Test: Current Affairs December- 2020


30 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Current Affairs December- 2020


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This mock test of Test: Current Affairs December- 2020 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 30 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC Test: Current Affairs December- 2020 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Current Affairs December- 2020 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this Test: Current Affairs December- 2020 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Current Affairs December- 2020 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements regarding Kala-azar.

  1. Kala-azar is a tropical disease characterised by irregular fever, weight loss, anaemia and swelling of the spleen and liver.

  2. It is caused by a protozoan Leishmania parasite and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female sandflies.

  3. India has successfully controlled the disease outbreak and accounts for about one-tenth of the total global cases.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a tropical disease characterised by irregular fever, weight loss, anaemia and swelling of the spleen and liver. It is caused by a protozoan Leishmania parasite and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female sandflies. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), globally, about 7 to 10 lakh new cases occur annually.

  • India accounts for about two-thirds of the total global cases, and the disease is endemic to Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. An initiative was launched by WHO to eliminate VL as a public health problem from the South East Asia region by 2020. The deadline has now been extended to 2023.

QUESTION: 2

At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, any person interested may make an application for grant of a compulsory licence on patent on which of the following grounds?

  1. The reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied.

  2. The patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price.

  3. The patented invention is worked in the territory of India by a non-Indian pharmaceutical company. 

Select the correct answer code:

Solution:

At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, any person interested may make an application to the Controller for grant of a compulsory licence on patent on any of the following grounds, namely:—

  • that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied, or

  • that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, or

  • that the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India.

QUESTION: 3

Hayabusa2 project, recently seen in news is related to

Solution: Japan's Hayabusa2 spacecraft left the asteroid Ryugu a year ago and is expected to reach Earth and drop a capsule containing the precious samples in southern Australia on December 6. The soil samples and data from the asteroid could provide clues to the origins of the solar system.

Hayabusa2 project: It is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA.

QUESTION: 4

The three-drug Bedaquiline, Pretomanid and Linezolid (BPL) regimen is used to treat

Solution: At a time when the world grapples with highly treatment-resistant tuberculosis, the recently approved three-drug regimen to tackle the condition has shown a 90 per cent favourable outcome, according to a new study.

QUESTION: 5

The Internet is expanding every day, necessitating the development of new storage. Among the following, what is the correct ascending order of data size or data storage?

  1. Terabyte

  2. Exabyte

  3. Petabyte

  4. Zettabyte

Select the correct answer code:

Solution:

Memory Capacity Conversion Chart

QUESTION: 6

Edge computing enables data to be analysed, processed and transferred at the edge of a network. Here 'Edge' implies

Solution: According to research, By 2025, companies will generate and process more than 75% of their data outside of traditional centralised data centres — that is, at the "edge" of the cloud.

As the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices expands, and the need to process IoT data quickly increases, many IT leaders are considering or beginning to employ edge computing options.

What is edge computing?

Edge computing enables data to be analysed, processed and transferred at the edge of a

network. Meaning, the data is analysed locally, closer to where it is stored, in real-time without latency, rather

than send it far away to a centralised data centre.

It allows for quicker data processing and content delivery.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements regarding Machine to Machine communications (M2M).

  1. Machine to Machine communications refers to automated applications which involve machines or devices communicating through a network without human intervention.

  2. It enables data to be transmitted from one device to another device through wired and wireless communications networks.

  3. Machine to machine communications can be used to develop smart cities and grids, transportation systems and healthcare.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: M2M communications refer to automated applications which involve machines or devices communicating through a network without human intervention. Sensors and communication modules are embedded within M2M devices, enabling data to be transmitted from one device to another through wired and wireless communications networks.

Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications form the basis for automated information exchange between machines. It can impact various industries like smart cities and grids, transportation systems and healthcare, among others.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements regarding Thirty Meter Telescope.

  1. It is an astronomical observatory with a huge telescope.

  2. India is one of the funding partners for the project.

  3. TMT is designed for near-ultraviolet to mid-infrared observations.

  4. It will enable scientists to study gravitational waves from massive objects far away.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

About TMT:

  • It is an astronomical observatory with a huge telescope (ELT).

  • It is an international project funded by scientific organisations of Canada, China, India, Japan and the USA.

  • Planned location: Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii in the US state of Hawaii.

  • Purpose: The TMT is designed for near-ultraviolet to mid-infrared observations, featuring adaptive optics to correct image blur.

Significance:

  • TMT will enable scientists to study fainter objects far away from us in the Universe, which gives information about early stages of evolution of the Universe.

  • It will give us finer details of not-so-far-away objects like undiscovered planets and other objects in the Solar System and planets around other stars.

