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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1


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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 1

Which of the following stages of meiosis involves division of centromere? [2021]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 1

Anaphase II: It begins with the simultaneous splitting of the centromere of each chromosome (which was holding the sister chromatids together), allowing them to move toward opposite poles of the cell by shortening of microtubules attached to kinetochores.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 2

Identify the correct statement with regard to G1 phase (Gap I) of interphase    [2020]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 2

G1 Phase is metabolically active stage of cell cycle. Different type of amino acid RNA, Protein synthesis take place in G1 phase but DNA replication does not take place, (Note :- DNA replication occur in S-Phase)

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 3

Cells in G0 phase    [2019]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 3

Some cells in the adult animals do not appear to exhibit division (e.g., heart cells) and many other cells divide only occasionally, as needed to replace cells that have been lost because of injury or cell death. These cells that do not divide further exit G1 phase to enter an inactive stage called quiescent stage (G0) of the cell cycle. Cells in this stage remain metabolically active but no longer proliferate unless called on to do so depending on the requirement of the organism.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 4

The stage during which separation of the paired homologous chromosomes begins is   [2018]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 4

During diplotene, the nucleoprotein fusion complex of synapsed chromosomes dissolves partially therefore homologous chromosomes separate except in the region of crossing over.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 5

Which of the following options gives the correct sequence of events during mitosis?    [2017]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 5

Mitosis is divided into four phase prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During prophase, the indistinct and intertwined DNA molecule condenses to form elongated chromosomes. The nuclear membrane disintegrates during prometaphase During metaphase, the chromosomes align themselves at the equatorial plate. During anaphase, centromere of each chromosome divides into two so that each chromosome come to have its own centromere Chromatids move towards opposite poles along the path of their chromosome fibres. Finally, during telophase, two chromosome groups reorganise to form two nuclei. Nuclear envelope reappears, Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum are reformed Crossing over occurs during meiosis.
Option (c) also gives the correct sequence of event but it misses step II (nuclear membrane disassembly). Hence, is ruled out as best appropriate answer is option (a).

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 6

Given below is a schematic break­up of the phases / stages of cell cycle:

Which one of the following is the correct indication of the stage/phase in the cell cycle?

[2009] 

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 6

In schematic break­up of the phases/ stages of cell cycle, D synthetic phase is the correct indicat

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 7

Meiosis I is reductional division. Meiosis II is equational division due to

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 7

 

In meiosis I, the starting cell is diploid, and it produces 2 haploid daughter cells. Since the number of chromosomes was halved, it is a reductional division. Note that while each of the daughter cells is haploid, each of the chromosomes in the daughter cells consists of 2 sister chromatids joined together.

In meiosis II, the starting cells are haploid, and each one produces 2 haploid daughter cells. Since the number of chromosomes remained the same, it is an equational division.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 8

Segregation of mendelian factor (Aa) occurs during

[1990]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 8

Segregation of Mendelian factor (Aaoccurs during Anaphase-I. During Anaphase-I chromosome divides at the point of centromere or kinetochore and thus two sister chromatids are formed, which are called as chromosomes.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 9

Mitotic anaphase differs from metaphase in possessing

[1991]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 9

Mitotic anaphase differs from metaphase in possessing same number of chromosomes and half number of chromatids. During anaphase of mitosis, chromosomes divide at the point of centromere or kinetochore and thus two sister chromatids are formed which are called as chromosomes. While during metaphase, chromosomes become maximally distinct due to further contraction and thus size of chromosomes is measured at mitotic metaphase.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 10

In meiosis, the daughter cells differ from parent cell as well as amongst themselves due to

[1991]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 10

Due to segregation, independent assortment and crossing over at the time of meiosis, daughter cells exhibit variation.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 11

 When does synapsis occur during meiosis?

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 11

In meiosis I, synapsis formation occurs in the zygotene stage of prophase-I. It is the second stage of prophase-I. During this stage, the chromosomes start pairing together and this process of association called synapsis. Such paired chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes. This synapsis is accompanied by the formation of synaptonemal complex formed by bivalent or tetrad chromosomes. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 12

Meiosis II performs

[1993]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 12

Meiosis II is homotypic division specially for maintanence of the haploid number, separating the chromatids from each other in a chromosome.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 13

Best stage to observe shape, size and number of chromosomes is

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 13

During metaphase, the centomeres of the chromosome lie on the equatorial plate according to their size and spatial arrangement. So it is the best time to count the number and study the morphology of chromosomes.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 14

Meiosis is evolutionary significant because it result in

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 14

Meiosis provides a chance for new combinations of chromosomes mainly by the phenomenon of crossing over and random distribution of homologous chromosomes between daughter cells.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 15

The exchange of genetic material between chromatids of paired homologous chromosomes during first meiotic division is called

