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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4


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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 for NEET 2022 is part of Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers preparation. The 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 MCQs are made for NEET 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 below.
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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 1

Humming bird and Hawk illustrate

[1988]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 1

Adaptive radiation in evolution was developed by H.F. Osborn in 1898. It is also known as “Divergent evolution”. It is development of different functional structures from a common ancestral form. Examples as mentioned in the questions. Whereas development of similar adaptive functional structures in unrelated groups of organism is adaptive convergence = convergent evolution, e.g wings of insect, bird and bat. When convergent evolution is found in closely related species, it is called “Parallel Evolution” Example : development of running habit in deer (2.toed) and horse (1 toed). The evolutionary  process in which many related species evolved from a single ancestors is called adaptive radiation.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 2

Phenomenon of organisms resembling others for escaping from enemies is

[1988]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 2

Adaptation is the evolutionary process in which population becomes better suited to its habitat. Mimicry is an example of long term adaptation, in which there is a close resemblance of an organism to the surrounding in order to avoid detection . e.g. Leaf insect Phyllium. The term mimicry was introduced by Bates (1862).
 • Homology is phenomenon in which origin of organs are same but functions are different. e.g - Hand of human and fore limb of horse.
• Analogy - Origin is different but functions are same of two different organs. e.g. - Wings of birds, wings of insects.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 3

Evolution is [1989]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 3

The term Evolution was given by Herbert Spencer that is “Descent with modifications”. Evolution helps us to understand the history of life.
Evolution is a process in which something changes into a different and usually more complete or better form over time and in response to environment. This results in descendents becoming different from ancestors.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 4

“Continuity of germplasm” theory was given by

[1989]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 4

August Weismann, tested Lamarck’s theory in 1904 by cutting off the tails of mice for 22 generations yet he failed to get tailless mouse. On the basis of the test he put forward the theory “continuity of germ plasm”. According to him the character influencing the germ cells (reproductive) are inherited. Change in somatic cells are not transmitted to the next generations. Hugo de Vries proposed “Mutation theory”.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 5

Theory of inheritance of acquired characters was given by

[1989]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 5

One of the first attempts to explain the mechanism of evolution was made by Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. His theory was Inheritance of Acquired Characters. The theory states that the characters acquired during life time are passed on to the progeny and then to subsequent generations and new species are produced.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 6

‘Origin’ of species’ was written by

[1989]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 6

The book “Origin of species” was written by Darwin.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 7

Parallelism is

[1990]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 7

In convergent evolution similar adaptive functional structure develop in different species (unrelated group of organism). When convergent evolution is found in separate but closely related species (related evolutionary lineages) it is called parallel evolution.
In parallel evolution the two species have a relatively recent common ancestors.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 8

Basic principles of embryonic development were pronounced by

[1990]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 8

Van Baer; 1828 put forward Baer’s law which was later called as Biogenetic law of Ernst Haeckel, 1866. The law states that "Ontogeny repeats phylogeny". Ontogeny is the life history of an organism while phylogeny is the evolutionary history of the race of that organism.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 9

Which was absent in the atmosphere at the time of origin of life ?

[1991]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 9

Oxygen gas was not present due to reducing atmosphere , it only came to existence after the evolution of photosynthesis process.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 10

Correct order is

[1991]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 10

The correct Geological time scale of earth is Precambrian → Palaeozoic → (Era/Age of early life) Age of fishes Mesozoic → Coenozoic (Age of reptiles) (Age of mammals) dinasaurs and cycads A geological time scale is a diagram that details the history of Earths geology, noting major events like the formation of the Earth, the first life forms and mass extinctions. The first geological time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965).
The history of the earth has been subdivided into eras, eras into periods and periods into major divisions.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 11

The first organisms were

[1992]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 11

Chemoheterotrophs were first organisms. They were prokaryotic like bacteria, anaerobes, as molecular oxygen was absent. They obtained energy by fermentation of some of the organic molecules present in the broth. Thus they absorbed organic molecules from outside for body building and energy.          
• Chemoautotrophs - Organisms that are capable to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
E.g., Nitrifying bacteria, sulphur reducing bacteria etc.          
• Autotrophs are photosynthesizing     plants /organisms.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 12

Evolutionary convergence is development of

[1993]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 12

Evolutionary convergence is a type of evolutionary pattern in which unrelated organisms/different species develop common set of characters / adaptive functional structures (analogous structures). They do not share common ancestor, related to one another in only the most distant sense.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 13

Weismann cut off  tails of mice generation after generation but tails neither disappeared nor  shortened showing that

[1993]

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 14

Theory of Natural selection dwells on

[1993]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 14

In 1859 Charles Darwin published his theory of natural selection in the book ‘Origin of Species’. The theory is based on five important observations :
1. All species have great reproductive potential
2. Most populations are stable in size
3. Natural resources are limited
4. Individuals of a population have variations.
5. Most of the variations are heritable.
Species with variations selected by nature.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 15

Genetic drift is change of

[1993]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 15

Genetic  drift is also known as Sewall Wright effect. It refers to the random changes in gene frequencies in a population by chance, either due to intensive inbreeding or death of a small section of population by  natural calamity. Its effect is more marked in small isolated population.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 16

Frequency of a character increases when it is

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 16

Adaptable

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 17

Which one does not favour Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters? [1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 17

Melanisation of Peppered Moth in industrial areas.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 18

Which one is irrelevant to evolution of man?

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 18

Loss of tail

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 19

‘Golden Age of Dinosaurs’/ Age of reptiles was

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 19

Jurassic period of Mesozoic era is known as “Golden age of Dinosaurs.
• Coenozoic era is the age of insects, birds and mammals.
• Palaeozoic era of fishes.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 20

Homologous organs are

[1994, 99]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 20

Organs that are similar in fundamental structure but different in functions are “Homologous organs”, Richard Owen, introduced the term homologous. Pectoral fins of fish and fore limbs of horse similar in structure but different in functions are homologous organs.
Rest of the organs compared in the question are analogous organs

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 21

The earliest fossil form in the phylogeny of Horse is

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 21

Evolutionary history of horse was described by O.C. Marsh, 1879. Origin of horse took place in Eocene period and first fossil of horse was Eohippus found in North America.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 22

Two geographical regions separated by high mountains are

[1994]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 22

Dr. P. L. Sclater, 1858 divided the world into 6-regions on the basis of distribution of birds only, later in 1876 A.R. Wallace adopted it for all the animals. These six realms (regions) support evidence of organic evolution.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 23

The presence of gill slits, in the embryos of all vertebrates, supports the theory of

[1995]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 23

Recapitulation theory says that embryological development repeats path of evolution. Gill slits are present in the fishes and the aquatic amphibians and from them gradually the reptiles and mammals have evolved.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 24

The homologous organs are those that show similarity in

[1995]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 24

Homologous organs have same basic structure and origin but they differ in their external appearance and  function.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 25

The closely related morphologically similar sympatric populations, but reproductively isolated, are designated as

[1995]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Evolution - 4 - Question 25

The sibling species are those species, which are born from a similar kind of parents having similar morphology. But they are reproductively isolated.

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