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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications


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30 Questions MCQ Test Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers | 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications for NEET 2022 is part of Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers preparation. The 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications MCQs are made for NEET 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications below.
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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 1

Which of the following is not an application of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)?    [2021]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 1

However, very low concentration of a bacteria or virus (at a time when the symptoms of the disease are not yet visible) can be detected by amplification of their nucleic acid by PCR. It is being used to detect mutations in genes in suspected cancer patients too.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 2

Which of the following statements is not correct?    [2020]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 2

The functional insulin molecule has two chains A and chain B, that are linked together by disulphide bridges and not hydrogen bonds.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 3

What triggers activation of protoxin to active toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in boll worm?    [2019]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 3

Some strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce proteins that kill certain insects such as lepidopterans and dipterans. B. thuringiensis forms protein crystals during a particular phase of their growth. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein which exists as inactive protoxins but once an insect ingest the inactive toxin, it is converted into an active form of toxin due to the alkaline pH of the gut which solubilise the crystals.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 4

Which of the following is commonly used as a vector for introducing a DNA fragment in human lymphocytes?   [2018]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 4

Retroviruses cause cancer in animals including humans. So modified retroviruses are used to transfer desirable genes into animal cells. It is used in gene therapy, in which lymphocytes from blood of patient are taken and grown in culture medium outside the body, a functional gene is introduced by using a retroviral vector into these lymphocytes which are again reintroduced into the patient body.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 5

Which kind of therapy was given in 1990 to a four-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency?    [2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 5

Gene therapy is a technique of genetic engineering which involves replacement of a faulty/disease causing gene by a normal healthy functional gene. The first clinical gene therapy was given in 1990 to a 4-year old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. This enzyme is very important for the immune system to function. The deficiency of this enzyme can lead to severe combined immune deficiency (SCID).

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 6

Which of the following Bt crops is being grown in India by the farmers?

[NEET 2013]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 6

Bt cotton is being grown in India by the farmers. Bt cotton is pest resistant plant which could decreased the pesticides used. Bt toxin is produced by a bacterium Bacillus thusringiensis (Bt for short). Bt toxin gene has been cloned from the bacteria and been expressed in  plants to provide resistance to insects without the need for insecticides.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 7

The first clinical gene therapy was given for treating

[2012M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 7

Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. The first clinical gene therapy was given for treating adenosine deaminase deficiency. A four-year old girl became the first gene therapy patient on September 14, 1990 at the NIH Clinical Center. Adenosine deaminase deficiency, also called ADA deficiency or ADASCID is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency. ADA deficiency is due to a lack of the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 8

Tobacco plants resistant to a nematode have been developed by the introduction of DNA that produced (in the host cells)

[2012M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 8

RNA interference technique, sense & antisense RNA fused to form dsRNA that silent the expression of m- RNA of nematode. RNA interference is a novel strategy adopted to prevent infestation of nematode Meloidegyne incognitia in roots of tobacco plants. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 9

Consumption of which one of the following foods can prevent the kind of blindness associated with vitamin-A deficiency?

[2012]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 9

Golden rice is a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesise beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin-A in the edible part of rice (i.e. endosperm). The research that led to golden rice was conducted with the goal of helping children who suffer from vitamin-A deficiency. Because many children in countries where there is a dietary deficiency in vitamin-A rely on rice as a staple food, the genetic modification of rice to produce the vitamin-A precursor beta-carotene is seen as a simple and less expensive alternative to vitamin supplements.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 10

Which one of the following techniques made it possible to genetically engineer living organism ?

[2011M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 10

Recombinant DNA technology is the process joining together two  DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combination.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 11

In history of biology, human genome project led to the development of :

[2011M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 11

Common activities in bioinformatics include mapping and analysing DNA and protein sequences, aligning different DNA etc are the part of human genome project.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 12

Silencing of mRNA has been used in producing transgenic plants resistant to:

[2011M]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 12

In this technique nematode specific genes are introduced in the host plant in such a way that it produces both sense and antisense RNA. The two RNA’s being complementary to each other from a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is also called interfering RNA responsible for initiating RNA interference (RNA i). This (dsRNA) bind to and prevent translation of specific mRNA of nematode (gene silencing). Thus transgenic plants based on RNAi technology are resistant to nematode.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 13

Continuous addition of sugars in ‘fed batch’ fermentation is done to:

[2011]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 13

A fed batch is a biotechnological batch process which is based on feeding of a growth limiting nutrient substrate to culture. It is done for purifying enzymes.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 14

Maximum number of existing transgenic animals is of :

[2011]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 14

In the world maximum num ber of existing transgenic animals is mice.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 15

The most common substrate used in distilleries for the production of ethanol is

[2011]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 15

Molasses are commonly used in distillaries for the production of ethanol. The molasses is diluted to a mash containing 10-20 wt % of sugar. By the fermentation system of molasses ethanol can be produced.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 16

Some of the characteristics of Bt cotton are:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 16

Bt toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated into cotton plant to form a genetically modified crop called Bt cotton. Bt cotton has high yield and resistance to bollworms.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 17