QUESTION: 9

Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), recently seen in news is primarily intended to

Solution: The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), a powerful telescope developed and operated by the country's science agency CSIRO, has mapped over three million galaxies in a record 300 hours during its first all-sky survey.

ASKAP surveys are designed to map the structure and evolution of the Universe, which it does by observing galaxies and the hydrogen gas that they contain.

QUESTION: 10

A quantum computer stores information in

Solution: Rather than store information using bits represented by 0s or 1s as conventional digital computers do, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits, to encode information as 0s, 1s, or both at the same time. This superposition of states and the other quantum mechanical phenomena of entanglement and tunnelling enable quantum computers to manipulate enormous combinations of states at once.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements regarding Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR).

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) technique is used for determining the structure of organic compounds.

  2. It is used in various food systems for quality control and research.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful technique for determining organic compounds' structure. NMR techniques are used successfully in various food systems for quality control and research.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) said the investigation found that the honey sold by 10 out of 13 brands in Indian markets are adulterated with sugar syrup. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tests managed to expose the adulteration.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements regarding Desalination.

  1. The most commonly used technology in Desalination plants is the process of reverse osmosis.

  2. In reverse osmosis, external pressure is applied to push solvents from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low-solute concentration through a membrane.

  3. In India, desalination plants have been installed in all the coastal states.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: Maharashtra announced a desalination plant in Mumbai, becoming the fourth state in the country to experiment with the idea.

A desalination plant turns salt water into water that is fit to drink. The most commonly used techniques used for the process are reverse osmosis. External pressure is applied to push solvents from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low-solute concentration through a membrane. The membranes' microscopic pores allow water molecules through but leave salt and most other impurities behind, releasing clean water from the other side. These plants are mostly set up in areas that have access to seawater.

Desalination has largely been limited to affluent countries in the Middle East and has recently started making inroads in parts of the United States and Australia. In India, Tamil Nadu has been the pioneer in using this technology, setting up two desalination plants near Chennai in 2010 and then 2013.

QUESTION: 13

Quantum dots (QDs) are human-made nanoscale crystals that can transport electrons. Potential applications of ^quantum dots include

  1. Solar Cells

  2. LEDs

  3. Quantum Computing

  4. Medical Imaging

  5. Cell Biology Research 

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor particles a few nanometres in size,

having optical and electronic properties that differ from larger particles due to quantum mechanics.

When the quantum dots are illuminated by UV light, an electron in the quantum dot can be excited to a state of higher energy.

Potential quantum dots' applications include single-electron transistors, solar cells, LEDs, lasers, single-photon sources, second-harmonic generation, quantum computing, cell biology research, and medical imaging. Their small size allows for some QDs to be suspended in solution, leading to inkjet printing and spin-coating. They have been used in Langmuir-Blodgett thin-films. These processing techniques result in less expensive and less time-consuming methods of semiconductor fabrication.

QUESTION: 14

Havana syndrome, recently seen in news is related to

Solution:
  • Nearly four years after a mysterious neurological illness, referred to as "Havana syndrome", started to afflict American diplomats and intelligence operatives in Cuba, China, and other countries, a report by the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) has found "directed" microwave radiation to be its "plausible" cause.

  • In late 2016, US diplomats and other employees stationed in Havana reported feeling ill after hearing strange sounds and experiencing odd physical sensations in their hotel rooms or homes. The symptoms included nausea, severe headaches, fatigue, dizziness, sleep problems, and hearing loss, which have since come to be known as "Havana Syndrome".

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements regarding Black Carbon.

  1. Black carbon is a fine particulate matter component, formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass.

  2. Black carbon increases the albedo when deposited on snow and ice.

  3. In the tropics, black carbon in soils significantly contributes to soil fertility.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter. Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. Black carbon causes human morbidity and premature mortality.

  • In climatology, black carbon is a climate forcing agent. Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing sunlight and heating the atmosphere and reducing albedo when deposited on snow and ice.

  • Black carbon stays in the atmosphere for only several days to weeks, whereas carbon dioxide (CO 2) has an atmospheric lifetime of more than 100 years.

  • The term black carbon is also used in soil sciences and geology. Especially in the tropics, black carbon in soils significantly contributes to fertility as it can absorb important plant nutrients.

QUESTION: 16

Near Field Communications (NFC) technology is used in which among the following applications?

  1. Baggage identification in Airports

  2. Contactless card payment

  3. Healthcare

  4. Metro train cards 

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: All of the above given is the application of Near Field Communication (NFC) technology.

Near-field communication is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm of each other.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements regarding "Innate immunity" in human beings.

  1. It is present at the time of birth.

  2. It is disease-specific due to its memory of disease attack and response.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: It prevents the entry of the foreign agents into our body when our bodies are weak, especially at birth. It remains with us throughout our lives.

