Lithography is the process used to develop a pattern to a layer on the chip.
Silicon oxide is patterned on a substrate using:
Silicon oxide is patterned on a substrate using Photolithography.
Positive photo resists are used more than negative photo resists because:
Negative photo resists are more sensitive to light, but their photo lithographic resolution is not as high as that of the positive photo resists. Therefore, negative photo resists are-used less commonly in the manufacturing of high-density integrated circuits.
The ______ is used to reduce the resistivity of poly silicon:
The resistivity of poly silicon is reduced by Doping impurities.
The isolated active areas are created by technique known as:
To create isolated active areas both the techniques can be used. Among them Local Oxidation of Silicon(LOCOS) is most efficient.
The chemical used for shielding the active areas to achieve selective oxide growth is:
Selective oxide growth is achieved by shielding the active areas. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is used for shielding the active areas during oxidation, which effectively inhibits oxide growth.
The dopants are introduced in the active areas of silicon by:
Two ways to add dopants are diffusion and ion implantation.
To grow the polysilicon gate layer, the chemical used for chemical vapour deposition is:
Silicon Wafer is placed in a reactor with silane gas (SiH4), and they are heated again to grow the polysilicon layer by chemical vapor deposition.
The process by which Aluminium is grown over the entire wafer , also filling the contact cuts is:
Aluminum is sputtered over the entire wafer, it also fills the contact cuts
Chemical Mechanical Polisihing is used to:
The pad oxide and nitride are removed using a Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) step.