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Match List - I with List - II [NEET 2021]
Choose the correct answer from the options given below.
Examples of acid producers are Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid, Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid; Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid and Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
Which of the following is put into Anaerobic sludge digester for further sewage treatment? [NEET 2020]
Major portion of activated sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters. So, here other kinds of bacteria which grow anaerobically, digest the fungi and bacteria of the sludge.
Which of the following can be used as a biocontrol agent in the treatment of plant disease? [NEET 2019]
Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. They are effective biocontrol agents of several plant pathogens.
Conversion of milk to curd improves its nutritional value by increasing the amount of [NEET 2018]
Which of the following in sewage treatment removes suspended solids? [NEET 2017]
Primary or physical treatment is the process of removal of small and large, floating and suspended solids from sewage through two processes of filtration and sedimentation.
Maximum nutritional diversity is found in the group.
Maximum nutritional diversity is shown by the members of kingdom - Monera. Some of them are autotrophic (e.g. photosynthetic autotrophic or chemosynthetic autotrophic) while the vast majority are heterotrophs (e.g., saprotrophic or parasitic). Ecologically, these may be producers or decomposers.
Which one of the following is an example of carrying out biological control of pests/ diseases using microbes ?
Correct Answer :- a,b,c
Explanation : Many species of Trichoderma are used for preventing fungal infections in plants. The fungus forms a symbiotic association with the roots of the plants and suppresses the growth of any other fungus. This property of the fungus is used for biological control of pests.
Nucleo polyhedrosis virus is commonly used for the control of pets. The virus attacks the cell structure of the caterpillar and forms the crystals which kill the caterpillar. This property is also used for the destruction of fungus cells which acts on the plants. The virus os used to control white rust in Brassica species.
Bt cotton is a product produced by the company Monsanto. The cotton plant is transgenically produced by introducing cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis in the cells of the plant. The cry gene is responsible for the production of crystal proteins called endotoxin. This protein causes pores in the gut of the pests and acts as an insecticide. This helps in increasing the yield of the crop
A nitrogen-fixing microbe associated with Azolla in rice fields is :
Anabaena azollae resides in the leaf cavities of the fern Anabaena. It fixes nitrogen. A part of the fixed nitrogen is excreted in the cavities and becomes available to the fern. The decaying fern plants release the same for utilization of the rice plants.
Yeast is used in the production of
Saccharomyces cervisiae is a yeast used in making bread (Baker’s yeast) and commercial production of ethanol.
Which one of the following microbes forms symbiotic association with plants and helps them in their nutrition
Glomus is endomycorrhiza that helps in absorption of nutrition specially phosphorus from soil.
A patient brought to a hospital with myocardial infarction is normally immediately given :
Streptokinase is immediately given to dissolve the thrombus carring myocardial infarction
Monascus purpureus is a yeast used commercially in the production of :
Monascus purpureus is a yeast used in the production of statins which are used in lowering blood cholestrol.
Which one of the following is a wrong matching of a microbe and its industrial product, while the remaining three are correct ?
Clostridium butylicum industrially produces butyric acid.
Which one of the following help in absorption of phosphorus from soil by plants?
Glomus aggregatum is a mycorrhizal fungus used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture. Its purpose is to increase the surface area of roots for nutrient absorption like phosphorus.
An organism used as a biofertilizer for raising soyabean crops is
Rhizobium is a nitrogen fixing bacteria, which acts as a biofertilizer in soil to produce soyabean crops.
Which one of the following is not used in organic farming?
Organic farming involves use of organic wastes and other biological material along with beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crop to increase the soil fertility in an ecofriendly, and pollution tree environment. Glomus, earthworm and Oscillatoria can be used in organic farming while snail cannot.
The common nitrogen fixer in paddy fields is
The common nitrogen fixer in paddy field is Azospirillum. It is an anaerobic bacteria that forms loose association with roots of paddy crops.
A common biocontrol agent for the control of plant diseases is
A common biocontrol agent for control of plant diseases is Trichoderma. Trichoderma is a tree living fungus that exert biocontrol over several plant pathogens for the control of plant diseases. It is the natural method of pest and pathogen control.
Cryl endotoxins obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis are effective against
Cry I endotoxine obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis are effective against bollworms. A bollworm is a common term for any larva of a moth that attacks the fruiting bodies of certain crops, especially cotton.
Human insulin is being commercially produced from a transgenic species of
Human insulin is being commercially produced from a transgenic species of Escherichia coli. E. coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded animals. The bacteria can also be grown easily and its genetics are comparatively simple and easily manipulated, making it one of the best studied prokaryotic model organisms, and an important species in biotechnology.
Trichoderma harzianum has proved a useful microorganism for
Trichoderma harzianum has proved a useful microorganism for biological control of soil borne plant pathogens. Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that is also used as a fungicide. It is used for foliar application, seed treatment and soil treatment for suppression of various disease causing fungal pathogens. Commercial biotechnological products such as 3 Tac have been useful for treatment of Botrytis, Fusarium, Penicillium sp. It is also used for manufacturing enzymes.
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, including Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium species and yeasts, that may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the intestinal microflora. The dietary use of live microorganisms has a long history.
Two microbes found to be very useful in genetic engineering are
Escherichia coli is a bacterium found in human colon. On this bacterium scientists have made extensive genetic experiments to make some vital chemicals like insulin. Another bacterium is Agrobacterium tumefaciens which causes crown gall in plants is extensively used for genetic experiments.
Which of the following is pair of biofertilizers?
Azolla and blue green algae- Anabaena form biofertilizer in rice fields.
The aquatic fern, which is an excellent biofertiliser is
Azolla is a freshwater fern harbouring a bluegreen alga - Anabaena in its leaf cavities. The alga fixes atmospheric nitrogen and releases nitrogenous compounds in leaf cavities. This symbiotic system is the main source of algal biofertilizer in rice fields.
Farmers have reported over 50% higher yields of rice by using the biofertilizer
Farmers have reported over 50% higher yields of rice by using the biofertilizer Azolla pinnata.
Which one of the following is non-symbiotic biofertilizer?
Azotobacter is a free living nitrogen fixing bacterium, Rhizobium is symbiotic and found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, Anabaena occurs in assoction with Azolla. VAM is vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Gobar gas contains mainly
Gobar gas contains mainly CH4 + CO2.
Which of the following is likely to be achieved in the coming two decades?
Control of cancer is likely to be achieved in the coming two decades.
Which one thing is not true about antibiotics?
'Each antibiotic is effective only against one particular kind of germ' is not correct.