Genetic engineering has been successfully used for producing:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 17

Genetic engineering has been successfully used for producing transgenic mice. Many transgenic mice are designed to increase our understanding of how genes contribute to development of diseases. Transgenic mice are being developed for use in testing the safety of vaccine before they are used in human beings. For example transgenic mice are being used to test the safety of polio vaccine.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 18

The genetically-modified (GM) brinjal in India has been developed for:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 18

The genetically modified brinjal in India has been developed for insect resistance. Bt brinjal is a transgenic brinjal that is developed by inserting a crystal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis into the brinjal’s genome. This process of insertion is accomplished using Agrobacterium mediated recombination.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 19

Transgenic plants are the ones:

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 19

Transgenic plants are the ones generated by introducing foreign DNA into a cell and regenerating a plant from that cell.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 20

What is true about Bt toxin?

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 20

About Bt toxin, it is true, that the inactive protoxin gets converted into active form in the insect gut. There are several advantages in expressing Bt toxins in transgenic Bt crops. The level of toxin expression can be very high, thus delivering sufficient dosage to the pest.
The toxin expression is contained within the plant system and hence only those insects that feed on the crop perish. The toxin expression can be modulated by using tissue-specific promoters and replaces the use of synthetic pesticides in the environment.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 21

Which one of the following is commonly used in transfer of foreign DNA into crop plants?

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 21

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of dicot. This disease caused by a DNA plasmid (Ti plasmid) carried by bacterium and transferred to the plant cells. Ti plasmid has widely used in plant engineering as a vector in order to inject gene in host plant to form transgenic plant.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 22

Main objective of production/use of herbicide resistant GM crops is to

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 22

As of 1999, the most prevalent GM trait was glyphosate resistance (pesticide). This herbicide used on grain and grass crops were highly toxic and not effective against narrow-leaved weeds. Thus, developing crops that could withstand spraying with glyphosate would both reduce environmental and health risks. Tobacco plants have been engineered to be resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil. Crops have been commercialized that are resistant to the herbicide glufosinate also. The main objective of these herbicide-resistant GM crops is that it reduces the accumulation of herbicides in the food articles for health safety.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 23

A trangenic food crop’which may help in solving the problem of night blindness in developing countries is

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 23

Golden rice is a transgenic food crop which  may help in solving the problem of night blindness in developing countries. Golden rice or miracle rice is rich in vitamin A or β-carotene and iron and decaffeinated coffee are also valuable achievements of gene transfer technology. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 24

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains have been used for designing novel :

[2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 24

Bt cotton, a transgenic crop variety has been introduced in India. The Bt cotton variety contains a foreign gene obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis. This bacterial gene protects cotton from the ball worm, a major pest of cotton.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 25

The name of Norman Borlaug is associated with :

[2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 25

The term Green revolution refers to the very substantial increase in yield obtained by breeding high yielding varieties of crops, under intensive application of fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides. The world wide increase, in productivity has come to be known as the ‘Green Revolution’ for which Dr. Borlaug won the Noble Peace Prize in 1970.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 26

Golden rice is a transgenic crop of the future with the following improved trait:[2005, 06]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 26

Golden rice is a transgenic crop of the future with high Vit. A content. Millions of people suffer from Vit. A deficiency which leads to vision impairment. Transgenic rice has been developed which is capable of synthesizing beta carotene, the precursor of Vitamin A. The rice variety is now being crossed into adapted varieties with field tests possible in an year or two.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 27

ELISA is used to detect viruses where the key reagent is

[2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 27

ELISA test is a technique which can detect any amount of an antibody or antigen with the help of an enzyme. The commonly used enzymes are alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 28

Maximum application of animal cell culture technology today is in the production of

[2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 28

Cultured animal cells are used in the production of vaccines producing viruses. Vaccines for polio, rabies, chicken pox, measles and   hepatitis B are produced using animal cell culture. Insulin production includes insertion of chemically synthesized A and B chain DNA sequences into plasmids followed by transformation of E. coli with plasmid carrying the gene. Replication of recombinant plasmid in E. coli produces insulin. Interferon is a carbohydrate containing proteins that are produced by fibroblasts and leukocytes in response to immune stimuli. It has antiviral and anticancer properties and is produced by transformation of E. coli with recombinant plasmid carrying the gene for interferon. Edible proteins are produced by molecular farming, i.e., transfer of genes of proteins to plants and animals for production of proteins. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 29

What is true for monoclonal antibodies?

[2001]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 29

Monoclonal antibodies are identical molecules specific for one type of antigen. These are obtained by injecting the target antigen into a rat or mouse. Sometimes later, the spleen cells producing antibodies are isolated and fused with myeloma cells to produce monoclonal antibodies.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 30

Genetically engineered bacteria have been successfully used in the commercial production of

[1996]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Biotechnology & Its Applications - Question 30

Human insulin has 53 amino acids in two polypeptides (A and B) connected by two S -S (disulphide) linkages. In 1983, American company Eli Lilly prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B insulin chains. When  introduced in plamids of  E.coli, insulin chains were formed. They were extracted and fused to produce humulin (human insulin).

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