produced in the bone marrow. 3. Platelet Production: - Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments involved in blood clotting. - The bone marrow produces platelets from stem cells, which are essential for the formation of blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding. In summary, bone marrow is important for the production of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets, which are vital for oxygen transport, immune responses, and blood clotting.
Haversian system (named for Clopton Havers) is the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone. Osteons are roughly cylindrical structures that are typically several millimeters long and around 0.2 mm in diameter. They are present in many bones of most mammals and some bird, reptile, and amphibian species.
Your body is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45. Your stomach is very acidic, with a pH of 3.5 or below, So it can break down food. And your urine changes, depending upon what you eat - that’s how your body keeps the level in your blood steady.
D is the correct option.The circular mammalian erythrocyte is synthesized in the bone marrow. After synthesis it undergoes a process called enucleation in which the nucleus is removed. The absence of a nucleus allows the red blood cells to contain more hemoglobin and hence carry more oxygen.
Human red blood cells are formed mainly in the bone marrow and are believed to have an average life span of approximately 120 days. Human red blood cells are formed mainly in the bone marrow and are believed to have an average life span of approximately 120 days.
Striated muscles are found in - skeletal muscles. more Skeletal muscle is a specialized contractile tissue found in animals which functions to move an organism’s body. Skeletal muscle is comprised from a series of bundles of muscle fibers, surrounded by protective membranes. This arrangement allows skeletal muscle to contract quickly and release quickly without subjecting the individual fibers to too much friction. Skeletal muscle tissue can be found across the animal kingdom, in most multi-cellular forms of life.
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