‘Forced recruitment’ means a process by which
Forced recruitment is a process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army. The British government in India resorted to it at the time of the First World War in order to boost the number of soldiers fighting from its side.
The growth of modern nationalism in India, as in Vietnam, is closely connected to :
The growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement in India, just like in any other country.
In the process of their struggle with colonialism people began discovering their unity.
Anti-colonial movement gave a strong issue to the people with which they could identify and could come on a common platform.
All though each class or group of people felt that they were being oppressed under colonialism, the effects of colonialism were felt differently.
Hence, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
What was the cause for business classes to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement?
(i) The business class wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(ii) They wanted to free the business from colonial restrictions.
(iii) The business community interpreted Swaraj in their own way. They came to see Swaraj at the time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade industry would flourish without constraints.
Which of the following was not a part of Gandhiji’s satyagraha?
Gandhi and his chief lieutenant Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel had conducted the Satyagrahas at Champaran and Bardoli not only to achieve material gains for the people, but also to resist the unjust authority of the then British regime.
The Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930, which was started with the breaking of the Salt Law at Dandi, and the Quit India Movements were classic examples when Gandhi and his colleagues used Satyagraha as a weapon of the soul force.
Satyagraha as a means of resistance and conflict resolution has different forms.
Hunger strike [fasting], Hartal [striking work], hijrat [immigration] etc. are some of the forms suggested.
The first three successful Satyagraha movements by Gandhiji in India were :
Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised satyagraha movements in Champaran in Bihar, Kheda district of Gujarat and Ahmedabad.
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. In 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat who were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue. In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
What did Mahatma Gandhi in his book, Hind Swaraj, declare?
Mahatma Gandhi , in his famous book Hind Swaraj ( 1909) , declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refuse to co-operate, British rule in India would collapse within one year and Swaraj would come.
The various social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement of 1921, were :
Peasants and Tribals
In various places peasants and tribal also participated in the movement. The movement was launched against the talukdars and landlords. For them Swaraj meant they would not be required to pay land dues i.e., land revenue, and the land they were cultivating would be distributed among them.
Why did Gandhiji urge the Congress to join the Khilafat Movement?
Though the Khilafat issue was not directly linked to Indian politics but it provided the immediate background to the movement and gave an added advantage of cementing Hindu-Muslim unity against British.It was wrong treatment meted out to Turkey by British where the Khalifa was removed from Khilafat.The Gandhiji felt it as a good chance to weld the unity among the Hindus and the Muslims against the common enemy British.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in support of :
In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come. Gandhiji believed that if Indians begin to refuse to cooperate, the British rulers will have no other way than to leave India.
Why was the tribals’ chanting of Gandhiji’s name and raising slogans demanding “Swatantra Bharat” important ?
The plantation workers of Assam gave the slogan "swatantra bharat ". Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and they were rarely given such permission.
When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways, imagining it to be a time when all suffering and all troubles would be over.
These workers and the tribals then started chanting Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’.
The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra was :
The tribals of Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh interpreted Swaraj as the restoration of their traditional rights over forest produce and acess to their means of livelihood. This was because the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing the access of people to the forests they depended upon for grazing cattle and collecting fuelwood. The government also forced people into begar for constructing roads.
The people finally revolted under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. Their movement was militant in nature and they used tactics that were different from those used by Congress. Raju was inspired by the Non-cooperation movement and persuaded people to adopt khadi and give up drinking. However, his other practices included the use of violence against the government to achieve liberation.
Baba Ramchandra was :
Baba Ramchandra led the peasant movement in Awadh.
He was a sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer.
He started the movement against talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rent and taxes from the peasants.
Who started the Swaraj Party and why?
The Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das in order to fight British colonialism from within and give the people of India a responsible and responsive government by making the colonial state accountable. The formation of this party allowed the Congress leaders who believed in participating in government an avenue to contest elections.
The two events which shaped Indian politics in the 1920s were :
The two factors that shaped Indian politics towards late 1920s were:
The first was the effect of the worldwide economic depression. Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.
The Tory government in Britain constituted the Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the Constitutional government in India. The Simon Commission came to India in 1928. Since this Commission had no Indian member, it was greeted with protests and black flags.
Why did production of Indian textiles and handloom go up during the Non- Cooperation Movement?
Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities across the country:
(i) The movement started with middle class participation in the cities.
(ii) Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.
(iii) Headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iv) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras where Justice Party took part in elections.
Effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front were :
(i) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(ii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iii) Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
(iv) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922. In value, the drop was from Rs. 102 crore to Rs.57 crore.
(v) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(vi) The people began discarding imported clothes and wore only Indian ones.
(vii) Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up tremendously.
Which one of the following statements is not correct in respect of Harijan campaign of Mahatma Gandhi?
Gandhiji withdrew from the Civil Disobedience Movement to focus on Harijan welfare. Objectives of Harijan Campaign were as below:
1. Eradication of untouchability.
2. Social, economic and cultural upliftment of the Harijans.
3. The opening of wells, roads, and particularly temples plus humanitarian work. He refused to attack caste as a whole.
Who presided over the December 1929 Session of the Congress at Lahore and what was its demand?
J.L. Nehru presided over the Lahore Session of the INC in December 1929. The immediate effect of this session of Congress was the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full liberty of India from the British rule. It was concluded that 26 January 1930 would be observed as the Day of India's Independence. But the judgment of Lahore Session was inadequate to bring much attention. By using the idea from this Purna Swaraj program Gandhiji organized ‘Dandi March’ (against the unjust salt laws) as the primary action for Civil Disobedience.
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Which of the following statements is/ are true about the Dandi March of Mahatma Gandhi?
1) This is also known as "Salt March".
2) It was started on March 11,1930.
3) Mahatama Gandhi started this march along with 78 volunteers from sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, the coastal town of Gujarat.
Reasons for Dandi March
British government imposed salt tax and established its monopoly over salt production.
Activities that were done in this march
They reached Dandi on April 6,1930 and violated the law by manufacturing Salt.
The two reasons why Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference of December 1931, were :
What was the cause for business classes to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement?
The main cause for business classes to participate in civil disobedience movement was the protection against import of foreign goods and thus affect in their business.