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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2


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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 1

The technique used for estimation of minute amounts of hormones and drugs is called  [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 1

Electroencephalogram is the recording of  electric potentials originating from different parts of the brain in the form of waves. Fractionation is the technique of  rupturing cells and separating  their components especially cell organelles for studying their chemistry and functions. Electrophoresis is the technique of separation of charged solutes on the basis of their differential migration in an applied electric field.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 2

A candidate vaccine for male contraception is based on [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 2

Progesterone is a steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum and causes routine temporary changes in the endometrial lining of uterus. Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by anterior pituitary lobe stimulates spermatogenesis in testes of males. Luteinizing hormone  activates Leydig’s cells of testes to secrete  testosterones.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 3

Insulin differs from growth hormone in that it   [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 3

Insulin is released from the pancreas it helps in conversion of glucose to fatty acids. It increases fat synthesis in adipose tissues.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 4

The gland that regresses with age is [1999]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 4

Thymus gland is present in children with maximum development at puberty and thereafter it begins to shrink and  atrophies with the development of sex glands. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 5

Melatonin is produced by [2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 5

Melatonin is secreted by pineal gland present between the cerebral hemispheres. Melatonin concentration in blood follows a diurnal cycle, it rises in the evening and drops at noon. Melatonin lightens skin colour in certain animals and regulates working of gonads.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 6

Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) is produced by [2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 6

Parathyroid gland secretes parathormone which regulates Ca2+ level in blood. Anterior lobe of pituitary secretes the following hormones growth hormone, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH. Posterior pituitary secretes vasopressin and oxytocin.
The intermediate lobe (pars intermedium) of the pitutary gland secretes MSH which causes dispersal of pigment granules in the pigment cells which give colour to the skin

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 7

Progesterone, the component of the oral contraceptive pills, prevents pregnancy by  [2000]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 7

Contraceptive pills have estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone suppresses ovulation and production of LH while estrogen suppresses the production of FSH. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 8

 Melanin protects us from [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 8

Melanin is secreted from the intermediate lobe of pituitary. Melanin mainly protects the skin from harmful effects of UV-rays. People living in tropics tend to disperse more melanin in their skin – an adaptive feature.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 9

Mainly which type of hormones control the menstrual cycle in human beings? [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 9

Estrogens are steroid hormones secreted by growing ovarian follicles. During menstrual cycle a negative feedback prevents the over secretion of estrogen. FSH stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles. LH stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 10

When both ovaries are removed from rat then which hormone is decreased in blood? [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 10

Estrogen is released from the ovarian follicles. Oxytocin is secreted by posterior pituitary and prolactin is released by anterior pituitary. Gonadotropin releasing factor is produced by hypothalamus.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 11

Adrenaline directly affects on [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 11

Adrenaline is a neurotransmitter that directly acts on the S A node.
The hormone adrenaline (epinephrine) is secreted by adrenal medulla. This was first hormone to be isolated in crystalline form. This hormone is primarily responsible for the alarming  reactions. It increases the heart rate, breathing blood glucose level.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 12

Acromegaly is caused by [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 12

Deficiency of thyroxin causes cretinism in infants and myxoedema in adults. Excess of adrenalin does not cause any disorder. Acromegaly is caused by over secretion of STH or somatotrophic hormone (Growth hormone). 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 13

Which steroid is used for microbial transformation? [2002]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 13

Microbial transformation is a biological process in which organic compounds are modified into reversible products. These biotransformation reactions are catalysed by purified enzymes present in microbial  cells or pure cullures of microorganisms. Cholesterol forms a major component  of animal cell membranes liposomes (artificially created spheres surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer like a membrane). Cholesterol is used for microbial transformation (transgenics).

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 14

Which one of the following pairs correctly matches a hormone with a disease resulting from its deficiency ? [2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 14

Deficiency of parathyroid hormone causes tetany. The disease causes sustained contraction of muscles of larynx, face, hands and feet.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 15

Chemically hormones are [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 15

Hormones are chemical messengers formed by endocrine cells. Chemically hormones are of the following types: Amines–composed of amino group e.g.,
Melatonin.
Amino acids            – eg. thyroxine
Peptides                   – eg. insulin
Steroids                    – eg. aldosterone

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 16

Which one of the following pairs correctly matches a hormone with a disease resulting from its deficiency? [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 16

 Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates  ovulation. Deficiency of insulin causes diabetes mellitus. Deficiency of ADH or  vasopressin causes diabetes insipidus. Deficiency of parathormone causes tetany. Deficiency of thyroxine causes cretinism in infants and myxoedema in adults.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 17

Which of the following hormones is not a secretion product of human placenta ? [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 17

Human chorionic gonadotropin is released by Anophoblast cells of the placenta. Estrogen and progesterone are also released by placental cells to maintain pregnancy. Prolactin is secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary. Placenta secretes Human Placental Lactogenic Factor which prepare mammary glands to secrete milk. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 18

Which one of the following hormones is a modified amino acid? [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 18

Epinephrine is synthesized from amino acid tyrosine. While estrogen and progesterone are modified steroids and prostaglandins are basically fat.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 19

Parkinson’s disease (characterized by tremors and progressive rigidity of limbs) is caused by degeneration of brain neurons that are involved in movement control and make use of neurotransmitter [2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 19

Parkinson’s disease (Paralysis agitans) (i) It develops due to deficiency of neuro transmitter, dopamine. The dopamine is not produced due to gradual destruction of neurons in the substantia nigra. (ii) It produces muscle tremors so called shaking palsy. (iii) There is lack of control and coordination of movements resulting in expression less face and stooping posture which gradually produces physical disability.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 20

Sertoli cells are regulated by the pituitary hormone known as [2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 20

During spermatogenetic developments spermatids get nourished by nurse or sertoli cells. The function of sertoli cells and hence the spermatogenesis is under the direct influence of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by adenohypophyses of pituitary gland.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 21

A steroid hormone which regulates glucose metabolism is

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 21

Cortisole is the steroid hormone secreted by adrenal cortex and plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. It retards the glucose consumption & hence level of glucose in blood increases & blood pressure increases.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 22

Which one of the following is not a second messenger in hormone action ? [2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 22

In heart cells AMP acts as secondary messenger which is made in the response of adrenaline and it stimulates Ca2+ ions to come out from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle fibres which causes muscle contraction. cGMP (Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate) which acts as secondary messenger works on the action of acetylcholine, increase in flow of Ca2+ into muscle fibres & hence causes muscle relaxation. There is no role of sodium in hormonal action.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 23

Which one of the following does not act as a neurotransmitter ? [2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 23

Epinephrine or adrenaline, norepinephrine or noradrenaline and acetylchloline are the neurotransmitters. These are released by the nerve fibres to transmit the impulse to the next neurone. Cortisone is not the neurotransmitter.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 24

Which of the following is an accumulation and release centre of neurohormones ? [2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 24

Neurohormones are actually secreted by the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. They are circulated to the posterior part of the pituitary gland through the blood & stored there and released when required.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 25

Which hormone causes dilation of blood vessels, increased oxygen consumption and glucogenesis? [2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Chemical Coordination & Regulation - 2 - Question 25

 Adrenaline (called Frieght-Flight-Fight hormone) in responsible for the dilation of blood vessels, increased oxygen consumption by tissues & glucogenesis to prepare the body for emergency reactions under the threatening conditions.

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