Comprehension Based Questions Of The P-Block Elements, Past Year Questions , JEE Advance, Class 12, Chemistry


17 Questions MCQ Test Class 12 Chemistry 35 Years JEE Mains &Advance Past yr Paper | Comprehension Based Questions Of The P-Block Elements, Past Year Questions , JEE Advance, Class 12, Chemistry


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QUESTION: 1

PASSAGE - 1

The noble gases have closed-shell electronic configuration and are monoatomic gases under normal conditions. The low boiling points of the lighter noble gases are due to weak dispersion forces between the atoms and the absence of other interatomic interactions.

The direct reaction of xenon with fluorine leads to a series of compounds with oxidation numbers +2, +4 and +6. XeF4 reacts violently with water to given XeO3. The compounds of xenon exhibit rich stereochemistry and their geometries can be deduced considering the total number of electron pairs in the valence shell.

Q. Argon is used in arc welding because of its

Solution:

Argon, being a noble gas, will not react with the metals, thus, can be used in arc welding.

QUESTION: 2

PASSAGE - 1

The noble gases have closed-shell electronic configuration and are monoatomic gases under normal conditions. The low boiling points of the lighter noble gases are due to weak dispersion forces between the atoms and the absence of other interatomic interactions.

The direct reaction of xenon with fluorine leads to a series of compounds with oxidation numbers +2, +4 and +6. XeF4 reacts violently with water to given XeO3. The compounds of xenon exhibit rich stereochemistry and their geometries can be deduced considering the total number of electron pairs in the valence shell.

Q. The structure of XeO3 is

Solution:

In XeO3 there are total of 4 electron pairs around central atom. Out of which 3 are bonding electron pair and one is non-bonding electron pair. This combination provides sp3-hybridization and pyramidal shape.

QUESTION: 3

PASSAGE - 1

The noble gases have closed-shell electronic configuration and are monoatomic gases under normal conditions. The low boiling points of the lighter noble gases are due to weak dispersion forces between the atoms and the absence of other interatomic interactions.

The direct reaction of xenon with fluorine leads to a series of compounds with oxidation numbers +2, +4 and +6. XeF4 reacts violently with water to given XeO3. The compounds of xenon exhibit rich stereochemistry and their geometries can be deduced considering the total number of electron pairs in the valence shell.

Q. XeF4 and XeF6 are expected to be

Solution:

All xenon fluorides are strongly oxidizing, XeF4 can act as reducing agent (with F2) as well as oxidizing agent but XeF6 can only function as an oxidizing agent.

QUESTION: 4

PASSAGE - 2

There are some deposits of nitrates and phosphates in earth’s crust. Nitrates are more soluble in water. Nitrates are difficult to reduce under the laboratory conditions but microbes do it easily.
Ammonia forms large number of complexes with transition metal ions. Hybridization easily explains the ease of sigma donation capability of NH3 and PH3. Phosphine is a flammable gas and is prepared from white phosphorous.

Q. Among the following, the correct statement is

Solution:

We know that phosphates have a biological significance in human, therefore statement (a) is not correct.
Since nitrates are more soluble in water so they are less abundant in earth's crust where as phosphates are less soluble in water and so they are more abundant in earth's crust. Thus statement (b) is False and statement (c) is correct.

NOTE : In nitrates (NO3) nitrogen is in + 5 oxidation state which is the highest oxidation state exhibited by nitrogen. Because of this nitrates can not be oxidized (oxidation means increase in oxidation state). Hence statement (d) is not correct.
The correct answer is (c).

QUESTION: 5

PASSAGE - 2

There are some deposits of nitrates and phosphates in earth’s crust. Nitrates are more soluble in water. Nitrates are difficult to reduce under the laboratory conditions but microbes do it easily.
Ammonia forms large number of complexes with transition metal ions. Hybridization easily explains the ease of sigma donation capability of NH3 and PH3. Phosphine is a flammable gas and is prepared from white phosphorous.

Q. Among the following, the correct statement is

Solution:

In case of group 15 (nitrogen group), on moving down the group there occurs a decrease in bond angle of metal hydrides. This decrease in bond angle of metal hydrides of this group may be attributed to the increased p- character in the bond pair which results in more s- character in lone pair orbital.
NOTE : The directional character is more for sp3 hybrid orbital than a s- orbital.
Thus the correct answer is (c).

QUESTION: 6

PASSAGE - 2

There are some deposits of nitrates and phosphates in earth’s crust. Nitrates are more soluble in water. Nitrates are difficult to reduce under the laboratory conditions but microbes do it easily.
Ammonia forms large number of complexes with transition metal ions. Hybridization easily explains the ease of sigma donation capability of NH3 and PH3. Phosphine is a flammable gas and is prepared from white phosphorous.

Q. White phosphorus on reaction with NaOH gives PH3 as one of the products. This is a

Solution:

The reaction between NaOH and white phosphorus (P4) can be represented as follows:

NOTE : In this reaction Phosphorus is oxidised as well as reduced so it is a disproportionation reaction.

∴  The correct answer is (b).

