The Mongolian and Chinese narratives on Genghis Khan were translated as The Secret History of the Mongols by -
Igor de Rachewiltz is a prominent Mongolist working in Australia. He was born in Rome in 1929. The Mongolian and Chinese narratives were available in the title of Mongqol-un niuèa tobèa’an. Igor de Rachewiltz published the translation of The Secret History of the Mongols, in eleven volumes of Papers on Far Eastern History, from 1971 to 1985.
The Mongols travelled with their herds to pasture lands and lived in tents called:
The Mongols lived in the steppes of Central Asia, in a tract of land in the area of the modern state of Mongolia. Agriculture was possible in the pastoral regions, such as the steppes of Central Asia, during short parts of the year, but the Mongols did not take to farming.
What was known as the ‘yam’?
The Mongol courier system, known as the 'Yam', was one of the various positive aspects of Genghis Khan’s rule. Its speed and reliability amazed travellers.
The army of Genghis Khan was organised into
Genghis Khan developed his army by dismantling the old tribal identities of the different groups who joined his confederacy. He organised his army according to the old steppe system of decimal units, i.e., in divisions of 10s, 100s, 1,000s and [notionally] 10,000 soldiers.
During Genghis Khan’s attempt to conquer China, North China was ruled by
When Genghis Khan tried to conquer China, it was was divided into three realms: the Hsi Hsia people of Tibetan origin in the north-western provinces; the Jurchen whose Chin dynasty ruled North China from Peking; and the Sung dynasty who controlled South China.
The childhood name of Genghis Khan was:
Genghis Khan was born in 1162 AD, near the Onon River, in the north of present-day Mongolia. He was the son of Yesugei, the chieftain of the Kiyat, i.e., a group of families related to the Borjigid clan.
Genghis Khan died in
Genghis Khan, who played a great role in unifying the nomadic Mongol tribes to carve out a great empire, died in 1227 CE.
Timur, a Barlas Turk who rose to power between 1370-1405 CE, claimed descent from Genghis Khan, through the lineage of:
Timur was a Barlas Turk. He claimed Genghis Khanid descent through the lineage of Chaghtay. He established a steppe empire that assimilated parts of the dominions of Toluy (excluding China), Chaghatay and Jochi. He proclaimed himself, ‘Guregen’ – ‘royal son-in-law’ – and married a princess of the Genghis Khanid lineage.
In 3rd century BCE in China, the fortifications started to be integrated into a common defensive outwork, known as the
The Great Wall of China was first built in the 7th century B.C., when China was divided into many small states. After the unification of China in 221 B.C., the first emperor of Qin dynasty linked the walls of his three northern states, thus forming the first "Wan Li Chang Cheng" (Ten Thousand Great Wall).
Through the 1180s and 1190s, Temujin (Genghis Khan) remained an ally of
Ong Khan accepted Temujin as a foster-son. Ong Khan's natural son, Senggum or Senggum, had been expecting to succeed his father and plotted to assassinate Temujin. Temujin learned of this, and those loyal to Temujin defeated those loyal to Senggum. Temujin was now established as the head of what had been Ong Khan's coalition.