Test: Science & Technology - 2 (2015 - 2010)


30 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Science & Technology - 2 (2015 - 2010)


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to 'Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology', which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a contactless communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio fields.
2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other
3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

Near field communication is a set of communication protocols enabling two electronic devices. This device is used in contactless payment, credit card and electronic ticket using encryption when sending sensitive information.

QUESTION: 2

With reference to 'fuel cells' in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements:
1. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by- products.
2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.
3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2015]

Solution:

A fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy by using hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. The products of this reaction are water electricity and heat.

QUESTION: 3

The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the                            

[2015]

Solution:

The Genetic engineering Approval Committee functions as a statutory body under the Enviroment Protection Act 1986 of the Ministry of Environment & Forest.

QUESTION: 4

With reference to the use of nano-technology in health sector, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology.
2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

Targeted drug deliver is made possible by nano-technology. Medical nano-technology can largely contribute to genetic therapy and improvement. Diseases can be easily treated if approached at the genetic level. So instead of treating diseases based on the symptoms, nanotechnology will help medical practitioners treat the problem by looking at the root cause.

QUESTION: 5

In addition to fingerprint scanning, which of the following can be used in the biometric identification of a person?
1. Iris scanning
2. Retinal scanning
3. Voice recognition
Select the correct answer using the code given below

[2014]

Solution:

Biometrics identification is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label individuals. Biometric identifiers are categorized as physiological versus behavioral characteristics. Physiological Biometric identifiers are fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent. Behavioural identifiers are typing rhythm, gait and voice.

QUESTION: 6

There is some concern regarding the nanoparticles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?    
1. They can accumulate in the environment, and contaminate water and soil.
2. They can enter the food chains.
3. They can trigger the production of free radicals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Consider the following techniques/phenomena:
1. Budding and grafting in fruit plants
2. Cytoplasmic male sterility
3. Gene silencing
Which of the above is\are used to create transgenic crops?

[2014]

Solution:

Cytoplasmic male sterility and gene silencing are new technologies specifically developed for production of transgenic plants.

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn. Therefore, option 1 is wrong, this eliminates option (a), (c) and (d). Now we are left with final answer B only 2 and 3. MESSENGER  is a robotic NASA spacecraft orbiting the planet Mercury. Voyager 1 (September 1977) and voyager 2 (Aug 1977) were launched to study the outer Solar System.

QUESTION: 9

With reference to technologies for solar power production, consider the following statements:
1. ‘Photovoltaics’ is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while ‘Solar Thermal’ is a technology that utilizes the Sun’s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.
2. Photovoltaics generates Alternating Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).
3. India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for Photovoltaics.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2014]

Solution:

Photovoltaics' is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while 'Solar Thermal' is a technology that utilizes the Sun's rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process. Both Photovoltaic cells and solar thermal generate direct current (DC). India has a manufacturing base for both.

QUESTION: 10

Recombinant DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) allows genes to be transferred
1. across different species of plants
2. from animals to plants
3. from microorganisms to higher organisms
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Recombinant DNA are DNA sequences, which result from bringing genetic material form different sources. The genes can be transferred between any species, that is across differetn species of plants, from animals to plants and from microorganisms to higher organisms.

QUESTION: 11

Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to
1. resist drought and increase absorptive area
2. tolerate extremes of pH
3. resist disease infestation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Mycorrhizal associations play vital role in plant nutrition. They greatly increase the efficiency of nutrient and water uptake; enhance resistance to pathogens, and buffer plant species against several environmental stresses and drought resistance. Mycorrhizal also improve plant growth and survival in soils contaminated by heavy metals.

QUESTION: 12

Graphene is frequently in news recently, what is its importance?
1. It is a two dimensional material and has good electrical conductivity.
2. It is one of the thinnest but strongest materials tested so far.
3. It is entirely made of silicon and has high optical transparency.
4. It can be used as conducting electrodes required for touch screens. LCDs and organic LEDs.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

[2012]

Solution:

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two dimentional and hexagonal lattice. It is about 100 times stronger than steel.  It conducts heat and electricity very efficiently, so it is used in semiconductor, electronics, battery energy etc.

QUESTION: 13

Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which genetically engineered plants have been created?
1. To enable them to withstand drought
2. To increase the nutritive value of the produce
3. To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations
4. To increase their shelf life
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2012]

Solution:

Except 3rd, all the statements are correct.

QUESTION: 14

What are the reasons for the people’s resistance to the introduction of Bt brinjal in India? 
1. Bt brinjal has been created by inserting a gene from a soil fungus into its genome.
2. The seeds of Bt brinjal are terminator seeds and therefore, the farmers have to buy the seeds before every season from the seed companies.
3. There is an apprehension that the consumption of Bt brinjal may have adverse impact on health.
4. There is some concern that the introduction of Bt brinjal may have adverse effect on the biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

[2012]

Solution:

3rd and 4th statements are correct hence the option (c) is right.

QUESTION: 15

With reference to ‘stem cells’, frequently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?        
1. Stem cells can be derived from mammals only.
2. Stem cells can be used  for screening new drugs.
3. Stem cells can be used for medical therapies.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 

[2012]

Solution:

Stem cells can be used for medical therapies also can be used for screening new drugs.

QUESTION: 16

To meet its rapidly growing energy demand, some opine that India should pursue research and development on thorium as the future fuel of nuclear energy. In this context, what advantage does thorium hold over uranium?
1. Thorium is far more abundant in nature than uranium.
2. On the basis of per unit mass of mined mineral, thorium can generate more energy compared to natural uranium.
3. Thorium produces less harmful waste compared to uranium.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2012]

Solution:

Thorium fuel generates no new bomb-usable material in the waste profile; the waste consists of the radioisotope Uranium-233, or U233, which is virtually impossible to weaponize/ Thorium fuel will generate more energy per unit of mass than uranium fuel by a factor of approximately 30. Thorium is four times more abundant in nature than uranium, and is widely distributed throughout the Earth's crust. All statements in this question are correct.