QUESTION: 7

PASSAGE - 3

Bleaching powder and bleach solution are produced on a large scale and used in several household products. The effectiveness of bleach solution is often measured by iodometry. 

Q. Bleaching powder contains a salt of an oxoacid as one of its components. The anhydride of that oxoacid is

Solution:

Ca(OCl) Cl → Ca2+ +  –OCl + Cl
–OCl (Hypochlorite ion) is anion of the acid HOCl which on dehydration gives Cl2O.

2HOCl → H2O + Cl2O

QUESTION: 8

PASSAGE - 3

Bleaching powder and bleach solution are produced on a large scale and used in several household products. The effectiveness of bleach solution is often measured by iodometry. 

Q. 25 mL of household solution was mixed with 30 mL of 0.50 M KI and 10 mL of 4N acetic acid. In the titration of the liberated iodine, 48 mL of 0.25 N Na2S2O3 was used to reach the end point. The molarity of the household bleach solution is 

Solution:

Number of millimole of hypo = 0.25 × 48
= 2 × millimole of Cl2

millimole of Cl2 = millimole of CaOCl2 Molarity of bleaching solution

QUESTION: 9

PASSAGE - 4

The reactions of Cl2 gas with cold-dilute and hot-concentrated NaOH in water give sodium salts of two (different) oxoacids of chlorine, P and Q, respectively. The Cl2 gas reacts with SO2 gas, in presence of charcoal, to give a product R. R reacts with white phosphorus to give a compound S. On hydrolysis, S gives an oxoacid of phosphorus, T.

Q. P and Q, respectively, are the sodium salts of

Solution:

(P) and (Q) are salts of HOCl and HClO3 respectively.

QUESTION: 10

PASSAGE - 4

The reactions of Cl2 gas with cold-dilute and hot-concentrated NaOH in water give sodium salts of two (different) oxoacids of chlorine, P and Q, respectively. The Cl2 gas reacts with SO2 gas, in presence of charcoal, to give a product R. R reacts with white phosphorus to give a compound S. On hydrolysis, S gives an oxoacid of phosphorus, T.

Q. R, S and T respectively, are

Solution:

QUESTION: 11

This question contains STATEMENT-1 (Assertion/ Statement ) and STATEMENT-2 (Reason/Explanation) and has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

Q. 

Statement-1 : Although PF5 , PCl5 and PBr5 are  known,the pentahalides of nitrogen have not been observed Statement-2 : Phosphorus has lower electronegativity than nitrogen.

Solution:

Nitrogen cannot form pentahalides because it cannot expand its octet due to non-availability of d-orbitals.
So E is not correct explanation of S.

QUESTION: 12

Statement-1 : F atom has less electron affinity than  Cl atom.
Statement-2 : Additional electrons are repelled more effectively by 3p electrons in Cl atom than by 2p electrons in F atom.

Solution:

F has slightly less electron affinity than chlorine because F has very small atomic size (only two shells).
Hence there is a tendency of electron-electron repulsion, which results in less evolution of energy in the formation of F– ion. Assertion is correct but reason incorrect.

QUESTION: 13

Statement-1 : Al(OH)3 is amphoteric in nature

Statement-2 : Al–O and O–H bonds can be broken with equal ease in Al(OH)3.

Solution:

Both assertion and reason are correct and reason explains assertion.

QUESTION: 14

Statement-1 : Between SiCl4 and CCl4, only SiCl4 reacts with water.
Statement-2 : SiCl4 is ionic and CCl4 is covalent.

Solution:

SiCl4 under goes hydrolysis due to the presence of empty d orbitals in the valence shell of Si, while C has no vacant d orbitals  to accommodate electron pairs donated by water molecules during hydrolysis.

QUESTION: 15

Statement-1 : In water, orthoboric acid behaves as a weak monobasic acid. because

Statement-2 : In water, orthoboric acid acts as a proton donor.

Solution:

Statemen t-1 is correct but statemen t-2 incor r ect.
Orthoboric acid (H3BO3) is soluble in water and behaves as weak monobasic acid. It does not donate protons like most acids, but rather it accepts OH– ions. It is, therefore, Lewis acid, and is better written as B(OH)3.

QUESTION: 16

Statement-1 : Boron always forms covalent bond. because

Statement-2 : The small size of B3+ favours formation of covalent bond.

Solution:

Both statements are true. Boron forms only covalent compounds (bonds) because small sized B ion polarizes the corresponding anion largely.

QUESTION: 17

Statement-1 : Pb+4 compounds are stronger oxidising agents than Sn4+ compounds 

Statement-2 : The higher oxidation states for the group 14 elements are more stable for the heavier members of the group due to 'inert pair effect'.

Solution:

NOTE : In group 14 elements, the lower (and not higher) oxidation states are more stable for heavier members of the group due to inert pair effect.
Thus Pb4+ is less stable as compared to Sn4+ (lead is heavier than Tin). Therefore Pb4+ acts as a strong oxidising agent than Sn4+. Hence statement 1 is false and statement 2 is true. Thus the correct answer is option (c).