In gymnosperms, the pollen chamber represents 
In gymnosperms, the pollen chamber is a cavity in the ovule in which pollen grains are stored after pollination.
Spore dissemination in some liverworts is aided by 
Elater is an elongated, spirally thickened, water-attracting cell in the capsule of a liverwort, derived from sporogenous tissue and assist in spore dispersal. In mosses calyptra is a structure initially present around sporophyte then later get break. It is developed from ventral wall after fertilization. It provides protective covering to the developing sporogonium. Peristome teeth are found in capsule of moss. These are present below operculum and are hygroscopic in nature.
In which one of the following, male and female gametophytes do not have free living independent existence? 
Male and female gametophytes of Cedrus do not have free living independent existence. Cedrus belongs to conifer.
Which one of the following is heterosporous?
Salvinia is an aquatic fern with both annual and perennial species- b is heterosporous i.e. with two types of spores, microspores and megaspores
Select one of the following pairs of important features distinguishing Gnetum from Cycas and Pinus and showing affinities with angiosperms 
The important features distinguishing Gnetum from Cycas and Pinus and showing affinities with angiosperms are presence of vessel elements and absence of archegonia.
Which one of the following plants is monoecious? 
Pinus plant is monoecious i.e. both male and female cone are present in same plant but on different branches. Pinus, with over 100 species, is the largest genus of conifers and the most widespread genus of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Pinus are also extensively planted in temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Pines have a relatively rich fossil record.
Which one of the following has haplontic life cycle? 
Ustilago has a haplontic life cycle. This is a simplest and most primitive type of life cycle. The other pattern of life-cycle have originated from this type. This type is found in all Chlorophyceae. In such cases the somatic phase (plant) is haploid (Gametophyte) while the diploid phase (Sporophyte) is represented by zygote. During germination the zygote (2n) divides meiotically producing haploid (n) zoospores, which develop into individual plant. Here the unicellular or filamentous gametophyte (n) alternates with one-celled zygote or sporophyte (2n). The haploid filamentous plants are known as haplonts which reproduce asexually by zoospores or aplanospores producing the individals like parents.
Which one of the following is a vascular cryptogam? 
Equisetum is a vascular cryptogams. Equisetum is the only living genus in the Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds. They are commonly known as horse tails. Equisetum is a “living fossil,” as it is the only known genus of the entire class Equisetopsida.
Male and female gametophytes are independent and free -living in: 
Sphagnum is a bryophyte in which male and female gametophytes are independent and free living. In pinus (a gymnosperm), mustard and castor (angiosperms), the main plant body is sporophytic. Gametophyte is highly reduced and is completely dependent on sporophyte.
Algae have cell wall made up of: 
Algae possess a definite cell wall containing cellulose, galactans and mannans.
Some hyperthermophilic organisms that grow in highly acidic (pH2) habitats belong to the two groups: 
Hyperthermophilic organism that grow in highly acidic habitats belong to eubacteria and archae groups.
In angiosperms, functional megaspore develops into [2011M]
During megagametogenesis functional megaspore (mostly chalazal) gives rise to embryo sac. This is the mature female gametophyte generation.
Cycas and Adiantum resemble each other in having: 
Cycas (a gymnosperm) and Adiantum known as Maiden hair fern is a pteridophyte resemble each other in having motile sperm. Seeds, cambium are common in gymno-sperms and absent in pteridophytes. True vessels are absent in both pteridophytes and gymnospems.
Which one of the following is a correct statement? 
(1) Gametophyte of bryophytes bears protonemal & leafy stage. (2) In gymnosperm female gametophyte is not free living. (3) They are present in Marchantia or which is a bryophyte. (4) Origin of seed habit started in pteridophyte Selaginaella.
Which one of the following is common to multicellular fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses 
Multicellular fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses all show multiplication by fragmentation.
Read the following five statements (A - E) and answer the question.
(A) In Equisetum the female gametophyte is retained on the parent sporophyte.
(B) In Ginkgo male gametophyte is not independent.
(C) The sporophyte in Riccia is more developed than that in Polytrichum.
(D) Sexual reproduction in Volvox is isogamous.
(E) The spores of slime molds lack cell walls.
How many of the above statements are correct?
Statement (A) and (B) are correct Riccia is liverwort in which simplest sporophyte consists of capsule only while Polytrichum is moss in which sporophyte consists of foot seta & capsule. Volvox is a fresh water green colonial alga. Reproduction is both sexual and asexual. Sexual reproduction is oogamous. Slime molds are consumer decomposer protists. They possess characters of plants (cellulosic cell wall), animals (phagotrophic nutrition) and fungi (spores)
Which one of the following pairs is wrongly matched? [2012M]
Salvinia is heterosporoues water fern. the microsporangia and megasporangia are borne with a special reproductive structure caleed sporocarps. These are borne termonaly on clusters on a segment of submerged leaves. Sporocarps are strictly monosporangiates i.e they either bear microsporangia or megasporangia.
Viroids are single stranede RNA molecules. The female reproductive organ is archegonia in gymnosperms.
Besides paddy fields cyanobacteria are also found inside vegetative part of : [NEET 2013]
In Cycas specialised root called coralloid roots are associated with N2 – fixing cyanobacteria either Nostoc or Anabaena. Coralloid roots lie near the soil surface. They are irregular and often dichotomously branched. Root hair and root cap are absent in these roots.
Isogamous condition with non-flagellated gametes is found in : [NEET 2013]
In Spirogyra, sexual reproduction occurs through conjugation. Gametes are nonflagellated morphologically similar. But physiologically different (isogamy with physiological anisogamy). Volvox and fucus are examples of oogamous and Chlamydomonas contains isogamous flagellated gametes .
Read the following statements (A-E) and answer the question which follows them. [NEET 2013]
1. In liverworts, mosses and ferns gametophytes are free-living
2. Gymnosperms and some ferns are heterosporous.
3. Sexual reproduction in Fucus, Volvox and Albugo is oogamous
4. The sporophyte in liveworts is more elaborate than that in mosses
5. Both, Pinus and Marchantia are dioecious
How many of the above statements are correct?
In liverworts and ferns gametophytes are free living while in fern sporophytes are free living. Gymnosperms and genera like Selaginella and Salvinia are heterosporous. The sporophyte in mosses are more elaborate than that of liverworts, Pinus is monoecious and heterosporous. Marchantia is dioecious.
Which of the following is not correctly matched for the organism and its cell wall degrading enzyme? [NEET 2013]
Algae is a plant and so its cell wall is made up of cellulose. Cellulase enzyme is needed for degradation of its cell wall.
The plant body is thalloid in [NEET Kar. 2013]
The plant body of a liverwort is haploid (n), gametophytic, small, dorsoventrally flattened, thallose, dichotomously branched fixed by unicellular and unbranched rhizoids, e.g., Marchantia.
What is common in all the three, Funaria, Dryopteris and Ginkgo? [NEET Kar. 2013]
The female sex organ archegonium is formed in bryophytes (Funaria), pteridophytes (Dryopteris) and gymnosperms (Ginkgo).
Which one of the following is wrongly matched? [NEET Kar. 2013]
Cyanobacteria, e.g., Nostoc, grow in such abundance as to form water blooms. Sargassum belongs to brown algae which possess chl a, c, carotenoids, xanthophyll and a characteristic brown pigment, fucoxanthin. Commonly known forms of basidiomycetes are mushrooms, bracket fungi or puffballs. In Spirogyra gametes are non-flagellated (non-motile) but similar in size. They show amoeboid movements.