31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Human Reproduction - 1


15 Questions MCQ Test Biology 28 Years NEET/AIPMT Question Papers of Class 12 | 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Human Reproduction - 1


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QUESTION: 1

The shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary system in the human male is:            [2014]

Solution:

Urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids from the body. The urethra travels through the penis and carries semen as well as urine.

Picture of Human Bladder

QUESTION: 2

The main function of mammalian corpus luteum is to produce:          [2014]

Solution:

► The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure in female mammals, that is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone.

Model of Mammalian Ovary:
Model of the mammalian ovary. The dynamic ovarian structures are follicles and corpora lutea. The most immature form of follicle growth is termed the primordial stage, composed of an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous shaped pre-granulosa cells. Once activated, the primordial follicle develops into a primary follicle, an oocyte still surrounded by a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells. The follicle progresses to the secondary stage in which granulosa cells proliferate to form a multicellular layer surrounding the oocyte. At this stage, the follicle also obtains a layer of theca interna cells which encompass the granulosa cell layer. The theca interna and granulosa cells co-operate to produce 17β-estradiol (E2), the major ovarian estrogen. As follicular development continues, a fluid-filled antral cavity forms at which point the follicle is termed antral pre-ovulatory. The majority of follicles do not progress to ovulation and die by a process of atresia (apoptosis). Following ovulation, the oocyte is extruded from the follicle and ovary and enters the oviduct, surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells known as the corona radiata. Within the ovary residual follicular cells undergo a process known as luteinization to form the mature corpus luteum (CL) which is required for progesterone (P4) production. Should pregnancy occur, the CL will be maintained through an endocrine signal from the blastocyst known as the maternal recognition of pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotrophin in humans, E2 in pigs). In a non-pregnant female, the corpus luteum regresses due to lack of this signal and the ovarian cycle resumes (from Keating, A.F. and Hoyer, P.B. 2009. Mechanisms of reproductive toxicity. In: Drug metabolism in pharmaceuticals; Concepts and Applications. Chapter 24: 697-734.), with copyright permission.�

QUESTION: 3

Select the correct option describing gonadotropin activity in a normal pregnant female:           [2014]

Solution:

Synthesis of estrogen and progesterone due to high level of hCG is a normal gonadotropic activity in a normal pregnant female. 

QUESTION: 4

Which of these is not an important component of initiation of parturition in humans ? [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Parturition is a phenomenon of giving birth. It is a process of delivering a child from the womb to the outside. It is usually initiated by the release of oxytocin hormone. 
  • This hormone increases the contraction of uterine muscles. Prostaglandins are synthesized and released in response to the oxytocin hormone. Also, an increase in estrogen and progesterone ratio indicates the initiation of the parturition process. 
  • Prolactin is the hormone which induces lactation (enables females to produce milk) and has no role in parturition.
QUESTION: 5

Capacitation refers to changes in the:           [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Capacitation and acrosomal reaction occur before fertilization.
  • The process of capacitation happens when sperms enter vagina.
  • During this period, cholesterol vesicles are removed from the acrosome.
QUESTION: 6

 Which of the following cells during gametogenesis is normally diploid?                  [2015 RS]

Solution:

During gametogenesis, spermatogonia are diploid because of undergoing the process of meiosis.

Spermatogenesis:

Gametogenesis | Biology I

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following events is not associated with ovulation in human female?            [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Estradiol is a female sex hormone and plays a role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics.
  • It is an estrogen steroid hormone. It has a role in maintaining the lining of the vagina, endometrium and fallopian tubes. However, there is no direct co-relation with the event of ovulation specifically.
  • All the other events mentioned, are involved in the ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle in the human female.
QUESTION: 8

A childless couple can be assisted to have a child through a technique called GIFT. The full form of this technique is :       [2015 RS]

Solution:

GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) is a technique helping to have a child.

Gamete intra fallopian transfer:

Gamete Intrafallopian Tube Transfer (GIFT) | Treatment for Male Infertility  | Trivandrum

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following layers in an Antral follicle is acellular ?         [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Follicles that form an antrum during maturation are called Antral Follicle or Graafian follicle.
  • During the development of the follicle, a glycoprotein polymer capsule called the Zona pellucida which is acellular, forms around the oocyte, separating it from the surrounding granulosa cells.
  • This layer remains with the oocyte after ovulation and contains enzymes that catalyze with sperm to allow penetration.

Sperm–Zona Pellucida Interaction:
Sperm–Zona Pellucida Interaction: Molecular Mechanisms and the Potential  for Contraceptive Intervention | SpringerLink

QUESTION: 10

Fertilization in humans is practically feasible only if:           [2016]

Solution:
  • The word ampulla is derived from the Latin word 'flask'.
  • Being the second portion of the fallopian tube, it is the intermediate dilated portion which immediately curves over the ovary.
  • This is the common site of human fertilization as both the ovum and sperms are simultaneously transported here.
QUESTION: 11

Select the incorrect statement :             [2016]

Solution:

In follicular phase of menstrual cycle, LH and FSH increase gradually and stimulate follicular development as well as secretion of estrogens by the growing follicles.

QUESTION: 12

During pregnancy, which of the following is secreted through the urine of the mother?                                  [2016]

Solution:

It is made almost exclusively in the placenta. HCG hormone levels found in the mother's blood and urine rise a lot during the first trimester. They may play a part in the nausea and vomiting often linked to pregnancy.

QUESTION: 13

The fluid which is rich in calcium fibrinolysin and acid phosphates and contributes about 30% of the total volume of semen, is released by    [2016]

Solution:
  • The prostate gland lies in the pelvic cavity in front of the rectum and behind the symphysis pubis, surrounding the first part of the urethra.
  • The prostate gland secretes a milky fluid that makes up about 30% of semen with the milky appearance. It is slightly alkaline, which provides a protective local environment for sperm arriving in the acidic vagina.
  • It also contains a clotting enzyme, which thickens the semen in the vagina, increasing the likelihood of semen being retained in the vicinity of the cervix. Secretions of this gland, along with secretions of seminal vesicles, also make the seminal plasma rich in fructose, calcium and certain other enzymes too. 
QUESTION: 14

Atretic follicles are found in the                                                                                                                        [2014]

Solution:

Degeneration and reabsorption of an ovarian follicles before it fully matures and ruptures are called atretic follicles.

QUESTION: 15

Both corpus luteum and macula lutea are

Solution:
  • Both corpus luteum and macula lutea are characterised by yellow colour pigment, called lulein.  
  • After an egg is released from the ovary, the cells that line the ovarian follicle change shape and colour to become a corpus luteum (yellow body).
  • Macula lutea occurs as a yellow area of retina as yellow spot.
  • Lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin are responsible for its yellow colouration.

Corpus Lectum:

ovary diagram anatomy | Ovaries, Ovarian follicle, Anatomy

Macula Lutea:
Macula lutea is a part of | Zoology Questions