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31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1


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30 Questions MCQ Test Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers | 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1

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31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 1

Which one of the following belongs to the family Muscidae?  [NEET 2021]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 1
  • Muscidae are commonly known as house flies or stable flies.
  • These are found worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera.

  • Additional Information

    • Anacardiaceae: It is famous as the cashew family or sumac family. Anacardiaceae include numerous genera, like cashew (in the type genus Anacardium), mango, poison ivy, poison oak.

    • Hominidae: Hominidae family is one of the two living families of the ape superfamily Hominoidea. This family includes apes like orangutans (genus Pongo), the gorillas (Gorilla), and the chimpanzees as well as human beings (Homo).

    • Poaceae: This family is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. This family includes the cereal grasses, bamboos, and the grasses of natural grassland.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 2

Select the correctly written scientific name of Mango, which was first described by Carolus Linnaeus.     [NEET 2019]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 2
  • According to Binomial Nomenclature, the first word denoting the genus starts with a capital letter while the specific epithet starts with a small letter
  • Example: Scientific name of mango is Mangifera indica.
  • The author's name appears after the specific epithet, i.e., at the end of the biological name, and is written in an abbreviated form.
  • Example: Mangifera indica Linn. which indicates this species was first described by Linnaeus.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 3

Study the four statements (A - D) given below and select the two correct ones out of them.

(A) Definition of biological species was given by Ernst Mayr.

(B) Photoperiod does not affect reproduction in plants.

(C) Binomial nomenclature system was given by R.H. Whittaker.

(D) In unicellular organisms, reproduction is synonymous with growth.

The two correct statements are:     [NEET 2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 3

Photoperiod affects the reproduction in plants by regulating the flowering timing of the plants. The binomial system of nomenclature was given by Carolus Linnaeus. R. H. Whittaker proposed 5 kingdom classification of living organisms.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 4

Nomenclature is governed by certain universal rules. Which one of the following is contrary to the rules of nomenclature?     [NEET 2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 4

Binomial nomenclature (also called binomial nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 5

It is much easier for a small animal to run uphill than for a large animal, because     [NEET 2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 5
  • Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy used per unit time by an organism. It can be measured in various units including watt, joule per hour. Basal metabolic rate affects the number of calories used up by a person. The processes which require energy are breathing, blood circulation, cell growth, and contraction of muscles.
  • Oxygen consumption is the amount of oxygen required by the body and taken in while respiration per minute. It is also called the rate of oxygen used. An increase in the ventricular volume and an increase in the blood pressure both factors are involved in the increase of oxygen demand.
  • Whenever we do heavy exercise there is not enough oxygen available in our body which causes anaerobic metabolism to occur in the body. This leads to the formation of lactic acid in the body. It causes discomfort to the body.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 6

The common characteristics between tomato and potato will be maximum at the level of their: [2013]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 6
The scientific name of potato is Solanum tuberosum and the scientific name of tomato is Lycopersicum esculantum, both come under the same family Solanaceae but their genera are different, hence the common characteristics between tomato and potato will be maximum at the level of their family, not a genus.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 7

Which one of the following is NOT a correct statement? [NEET 2013]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 7
  • Museum – Biological museums are generally set up in educational institutes such as schools and colleges.
  • Museums have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference.
  • Specimens are preserved in containers or jars in preservative solutions.
  • Plant and animal specimens may also be preserved as dry specimens.
  • Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collections, killing and pinning.
  • Larger animals like birds and mammals are usually stuffed and preserved.
  • Museums often have collections of skeletons of animals too.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 8

Which one of the following organisms is scientifically correctly named, correctly printed according to the International Rules of Nomenclature and correctly described? [2012M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 8
  • As per the  International Rules of Nomenclature, the scientific name consists of two parts, genus and species.
    Both genus and species are either italicized or are underlined. In the genus, the first letter is capital whereas the species name is always written in lower case letters. 
  • Musca domestica is the common housefly. In option A, the scientific name is not italicized. 
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan pathogen causing the most serious type of malaria. 
  • Felis tigris is the scientific name of the Indian tiger. In option B, the first letter of genus Felis is not written in capital letter. 
  • Escherichia coli is the full name of E. coli. It commonly occurs in human intestine.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 9

Which one of the following aspects is an exclusive characteristic of living things? [2011M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 9

Metabolism is the process by which all living things assimilate energy and use it for various purposes such as growth, movement, locomotion etc. This mechanism of metabolism is not shown by nonliving objects. However, some of the metabolic reactions can be carried out in a cell-free system or outside the cells. Isolated metabolic reactions in vitro are not living things but are living reactions. Hence, statement A is incorrect.

