Static concept of species was put forward by
Linnaeus, 1758 developed 'Binomial system of nomenclature', de Candolle gave the term taxonomy. Theophrastus, father of botany, gave names and descriptions of 480 plants in his book. 'Historia plantarum' and Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection or origin of species.
The term “New Systematics” was introduced by
The term “New Systematics” was given by Julian Huxley (1940). Characters of plants collected through different branches of science are considered eg. ecology, physiology, biochemistry, cytology, genetics etc.
Classification given by Bentham and Hooker is
George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker has given Natural system of classification. In this system of classification all the important characteristic of the organisms that provide information regarding their natural relationship are taken into consideration which helps in bringing out maximum number of similarities in a group and comparable differences with other groups of organisms. For example Mammals are characterised by the presence of mammary gland, hair, Vivipary, 4 chambered heart etc.
Artificial system of classification was first used by
Artificial system of classification is one in which only morphological features are taken in to account. This was first proposed by Carl Linnaeus.
System of classification used by Linnaeus was
Linnaeus put forward an “Artificial system” of plant classification which was based on sexual characters. It is commonly also called as Sexual System of plant classification.
Linnaeus evolved a system of nomenclature called
Linnaeus evolved a system of nomenclature called the binomial system of nomenclature. In this system, the organism is named with two words, the first word provides the name of the genus and the second word provides the name of the species the organism belongs to.
Basic unit or smallest taxon of taxonomy/ classification is
Species is the basic unit for understanding taxonomy, that occupies a key position. It is defined as a dynamic genetically distinct group of organisms, which resemble each other in all respect and freely interbreed among themselves to produce fertile offsprings.
A taxon is
[1990, 91, 92, 96]
Taxon is a taxonomic group of any ranking . because in taxonomic hierarchy we can take any individual group of the seven as a taxon. but they all seven taxa differ in the level of ranking.
Employment of hereditary principles in the improvement of human race is
Eugenics is the science that deals with factors (such as principles of genetics) related to improvement of human race. Improvement of race is positive eugenics and if factors impaires, then it is negative eugenics.
-Euthenics is the science which improves the condition of life and the environment of human well being.
-Ethnology is the study of different races of mankind, their distribution, relationship and activities.
-Euphenics is the study of body functions and treatment of heredity defect through medical means i.e. genetic engineering.
An important criterion for modern day classification is
Taxonomy and classification are a part of the broader field of systematics which is the study of diversity of organisms. Classification of a part of systematics as it lists the unique characters of each taxon.
Study of fossils is
Palaeontology is the study of fossils (remains or impressions of ancient forms) and their distribution in rocks of various ages. Study of animal fossils is known as paleozoology and study of plant fossils is known as palaeobotany.
Homeostasis is organism’s
Homoeostasis is the property of all living beings in which by a self regulatory mechanism of maintaining favourable internal condition for uninterrupted chemical reactions in the living system despite changes in the external environment. e.g. In winter the skin contracts to conserve body heat.
The term phylum was given by
Cuvier (1769-1832), French zoologist, who pioneered the study of comparative anatomy and palaeontology. He extended the classification system of Linnaeus, adding a category which is same as present day phylum, though he called it "embranchments". The term "phylum" was given by Heckel.
Sequence of taxonomic categories is
With the discovery of more and more organisms, sometimes, it becomes difficult to adjust an organism to the traditional categories. Therefore to make taxonomic position of a species more precise, the various obligate categories in hierarchical classification are explained below Division —→ Class —→ Order —→ Family —→ Genus —→ Species
Binomial nomenclature means
Binomial Nomenclature means the scientific name of any organism consist of a generic epithet and a specific epithet. Generic name starts with capital letter and specific name with small letter. Both the names are written in Italics. Or underlined in manuscripts.
Linnaeus is credited with
Carl linnaeus was the swedish naturalist and explorer who was the first to frame principles for defining natural genera and spaces of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them it's known as (Binomial Nomenclature).
Binomial nomenclature was introduced by
The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linne, more commonly known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
Species is the basic unit of classification. It is defined as a group of natural populations whose members can interbreed among themselves and are reproductively isolated from other such groups. May (1964) defined species as “a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups”.
Phylogenetic classification is based on
The first phylogenetic system of classification was proposed by Adolf Engler and his associate Karl Prantl in their monograph “Die Naturlichen Pflanzen Familien”. In this system of classification organisms are classified on the basis of evolutionary sequence and genetic relationship among the organisms. Hence, this system is highly dynamic not static. Fossil records play vital role in elucidation of evolutionary relationships. This system has led to new systematics.
Binomial nomenclature consists of two words
Scientists name animals and plants using the system that describes the genus and species of the organism. The first word is the genus and the second is the species. The first word is capitalized and the second is not. A binomial name means that it's made up of two words (bi-nomial).
“Taxonomy without phylogeny is similar to bones without flesh” is the statement of
It is none other than Takhtajan who clearly stated the fact that "taxonomy without phylogeny is similar to bones without flesh". It is all about the importance of phylogeny in the overall process of taxonomy. Just like living beings are incomplete without bones and flesh, similarly without phylogeny it is difficult to carry out with taxonomy.
The high boiling point of water is advantageous to living organisms because
The high boiling point of water is advantageous to living organisms because organisms can absorb a great deal of heat before they reach the boiling point from organisms and population. Thus the organisms will not be affected by the high temperature because water can absorb the heat and maintain its homogeneity by uniformly dissipating it.
So the correct option is 'Organisms can absorb a great deal of heat before they reach the boiling point from organisms and population
In the five-kingdom system of classification, which single kingdom out of the following can include blue green algae, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria?
Monera is the kingdom of all prokaryotes and includes bacteria, blue green algae (cyanobacteria) and archae-bacteria- a group of ancient bacteria kingdom. Protista includes slime unicellular and colonial eukaryotes. The important members are diatoms, dinoflagellates, euglenoids, moulds and protozoans. Fungi the kingdom of multicellular or multinucleate heterophyllous and spore producing eukaryotic organisms like Rhizopus mildews, mushroom etc. Kingdom plantae includes all coloured multicellular photosynthetic organisms (plants).
Species occurring in different geographical areas are called as
Two or more species which are reproductively isolated from each other but are morphologically quite similar are known as sibling species. Sympatric species are developed due to reproductive isolation and occur in overlapping or same area of geographical distribution. Parapatric species are developed in adjacent geographical areas meeting in very narrow regions of overlap.
If there was no CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere the temperature of earth’s surface would be
CO2 is green house gas which traps the solar radiation i.e. heats up the earth’s atmosphere.