QUESTION: 17

What is “Virtual Private Network” ?

[2011]

Solution:

A virtual private network provides a private network across a public network ensuring security by establishing an encrypted layered tunneling protocol.

QUESTION: 18

A new optical disc format known as the Blu-ray Disc (BD) is becoming popular. In what way is it different from the traditional DVD ?
1. DVD supports Standard Definition video while BD supports high definition video
2. Compared to a DVD, the BD format has several times more storage capacity
3. Thickness of BD is 2.4 mm while that of DVD is 1.2 mm.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Statement 3 is incorrect as the thickness of BD is 1.1 mm while that of DVD is 1.2 mm. The difference lies in capacity so statement 2 is correct. As far as statement 1 is concerned.

QUESTION: 19

What is the difference between a CFL and an LED lamp ?
(1) To produce light, a CFL uses mercury vapour and phosphor while an LED lamp uses semi-conductor material
(2) The average life span of a CFL is much longer than that of an LED lamp
(3) A CFL is less energy-efficient as compared to an LED lamp
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

[2011]

Solution:

LED bulbs are grouped in clusters with diffuser lenses which have broadened the applications for LED use in the home.

QUESTION: 20

What is the difference between Blue-tooth and Wi-Fi devices?

[2011]

Solution:

Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (actually between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz, to be exact). Wi-Fi -IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands.

QUESTION: 21

Microbial fuel cells are considered a source of sustainable energy. Why ?
1. They use living organisms as catalysts to generate electricity from certain substrates.
2. They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.
3. They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.
Which of the following statements given above is/ are correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Microbial fuel cells transform organic wastes directly into electricity through microbially catalyzed electrochemical reactions.

QUESTION: 22

A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Btbrinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is

[2011]

Solution:

Bt Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal created by inserting a gene cry1Ac from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into Brinjal. This is said to give the Brinjal plant resistance against lepidopteran insects like the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer Leucinodes orbonalis and Fruit Borer Helicoverpa armigera.

QUESTION: 23

Recently , “oil zapper” was in the news. What is it ?

[2011]

Solution:

The oil zapper feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude oil and oily sludge (a hazardous hydrocarbon waste generated by oil refineries) and converts them into harmless CO2 and water. The scientific term for the above-mentioned process is bioremediation.

QUESTION: 24

Which among the following do/does not belong/belongs to the GSM family of wireless technologies?

[2010]

Solution:

More than 3.8 billion people worldwide used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) family of technologies as of May 2009. GSM is the most widely usesd wireless technology in the world. GSM has strainghtforward, cost-effective migration path to 3G through GPRS, EDGE and UMTS-HSPA, as well as beyond 3G via the HSPA Evolution (HSPA+). LTE and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) initiatives.

QUESTION: 25

Recently, LASIK (Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) procedure is being made popular for vision correction.
Which one of the following statements in this context is-not correct?

[2010]

Solution:

In order to under go LASIK procedure one should be at least 18 years old, as the vision of people younger than 18 usually continues to change.

QUESTION: 26

Consider the following:
1. Bluetooth device
2. Cordless phone
3. Microwave oven
4. Wi-Fi device
Which of the above can operate between 2.4 and 2.5 GHz range of radio frequency band?

[2010]

Solution:

Microwaves are electromagnetic wages with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz. A microwave oven passes (nonionizing microwage radiation (at a frequency near 2.45 GHz) through food, causing dielectric heating by absorption of energy in the water, fats and sugar contained in the food. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have many applications: setting up networks, printing, or transferring files. They also work in the given frequency range. All cordless sold in the US use the 1.9 GHz or 2.4-GHz bands.

QUESTION: 27

Genetically modified "golden rice" has been engineered to meet human nutritional requirements. Which one of the following statements best qualifies golden rice ?

[2010]

Solution:

Golden rice is genetically modified rice. It contains Beta carotene and other carotenoids. Provitamin A (Beta carotene) which upon ingestion converted to Vitamin A in the body.

QUESTION: 28

With reference to the treatment of cancerous tumours, a tool called cyberknife has been making the news. In this context, which one of the following statements is not correct ?

[2010]

Solution:

The CyberKnife VSI Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for the treatment of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumours anywhere in the body including the Prostate, Lung, Brain, Spine, Liver, Pancreas and Kidney. The treatment delivering beams of high-dose radiation to tumours with extreme accuracy offers new hope to patients worldwide.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements: The satellite Oceansat-2 launched by India helps in
1. estimating the water vapour content in the atmosphere.
2. predicting the onset of monsoons.
3. monitoring the pollution of coastal waters.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2010]

Solution:

Oceansat-2 continues with the service of oceansat-1. The main objectives of oceansat-2 are to study surface winds and ocean surface strata, observation of chlorophyll concentration, monitoring of phytoplanktion blooms, study of atmospheric aerosol and suspended sediments in wath.

QUESTION: 30

In the context of space technology, what is “Bhuvan ”, recently in the news?

[2010]

Solution:

Bhuvan, is a software application which allows users to explore a 2D/3D representation of the surface of the Earth. ISRO launched the beta version of its web-based GIS tool, Bhuvan, on August 12, 2009. Bhuvan offers detailed imagery of Indian locations compared to other Virtual Globe Software, with spatial resolutions ranging up to 1 metre.