All living organisms show growth either by multiplication or by an increase in size. It is an irreversible increase in the mass of individual from inside. Two types of substances are produced by the cells, apoplastic and protoplastic. Apoplastic substances are nonliving materials formed by the cells which become components of tissues. For example, cell wall, the matrix of bone etc. Protoplastic substances are the components of living matter like cytoplasm and nucleus.

Although some nonliving things like mountains, sand mounds, crystals also grow, their growth is due to the addition of matter from outside.

Hence, statements B and D are incorrect.

All organisms respond to external stimuli which can be physical, chemical or biological. This is called irritability. Stimuli are perceived by sense organs in animals but plants can respond to external factors like water, temperature, light etc. All organisms from prokaryote to the most complex eukaryotes can sense and respond to environmental events.

Hence, statement C is correct.

So, the correct answer is 'Perception of events happening in the environment and their memory'.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 10

Which one of the following is considered important in the development of seed habit? [2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 10

Seed habit is the ability to form seeds.

  • Dependent sporophyte is found in Bryophytes and it is dependent on the gametophyte for nutrition.
  • Heterospory is the production of spores of two different sizes and two different development patterns. Small spores are called the male spores or microspores and the larger spores are called female spores or megaspores. Heterospory is an expression of sex determining process of the plants. It is the most important evolutionary development in the vascular plants because it ultimately leads to the seed development.
  • Haplontic life cycle is a primitive type of life cycle which is characterized by zygotic meiosis and haploid adults.
  • Free living gametophyte is the one that does not depend on sporophyte for its nutrition. Hence, heterospory leads to development of seed habit. 

So, the correct answer is 'Heterospory'.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 11

The haemoglobin of a human foetus: [2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 11

The oxygen is needed for aerobic respiration and diffuses from a region of high to low concentration from the mother's blood to the blood of the foetus. The haemoglobin of the foetus has a higher affinity for oxygen than that of adult haemoglobin and so the efficiency of exchange is increased.
So, the correct answer is 'Has a higher affinity for oxygen than that of an adult'

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 12

Select the CORRECT statement from the following? [2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 12

To survive in a particular environment, an organism need to adapt to that environment. If the organism becomes a success in adapting them that organism is selected by nature.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 13

The biological organisation starts with: [2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 13
  • Biological organisms start with the submicroscopic molecular level like viruses, bacteria etc.
  • These organisms are unable to be seen by naked eyes without the help of a microscope or even an electron microscope.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 14

Which of the following is NOT true for a species? [2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 14
  • Gene flow is the spread of genes through populations as affected by movements of the individual and their propagules
    Example: Seeds spores
  • Gene flow ensures that all populations of a given species share a common gene pool. i.e. it reduces the difference between populations.
  • The interruption of gene flow between populations is a pre-requisite for the formation of new species.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 15

Angiosperms have dominated the land flora primarily because of their: [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 15
  • Angiosperms have adapted themselves to all kinds of habitat - terrestrial, aquatic, tropical, deciduous and alpine.
  • Self-pollination is seen in very few angiosperms.
  • Production of a large number of seeds ensures that at least some will germinate.
  • Not all plants have been domesticated by man.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 16

Phenetic classification is based on: [2003, 04]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 16

Phenetic classification is based upon observable characteristics of an  organism. Phylogenetic system of classification is a system indicating the evolutionary or phylogenetic relationship of organisms.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 17

Plants reproducing by spores such as mosses and  ferns are grouped under the general term: [2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 17
  •  The word cryptogam came from the greek word cryptos - hidden; gamos - marriage.
  • The sporophyte is a stage in the life cycle of a plant. In ordinary conditions it always diploid.
  • Thallophytes are the group of lower plants that do not have vascular supply,
    Example: Bacteria, algae, fungi etc.
  • Bryophyta is a group of cryptogams that has an amphibious type of adaptation.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 18