[1996]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 15

The points of attachment between homologous chromosomes after their separation in diplotene are called  chiasmata. The process of pairing of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis the phenomenon by which DNA isolated from one type of cell, when introduced into another type, is able to bestow some of the properties of the former to the latter is known as transformation.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 16

In cell cycle, DNA replication takes place in

[1996, 2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 16

G1 phase, also called Gap I phase is characterized by increase in cell size. In the S phase or synthetic phase DNA molecules replicate. G2 is the second growth phase. Gap II where in there is intensive formation of RNAs and  proteins. In the mitotic metaphase, the chromosomes are arranged at the equatorial plate.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 17

Lampbrush chromosomes occur during

[1996]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 17

Lampbrush chromosomes are highly elongated bivalent chromosomes of diplotene stage, which are held together by chiasmata and  have a large number of lateral loops for rapid transcription.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 18

Colchicine is employed to diploidize a haploid cell as it

[1996]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 18

Colchicine is a mitotic poison which inhibits the appearance of spindle fibres.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 19

Which one of the following structures will not be common to mitotic cells of higher plants?

[1997]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 19

Plants cells do not have centrioles. Cell plate appears during cytokinesis in dividing cells. Centromere holds the sister chromatids in a chromosome. Spindle fibres appear during metaphase.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 20

How many mitotic divisions are needed for a single cell to make 128 cells? [1997]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 20

Seven mitotic divisions are required to form 128 cells from a single cell. If we start with one cell and it doubles after one round, we have 2 cells. Those 2 cells double to form 4 cells, then those 4 cells double to form 8. The math continues until we reach 128 cells.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 21

During cell division in apical meristem the nuclear membrane appears in

[1997]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 21

Metaphase in characterized by the appearance of spindle fibres. Anaphase involves movement of chromatids towards the poles. Cytokinesis marks the division of the cytoplasm of the parent cell into daughter cells.

The nuclear membrane is present at prophase, when the cell moves from prophase it disappers and again it reappears in telophase.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 22

Microtubule is involved in the

[1998]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 22

The spindle fibres involved in cell division is made of microtubules

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 23

A bacterium divides every 35 minutes. If a culture containing 105 cells per ml is grown for 175 minutes, what will be the cell concentration per ml after 175 minutes?

[1998]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 23

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 24

During cell division, the spindle fibres attach to the chromosome at a region called

[2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 24

Kinetochore is the proteinaceous covering of centriole, to which spindle fibers attach.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 25

Best material for the study of mitosis in laboratory is

[2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 25

Root tip is the part of the plant which grows continuously as it search water and nutrients. Thats why we can use the root tip for the study of mitosis in a laboratory easily.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 26

If a diploid cell is treated with colchicine then it becomes

[2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 26

Colchicine inhibits spindle formation, due to which chromatids are unable to separate during anaphase which results in doubling of chromosomes. So, if a diploid cell is treated with colchicine, there is doubling of chromosomes and it becomes tetraploid,. Its an alkaloid obtained from Colchicum autumnale.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 27

In the somatic cell cycle

[2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 27

DNA replication is restricted to S­ phase of interphase.  G2 phase is followed by the mitotic phase which is shorter than the inter phase.  In G2  phase DNA content is double than the amount present in the original cell.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 28

If you are provided with root­tips of onion in your class and are asked to count the chromosomes, which of the following stages can you most conveniently look into?

[2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 28

Chromosomes are most distinct  in the metaphase stage. In the telophase stage they  regain their  coiled composition. In anaphase the chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles. In prophase stage the chromosomes appear thread like and individual chromatids cannot be seen.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 29

Which one of the following precedes reformation of the nuclear envelope during M phase of the cell cycle

[2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 29

At telophase stage, nuclear membrane vesicles associate with the surface of individual chromosomes and fuse to reform the nuclear membranes, which partially enclose clusters of chromosomes before coalescing to reform the complete nuclear envelope. During this process the nuclear pores reassemble and   (the dephosphorylated reassociare to form the nuclear lamina.) One of the lamina proteins (lamina - B) remains with the nuclear membrane fragments throughout mitosis and may help nucleate ressembly. After the nucleus reforms, the pores pump in nuclear proteins, the chromosome decondense and RNA synthesis causing the nucleolus to reappear.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 30

At what stage of the cell cycle are histone proteins synthesized in a eukaryotic cell?

[2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Cell Cycle & Cell Division - 1 - Question 30

Histone proteins are synthesized during S­phase of cell cycle. S­phase or Synthetic phase.

 Histone proteins are basic proteins and are used in packing of eukaryotic (absent in prokaryotes) DNA. DNA and histones together comprise chromatin, forming bulk of the eukaryotic chromosomes. Histones are of five major kinds 

H1,H2A,H2B,H3

 and 

H4H1

 histones link neighbouring nucleosomes (fundamental packing units of an eukaryotic chromosome), while other are elements of nucleosome structure. During S-phase of cell cycle synthesis of histone proteins take place because at this stage number of chromosomes become double to that of somatic number

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