It is "Acquired Immunity" that is disease-specific, not innate immunity which is general in nature. This means that our body when it encounters a pathogen for the first time produces a response called primary response which is of low intensity.

Subsequent encounter with the same pathogen elicits a highly intensified secondary or anamnestic response. This is ascribed to the fact that our body appears to have a memory of the first encounter.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements regarding Herd immunity.

  1. It is the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population.

  2. It occurs when a high proportion of individuals are resistant to the disease.

  3. It may occur due to immunisation or naturally.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.

  • It is the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population.

  • It occurs when a high proportion of individuals are resistant to the disease.

  • It may occur due to immunisation or naturally.

  • Herd immunity depends on the contagiousness of the disease. Diseases that spread easily, such as measles, require a higher number of immune individuals in a community to reach herd immunity.

QUESTION: 19

Ailments caused by Virus are

  1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

  2. Typhoid

  3. Dysentery

  4. Influenza

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: Viruses cause common ailments like cold, influenza (flu) and most coughs. Viruses also cause SARS, polio and chickenpox.

Diseases like dysentery and malaria are caused by protozoans, whereas typhoid and tuberculosis (TB) are bacterial diseases.

QUESTION: 20

The terms "Pratyush and Mihir" sometimes seen in the news are related to

Solution:
  • Pratyush and Mihir are the supercomputers established at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune and National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF), Noida respectively.

  • Being a High-Performance Computing (HPC) facility, Pratyush and Mihir consist of several computers that can deliver a peak power of 6.8 PetaFlops. It is the first multi-PetaFlops supercomputer ever built in India.

  • Pratyush and Mihir are used in the fields of weather forecasting and climate monitoring in India. It helps the

  • country to make better forecasts in terms of Monsoon, fishing, air quality, extreme events

  • like Tsunami, cyclones, earthquakes, lightning and other natural calamities such as floods, droughts etc.

  • India is the fourth country to have a High-Performance Computing facility dedicated to weather and climate research after Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom.

QUESTION: 21

Astronauts have to wear special protective space suits filled with air when they go to the moon or outer space. This is because of

  1. Lack of air pressure in these regions

  2. The very cold temperature in these regions

  3. Dangerous radiation in these regions

 Select the correct answer code:

Solution: On the moon, there is almost no air and hence no air pressure. If they did not wear these space suits, the counter-pressure exerted by the astronauts' body would make the blood vessels burst. The astronauts would bleed. Astronauts must wear spacesuits whenever they leave a spacecraft and are exposed to the environment of space. In space, there is no air to breathe and no air pressure. Space is extremely cold and filled with dangerous radiation. Without protection, an astronaut would quickly die in space. Spacesuits are specially designed to protect astronauts from the cold, radiation and low pressure in space. They also provide air to breathe. Wearing a spacesuit allows an astronaut to survive and work in space.

QUESTION: 22

Glyphosate, Atrazine and Butachlor, recently seen in news is

  1. Anti-malarial drug

  2. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

  3. Weedicide

  4. None of the above


Solution:

Weedicide Consumption in India (in tonnes)

Chemical

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Atrazine

228.89

281.85

251.13

302.37

387

Butachlor

993.71

783.14

812.59

343.47

565.24

Glyphosate

718.06

529.15

478.99

654.35

678.81

Pretilachlor

277.85

352.00

359.83

131.8

276.68

2,4-Di Chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid

798.02

796.26

789.41

871.51

Total*

4,889.853,565.78

4,49533

3,265.1

4,031.8

Includes imported and others chemicals

QUESTION: 23

Plasmodium ovale, recently in news causes

  1. Measles

  2. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  3. Malaria

  4. Pneumonia


Solution: A not very common type of malaria, Plasmodium ovale, has been identified in Kerala's jawan. The soldier is believed to have contracted it during his posting in Sudan, from where he returned nearly a year ago, and where Plasmodium ovale is endemic.

QUESTION: 24

Prime editing, sometimes seen in news is related to

  1. 3D printing technology

  2. Editing subatomic particles in Quantum communication

  3. Blockchain Technology

  4. Genome editing technology


Solution: Prime editing is a 'search-and-replace' genome editing technology in molecular biology by which the genome of living organisms may be modified. The technology directly writes new genetic information into a targeted DNA site.

QUESTION: 25

National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) and the Goa University (GU) have successfully synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs). What are the applications of gold nanoparticles (GNPs)?

  1. They have greater solar radiation absorbing ability.

  2. Detection and diagnosis of diseases.

  3. Targeted drug delivery

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: The National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) and the Goa University (GU) have successfully synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using psychrotolerant Antarctic bacteria through a non-toxic, low-cost, and eco-friendly way.

These GNPs can be used as a composite therapeutic agent clinical trials, especially in anti-cancer, anti-viral, antidiabetic, and cholesterol-lowering drugs.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical and electronics research. Metallic NPs have been efficiently exploited for biomedical applications, and among them, GNPs are found to be effective in biomedical research.

GNPs also have unique physicochemical properties. Their biocompatibility, high surface area, stability, and nontoxicity, make them suitable for various therapeutic use applications, including detection and diagnosis of diseases, bio-labelling, and targeted drug delivery. As nano-carriers, GNPs can transfer various drugs made out of peptides, proteins, plasmid DNAs, small interfering RNAs, and chemotherapeutic agents to target diseased cells of the human body.

GNPs are also found to be useful in the electronics industry. Scientists have constructed a transistor known as NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-Effect Transistor) by embedding GNPs in a porous manganese oxide as a room temperature catalyst down volatile organic compound in air and combining GNPs with organic molecules.

QUESTION: 26

Which of the following services generally use encryption to secure data transmission?

  1. Payment gateways

  2. Messaging services

  3. Wireless microphones and Bluetooth devices

  4. Bank automatic teller machines

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: Encryption is the process of encoding messages or information so that only authorised parties can read it.

All messaging services like WhatsApp, Viber, Google Chat, Yahoo messenger use encrypted services. Banks (payment gateways) and e-commerce sites also use encryption to protect financial and private data, including passwords.

Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, such as data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, and Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.

QUESTION: 27

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide. Which of the following are the applications of Dry ice?

  1. It is useful for preserving frozen foods where mechanical cooling is unavailable.

  2. Prevent insect activity in closed containers of grains and grain products.

  3. Used for cleaning industrial equipment.

Select the correct answer code:

Solution: Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide. It is used primarily as a cooling agent. Its advantages include lower temperature than water ice and not leaving any residue (other than incidental frost from moisture in the atmosphere). It is useful for preserving frozen foods where mechanical cooling is unavailable.

This extreme cold makes the solid dangerous to handle without protection due to burns caused by freezing (frostbite). While generally not very toxic, the outgassing from it can cause hypercapnia (abnormally elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood) due to buildup in confined locations.

Dry ice can be used to arrest and prevent insect activity in closed containers of grains and grain products, as it displaces oxygen, but does not alter the taste or quality of foods. For the same reason, it can prevent or retard food oils and fats from becoming rancid.

When dry ice is placed in water, sublimation is accelerated, and low-sinking, dense clouds of smoke-like fog are created. This is used in fog machines, at theatres, haunted house attractions, and nightclubs for dramatic effects.

One of the largest mechanical uses of dry ice is blast cleaning.

QUESTION: 28

Consider the following statements.

  1. Cross pathy is a practice in which homoeopathic and ayurvedic drugs are prescribed along with allopathic medicines.

  2. Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare that monitors higher education in Indian systems of medicine.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) is a statutory body under Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, set up in 1971 under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, (Act 48). It is one of the Professional councils under the University Grants Commission (UGC) to monitor higher education in Indian medicine systems, including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Sowa-Rigpa.

Cross pathy is a practice in which homoeopathic and ayurvedic drugs are prescribed along with allopathic medicines.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements regarding the Goldilocks zone.

  1. Goldilocks zone is the area around a star where it is not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on surrounding planets' surface.

  2. Earth is the only planet in the Sun's Goldilocks zone.

  3. If a planet is in the Goldilocks Zone of a star, it necessarily means the planet will have life or liquid water.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: The Goldilocks Zone refers to the habitable zone around a star where the temperature is just right - not too hot and not too cold - for liquid water to exist on a planet.

Just because a planet or moon is in the Goldilocks Zone of a star, doesn't mean it will have life or even liquid water.

After all, Earth isn't the only planet in the Sun's Goldilocks Zone - Venus and Mars are also in this habitable zone, but aren't currently habitable.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following statements regarding Pneumococcal disease.

  1. Pneumococcal disease is a bacterial disease and is a significant contributor for under-five mortality rate worldwide.

  2. Pneumococcal disease is spread from an infected person to others by direct contact with respiratory secretions, like saliva or mucus.

  3. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine is included in India's Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII) unveiled India's first indigenously developed pneumococcal vaccine.

The vaccine targets the pneumococcal bacterium, which causes pneumonia and other serious life-threatening diseases such as meningitis and sepsis. It is estimated to cause nearly four lakh deaths in children under five years of age each year worldwide.

Pneumococcal disease is a significant contributor to under-five mortality rate worldwide.

The World Health Organization in 2018 recommended the inclusion of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in routine childhood immunisation programmes in all countries because of its widespread fatality.

Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by direct contact with respiratory secretions, like saliva or mucus. Many people, especially children, have the bacteria in their nose or throat at one time or another without being ill.