Species are considered as: [2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 18
  • In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.
  • A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
  • While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as similarity of DNA, morphology or ecological niche.
  • The presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies. 
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 19

Biosystematics aims at: [2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 19
  • Biosystematics is the study of biological diversity and its origins. It focuses on understanding evolutionary relationships among organisms, species, higher taxa or other biological entities, such as genes and the evolution of the properties of taxa including intrinsic traits, ecological interactions, and geographic distributions.
  • An important part of systematics is the development of methods for various aspects of phylogenetic inference and biological nomenclature.
  • Whereas morphological characteristics ( physical appearance) and cytological characteristics ( size of cell and nucleus) are not used for systematics.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 20

Organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of reduced inorganic compounds are called: [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 20
  • The organisms obtaining energy by chemical reactions independent of light are called chemotrophs.
  • When the reductants obtained from the environment in the inorganic form then organisms are chemoautotrophs. While when it is organic then organisms are chemoheterotrophs.
  • Photoautotroph makes their food by photosynthesis using the energy of the sun.
  • Saprozoic organisms obtain food from dead and decaying matter.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 21

What is TRUE for individuals of the same species? [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 21

Individuals of the same species can interbreed. No two individuals share the same ecological niche.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 22

In a five-kingdom system, the main basis of classification is: [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 22

The five-kingdom classification is a mode of classification based on the following criteria

  • The complexity of cell structure.
  • The complexity of body structure.
  • Modes of nutrition  
  • Ecological lifestyles  
  • Phylogenetic relationship
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 23

First life on earth was: [2001]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 23

Early conditions on earth were high temperature, volcanic eruptions, lightning and a reducing atmosphere (because there was no oxygen), so an organism that can survive in these extreme conditions might have lived on the early earth. Therefore, among given options, chemoheterotrophs fit right in the given situations.

It is presumed that the first living organisms were chemoheterotrophs that obtained energy by the fermentation of complex organic substances available to them from the sea broth. They were anaerobes.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 24

What is TRUE for photolithotrophs? [2001]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 24

Photolithotrophs manufacture their own organic nutrients from inorganic raw materials (H2, O2) with the help of radiation energy. 

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 25

Which of the following is less general in characters as compared to genus? [2001]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 25

The correct hierarchy of classification of various taxons in descending order is given by:
Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species

The kingdom is the highest taxon with the least similar characters shared between its various members while the species is the lowest level with almost similar morphological and behavioural similarities. Species is followed by Genus with slightly fewer similarities among its members.

 

  • Species' is less general in following to genus. 
  • Species are the smallest group among all the eight levels of taxonomy with almost similar characters.
  • It is followed by Genus with slightly fewer similarities among its members.
  • Examples: Armadillo – Dasypus novemcinctusCat – Felis catus, etc.

 

Hence‘species’ is the correct answer.

 

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 26

Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is usually referred to as damages caused by: [2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 26

Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) allows comparison of a test radiation with a standard radiation. It is the ratio of dose between the radiations to give a certain biological effect, for instance a grade of skin reaction or death of mice. 
So the answer is  'Radiation'.

31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 27

The most important feature of all living systems is to: [2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 27
  • Reproduction is necessary for continuity of life. However, the production of gametes is not the only method for this.
  • A number of organisms reproduce asexually. In any case, cell division is necessary which involves replication of DNA.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 28

A system of classification in which a large number of traits are considered is: [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 28
  • An artificial system of classification is based on a comparison of one or a few characters.  
  • A system based upon a large no. of natural characters or traits is a natural system of classification, Proposed by de Jussieu.
  • The phylogenetic system of classification indicates the evolutionary or phylogenetic relationship of organisms.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 29

The practical purpose of the classification of living organisms is to: [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 29
  • Biological classification is the scientific arrangement of organisms in a hierarchical series of groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities and differences in their traits.
  • It helps in building evolutionary pathways and in identifying new organisms.
  • The practical purpose of the classification of living organisms is to facilitate the identification of unknown organisms.
  • It helps in building evolutionary pathways and in identifying new organisms.
31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 30

System of classification used by Linnaeus was: [1989]

Detailed Solution for 31 Year NEET Previous Year Questions: The Living World- 1 - Question 30

Linnaeus put forward an “Artificial system” of plant classification which was based on sexual characters. It is commonly also called as Sexual System of plant classification.

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