Test: Pastoralists In The Modern World - 3


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following was not a reason for Maasai loss of grazing lands ?

Solution:

The correct answer is option (C) as the Maasai community lost their grazing lands because:
(i) European imperial powers scramble for territorial possessions in Africa led to slicing up of the continent into different regions/colonies. Maasai land was divided between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. This restricted the movement of the Maasais between regions.
(ii) The best grazing lands were taken over for white settlement and pastoralists were not allowed entry to these settlements and markets. This restricted not only grazing lands but prohibited them from entering into any form of trade as well. They were moreover pushed into a small area which was arid and poor in pastures.
(iii) In late 19th century local peasant communities were encouraged by the British colonisers to expand cultivation at the expense of pasture lands.
(iv) Large areas of Maasai grazing lands were turned into game reserves, e.g., Sambur U National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. These reserves were out of bound of the pastoralists.
(v) For lands which were available special permits were required and rules lay down. In case of default Maasai’s were subject to harassment and severely punished.
(vi) In pre-colonial times the Maasai pastoralists had dominated their neighbours economically and politically but by the end of colonial rule the situation was reversed.

QUESTION: 2

Name the Pastoral Nomads of Jammu and Kashmir :

Solution:

The Gujjars and Bakarwals is a unique ethnic group which migrates in the Western Himalayas. They are the sheep and goat rearing transhumant’s who oscillate with their rewards (flock) between high and low altitudes in the mountains, lands and valleys of the Jammu & Kashmir State. The habitat of these people is in the hilly terrain of the North-Western Himalayas. The Gujjar-Bakarwals claim a common ancestry from the ancient Gujjar tribe of India. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that they are the foreign stock representing the pastoral nomads of Central Asia. Some of them are of the opinion that the Gujjars are the descendants of the Kushan and the Yuchi tribes of Eastern Tatars (Russia). Some scholars hold the view that they are of Indian origin.

QUESTION: 3

Find the odd one out :

Solution:

The British Officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They wanted the rural people to live in the villages, in fixed places with fixed rights on particular fields. They felt that such a population would be easy to identify and control. Nomadic people were considered to be criminal. Therefore in 1871, the Criminal Tribes Act was passed.

QUESTION: 4

In which of the following states are Banjara's to be found ?

Solution:

The Banjaras of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra move to different places in search of good pastures.

QUESTION: 5

The Maasais are cattle herders of :

Solution:

The Maasais were a community of cattle herders. They lived primarily in East Africa. There were 300, 000 Maasais in Southern Kenya and 150,000 in Tanzania. ... The Maasais faced continuous loss of their grazing lands and this affected their lives in times of drought and even reshaped their social relationships

QUESTION: 6

Name the significant feature of nomadic pastoralists ?

Solution:

Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fixed.

QUESTION: 7

Pastoralists sustain by :

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Genealogists :

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Nomadic Pastoralists are People who ?

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

What was the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists ? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

Colonial state regarded grazing land as :

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

Which of the following constitute pastoral communities of Africa ? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

Bhabar :

Solution:

The dry forested area below the foothills of Kumaon and Garhwal is called Bhabar.

QUESTION: 14

Protected forests were :

Solution:
QUESTION: 15

The cyclical movement of mountain pastoralists is defined by ?

Solution: The seasonal movement of pastoralists in the hills like gaddis moved from lahaul spiti to other places Cold and snow.
QUESTION: 16

The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in :

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

Which of the following was not a reason for Konkani peasants welcoming the herders ? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 18

Bugyals are :

Solution:

Bugyals are alpine pasture lands, or meadows, in higher elevation range between 3,300 metres (10,800 ft) and 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) of the Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, where they are called "nature's own gardens"

QUESTION: 19

Dhangars are pastoralists of :

Solution:
QUESTION: 20

The alternation of monsoon and dry season defined the rhythm of :

Solution:

The Gollas who herd cattle and the Kurumas and Kurubas who reared sheep and goat are from Karnataka and Andhra. They live near the woods and in the dry periods they move to the coastal tracts.

QUESTION: 21

Where are Gujjar Cattle herders originally from ?           

Solution:
QUESTION: 22

Where did the Pastoralists were found ?

Solution:

All pastoralists operated in the mountains, they all were also to be found in the plateaus, plains and deserts of India. Dhangars were found in this area they are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.

QUESTION: 23

Where do the Bedounis Communtiy Found ?           

Solution:
QUESTION: 24

Which crop is usually harvested after March -           

Solution:
QUESTION: 25

Where are the Raikas to be found ?           

Solution: Raikas are nomadic pastoralists of Rajasthan state who depend on domesticated livestock for their livelihood. They migrate to an established territory or a less arable land to find pasturage for their animals and stay there for a considerable period of time. They are also very efficient camel herders and use camel as a source of livelihood. Camel help in trade of goods and also for locomotion. They engage themselves in agricultural activities if they find a particular land arable. They also also blanket weavers, good craftsmen and pottery experts.
QUESTION: 26

When was Massailand divided between British Kenya & German Tangayika ?           

Solution:
QUESTION: 27

It is a type of agriculture under which crops are grown and consumed by the farmer’s family -           

Solution:
QUESTION: 28

It is a type of agriculture under which crops are grown to satisfy the needs of local community -           

Solution:
QUESTION: 29

When did the colonical government in India pass the criminal Tribes Act ?           

Solution:
QUESTION: 30

Which of the following pastoralist community of western India?

Solution: