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Widal Test is carried out to test :
Widal test is carried out to test typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhii bacteria. Typhoid vaccine is available.
Motile zygote of Plasmodium occurs in :
Motile zygote of Plasmodium occurs in gut of female Anopheles. Zygote formed in stomach of mosquito about 9 to 10 days after sucking the blood of an infected human. Anopheles receives RBCs containing different stages of erthyrocytic cycle, including gametocyte. In its gut, all stages except the gametocytes are digested. The gametocytes remain unaffected by digestive enzymes of the mosquito, hatch out from the RBCs into the lumen of mosquito’s stomach and form sperm and ovum by gametogenesis. Syngamy or fusion of male and female gamete.
Select the correct statement with respect to diseases and immunisation? [2011M]
The primary and secondary immune responses are carried out with the help of two special types of lymphocytes present in our blood, ie, B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes. The B-lymphocytes produce an array (a range) of proteins in response to pathogens into our blood to fight with them. These proteins are called antibodies. The T-cells themselves do not secrete antibodies but help B-cells to produce them.
Common cold is not cured by antibiotics because it is
Common cold is due to rhinovir us. Recent studies found that antibiotics do not kill this virus.
The pathogen Microsporum responsible for ringworm disease in humans belongs to the same kingdom of organisms as that of
Many fungi belonging to the genera-Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton are responsible for ringworms which is one of the most common infectious diseases in man. Microsporum is a member of the class- Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti) of Kingdom - Fungi, Rhizopus (bread mould) is a member of the class - Zygomycetes (conjugation fungi) of Kingdom - Fungi.
A certain patient is suspected to be suffering from Acquired Immuno deficiency Syndrome. Which diagnostic technique will you recommend for its detection?
ELISA is an fundamental tool of clinical immunology and is used as an initial screen for HIV detection.
Which one of the following is categorised as a parasite in true sense ?
Head louse is an obligate ectoparasite of human scalp and as well as laying egg on human hair.
At which stage of HIV infection does one usually show symptoms of AIDS?
When HIV replicates rapidly in helper T-lymphocytes and damages large number of these cells, at this stage infected persons start showing symptoms of AIDS.
Where will you look for the sporozoites of the malarial parasite?
Sporozoites of malarial parasite are found in saliva of infected female Anopheles mosquito.
Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to AIDS?
AIdS (Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome) is caused by HIV retrovirus. The virus destroys the helper T lymphocytes thus reducing their numbers.
Widal test is used for the diagnosis of
Widal test is used for the diagnosis of typhoid. It is an agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against the Salmonella organisms, which cause typhoid fever.
Select the correct statement from the ones given below?
Morphine is potent opioid analgesic that is often given to persons (who have undergone surgery) as a pain killer. It is mainly used to relieve severe and persistent pain. It is administrated by mouth, injection or suppositories.
Use of antihistamines and steroids give a quick relief from
Antihistamines are drugs which are used to treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy. Histamine is mostly responsible for allergic reactions. Antihistamines block the action of histamines.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound. Steroids such as corticosteroids are used in the treatment of allergic reactions by reducing inflammation associated with allergies. They prevent and treat nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and itchy, runny nose due to seasonal or year-round allergies. They can also decrease inflammation and swelling from other types of allergic reactions.
So, the correct answer is 'Allergy'.
Which one of the following statements is correct?
Malignant tumours may exhibit metastasis. Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood.
Which of the following is a pair of viral diseases?
Common Cold, AIDS is a pair of viral diseases. Viruses are a very common type of infectious disease. Viruses are the smallest life-form existing, since they are not even a single cell. It is almost like they are not alive at all. They are small strands of DNA-like cell material. A virus consists mostly of RNA and cannot survive without host cells.
The letter T in T -lymphocyte refers to
The letter T in T-lymphocyte refers to thymus. In human anatomy, the thymus is an organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum. The thymus gland is a pink-grey organ that lies underneath the top of the breast bone.
A person likely to develop tetanus is immunised by administering
Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus. A person likely to develop tetanus is immunised by giving pre-formed antibodies and it produces passive immunity. In passive immunity, the antibodies are produced in some other animals in response to given antigen. These pre-formed antibodies are then injected into the humans at the time of need or emergency.
To which type of barriers under innate immunity, do the saliva in the mouth and the tears from the eyes, belong?
The saliva in the mouth and the tears from the eyes belongs to physiological barriers.
Which one of the following is the correct statement regarding the particular psychotropic drug specified?
Hashish causes after thought perceptions and hallucinations. Hashish is a preparation of Cannabis composed of the compressed trichomes collected from the Cannabis plant. Psychoactive effects vary between types of Hashish but are usually the same as those of other Cannabis preparations such as marijuana. Hash is generally prohibited to the same extent as all other forms of cannabis. It is consumed in much the same way as Cannabis buds, used by itself in miniature smoking pipes, vapourized, hot knifed, or smoked in joints mixed with tobacco, Cannabis buds or other herbs.
Increased asthmatics attacks in certain seasons are related to
Pollen – grains of many species are responsible for some of the severe allergies and bronchial affliction in some people often lead to chronic respiratory disorders - asthma, bronchitis.
Ultrasound of how much frequency is beamed into human body for sonography ?
Ultrasound imaging has frequency range 1 - 15 MHz which has become part of our lives in the last decade. We are now all familiar with the blurry black and white sonograms (ultrasound pictures) that show the unborn baby inside the mother's uterus. Although it may take a little imagination on our part to understand that a round circle is the baby's head, that does not prevent a proud mother-to-be from showing off her first baby picture.
If you suspect major deficiency of antibodies in a person to which of the following would you look for confirmatory evidence?
Serum globulins → It makes 2 to 3% of plasma proteins. The a and b - globulin sent with the hormones to transport them the g–globulin from antibodies.
Antibodies in our body are complex
Whenver our body gets attacked by some foreign invadors, our body’s immune system produces some chemicals to kill or to react against the invader. These chemicals are actually made up of carbohydrates & proteins i.e. glycoproteins called antibody.
The 'blue baby' syndrome results from
Methaemoglobin is a denatured haemoglobin causes blue baby syndrome.
Which one of the following acts as a physiological barrier to the entry of microorganisms in the human body?
Physiological barriers to the entry of microorganisms in the human body are tears in eyes, saliva in mouth and HCl in the stomach.The enzymes lysozymes are found in tears and saliva and inhibit the synthesis of peptidoglycan present in the cell wall of microorganisms especially eubacteria.