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The production of gametes by the parents, formation of zygotes, the F1 and F2 plants, can be understood from a diagram called: 
The production of gametes by the parents, the formation of the zygotes, the F1 and F2 plants can be understood from a diagram called Punnett Square. It helps in identifying the possible allelic combinations.
Fig: Punnett Square
Experimental verification of the chromosomal theory of inheritance was done by: 
Thomas Hunt Morgan, who studied fruit flies, provided the first strong confirmation of the chromosome theory. “Morgan discovered a mutation that affected fly eye color. The chromosome theory of inheritance states that genes are found at specific locations on chromosomes, and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can explain Mendel's laws of inheritance.
The frequency of recombination between gene present on the same chromosome as a measure of the distance between genes was explained by 
Alfred Sturtevant used the frequency of recombination between gene pairs on the same chromosome as a measure of the distance between genes.
A cell at telophase stage is observed by a student in a plant brought from the field. He tells his teacher that this cell is not like other cells at telophase stage. There is no formation of cell plate and thus the cell is containing more number of chromosomes as compared to other dividing cells. This would result in: 
This phenomenon is known as Polyploidy, wherein the cells contain more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes, which is often seen in the case of plants.
The major cause of polyploidy is the non - disjunction of sister chromatids during meiotic recombination.
Fig: Polyploidy can make fruits bigger in size
In a testcross involving F1 dihybrid flies, more parental-type offspring were produced than the recombinant-type offspring. This indicates ______. 
When two genes in a dihybrid cross are situated on the same chromosome, the proportion of parental gene combinations are much higher than the non-parental or recombinant type. This is also called incomplete linkage.
Pick out the correct statements : 
(a) Haemophilia is a sex-linked recessive disease.
(b) Down's syndrome is due to aneuploidy.
(c) Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive gene disorder.
(d) Sickle cell anaemia is a X-linked recessive gene disorder.
Sickle cell anemia is not an X-linked recessive gene disorder. It is a point mutation caused by a point change in the sixth nitrogenous base pair.
Statements (a), (b) and (c) are correct.
Hence, option D is correct.
Match the terms in Column-I with their description in Column-II and choose the correct option :
Hence, Option B is correct.
A tall true breeding garden pea plant is crossed with a dwarf true breeding garden pea plant. When the F1 plants were selfed the resulting genotypes were in the ratio of: 
Phenotypic ratio : 3: 1 (Tall :Dwarf) Genotypic Ratio: 1:2:1 (Homozygous Tall : Heterozygous Tall : Dwarf)
Which of the following most appropriately describes haemophilia ? 
Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. The genes associated with these conditions are located on the X chromosome, which is one of the two sex chromosomes.
In the following human pedigree, the filled symbols represent the affected individuals. Identify the type of given pedigree. [2015 RS]
The given pedigree shows the autosomal recessive disorder. In this disorder, the individual inherits two mutated genes, one from each parent. This disorder is usually passed on by two earners.
The carriers have a 25% chance of having an unaffected child with normal genes, 50% chance of having an unaffected child who also is a carrier and a 25% chance of having an affected child with recessive genes.
In his classic experiments on pea plants, Mendel did not use: [2015 RS]
Mendel used seven pea plant traits in his hybridization experiments:
(i) Flower colour (purple or white)
(ii) Flower position (axil or terminal)
(iii) Stem length (long or short)
(iv) Seed shape (round or wrinkled)
(v) Seed colour (yellow or green)
(vi) Pod shape (inflated or constricted)
(vii) Pod colour (yellow or green).
Hence, Pod length is not included.
Alleles are : [2015 RS]
Alleles are defined as alternative form of same gene. Humans are called diploid organisms because they have two alleles at each genetic locus, with one allele inherited from each parent.
Fig: Contrasting alleles for eye color on the same gene
Which is the most common mechanism of genetic variation in the population of sexually reproducing organism? [2015 RS]
Fig: Recombination in Homologous chromosomes
How many pairs of contrasting characters in pea plants were studied by Mendel in his experiments ? [2015 RS]
Seven pairs of contrasting characters were selected in pea plant and studied by Mendel in his experiment.
Fruit colour in squash is an example of: 
Example: fruit colour of Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo) is governed by a gene that produces yellow colour in the dominant state (Y-) and green colour in the recessive state (yy).
Fig: Epistasis in Squash Fruit
In a population of 1000 individuals 360 belong to genotype AA, 480 to Aa and the remaining 160 to aa. Based on this data, the frequency of allele A in the population is: 
According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
where p2 is the frequency of homozygous genotype AA
q2 is the frequency of genotype aa
pq is the frequency of genotype Aa
There are 1000 individuals, out of which 360 belong to genotype AA.
p2 = 360/1000 = 0.36
Then p = 0.6.
So, the correct answer is '0.6'.
A man whose father was colour blind marries a woman who had a colour blind mother and normal father. What percentage of male children of this couple will be colour blind? 
lt is given that the man had colour blind father, i.e., man's genotype would be XY. Now, the woman had a colourblind mother and normal father, thus her genotype would be XCX. A cross between them can be represented as below. Therefore, 50% of male children of this couple will be colourblind.
If two pea plants having red (dominant) coloured flowers with unknown genotypes are crossed, 75% of the flowers are red and 25% are white. The genotypic constitution of the parents having red coloured flowers will be: 
A cross is made between two pea plants in which one shows Red dominant flowers and the other genotype is not known. In the next generation, 75% of plants show red flowers and 25% of progeny are white flowers, i.e. the phenotype of parents is Rr and Rr.
Thus, both are heterozygous.
Fig: Cross between two heterozygous red dominant flowers
A colour blind man marries a woman with normal sight who has no history of colour blindness in her family. What is the probability of their grandson being colour blind? 
Fig: Cross b/w normal woman and colorblind man
Conditions of a karyotype 2n +1, 2n –1 and 2n + 2, 2n – 2 are called: 
Failure of segregation of chromatids during cell division cycle results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s), called aneuploidy. Aneuploidy arises due to non-disjunction of homologous chromosome.
Aneuploidy is of four types: