Carnot cycle consists of
Carnot cycle is one of the best-known reversible cycles. The Carnot cycle is composed of four reversible processes.
A scientist says that the efficiency of his heat engine which operates at source temperature 127°C and sink temperature 27°C is 26%, then
Carnot Engine, a reversible heat engine has maximum efficiency when operating between two temperature limits.
So more the 25% efficiency is not possible.
Which one of the following is extensive property of a thermodynamics system
Intensive Property: These are the properties of system which are independent of mass under consideration. For e.g. Pressure, Temperature, density
Extensive Properties: The properties which depend on the mass of system under consideration.
For e.g Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Volume, Entropy
Note: All specific properties are intensive properties. For e.g. specific volume, specific entropy etc.
Since volume depends on mass hence it is extensive property.
A heat engine is supplied with 280 kJ/s of heat at a constant fixed temperature of 520 K and heat rejection takes place at 260 K temperature. If the engine is reversible, the heat rejected would be approximate equal to:
For reversible engine:
Properties of substances like pressure, temperature and density, in thermodynamic co-ordinates are _____.
The thermodynamic properties which depends on the end states only (independent of the path followed) are known as point function like temperature, pressure, density, volume, enthalpy, entropy etc.
The thermodynamic properties which depends on the end states as well as the path followed are known as path function like heat and work.
Which of the following represents the perpetual motion of the first kind
The first law of thermodynamics states that the energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only get transformed from one form to another form. An imaginary device which would produce work continuously without absorbing any energy from its surroundings is called a Perpetual Motion Machine of the First kind, (PMMFK). A PMMFK is a device which violates the first law of thermodynamics. It is impossible to devise a PMMFK
The converse of the above statement is also true, i.e., there can be no machine which would continuously consume work without some other form of energy appearing simultaneously.
The property of a working substance, which increases or decreases according to the heat supplied or removed in a reversible manner, is called ________.
Entropy is a property which is a measure of energy dispersion in a system or the irreversibility. Entropy transfer is associated with heat transfer. If the heat is added to the system, then its entropy increases and if heat is lost from the system, its entropy decreases.
Dynamic viscosity of most of the gases with rise in temperature...
The viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature, whereas the viscosity of gases increases with temperature. This is because in a liquid the molecules possess more energy at higher temperatures, and they can oppose the large cohesive inter-molecular forces more strongly. As a result, the energized liquid molecules can move more freely.
In a gas, on the other hand, the inter-molecular forces are negligible, and the gas molecules at high temperatures move randomly at higher velocities. This results in more molecular collisions per unit volume per unit time and therefore in greater resistance to flow.
The standard fixed point of thermometry is
The triple point of water has a unique value of 273.16 K. At particular value of volume and pressure the triple point of water is always 273.16 K. The melting point of ice and boiling point of water do not have particular values because these points depend on pressure and temperature
A closed bottle containing water at 30°C is carried to the moon in a space-ship. If it is placed on the surface of the moon, what will happen to the water as soon as the lid is opened
Boiling occurs when the vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure. At the surface of moon, atmospheric pressure is zero, hence boiling point decreases and water begins to boil at 30°C.
So when the bottle is opened, it'll immediately begin to boil, as there's no pressure in the surrounding.
The universal gas constant of a gas is the product of molecular weight of the gas and
R = Universal Gas Constant
Gas Constant = R/M
⇒ R = Gas constant × Molecular weight.
One kg of steam sample contains 0.8 kg dry steam; it’s dryness fraction is
According to first law of thermodynamics
According to first Law of thermodynamics, “For a closed system undergoing a cycle, net heat transfer is equal to network transfer.”
ΣQ = ΣW
So, heat and work are mutually convertible.
Which relation is the basis of Mollier Diagram?
From the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the following property relation was obtained,
Tds = dh – vdp
This equation forms the basis of the h-s diagram of pure substance, also called the Mollier diagram. The slope of an isobar on the h-s coordinates is equal to the absolute saturation temperature ( tsat + 273) at that pressure.
If the temperature remains constant the slope will remain constant. If the temperature increases, the slope of the isobar will increase.
In a Steady flow process,
Steady flow process is a process where: the fluid properties can change from point to point in the control volume but remains the same at any fixed point during the whole process. A steady-flow process is characterized by the following:
Isothermal compressibility of an ideal gas is
A process in which no heat is supplied or rejected from the system and entropy is not constant is known as
A process in which no heat is supplied and rejected is known as adiabatic process. But if entropy is not constant, then this process is called polytropic process
Efficiency of a Carnot engine is 75%. If the cycle direction is reverse, COP of the heat pump working on reversed Carnot cycle will be
Efficiency of Carnot cycle
By reversing the Carnot cycle we can have either heat pump or refrigerator.
COP of heat pump =
An isothermal process is governed by
According to Boyle’s law for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure. That means that, for example, if you double the pressure, you will halve the volume. This can express this mathematically as PV = constant.
As isothermal process has constant temperature so governed by Boyle’s law.
A Hot Wire Anemometer is used for the measurement of ______.
An anemometer is a weather monitor instrument used to measure wind speed.
Basic Principle of Hot wire Anemometer
When an electrically heated wire is placed in a flowing gas stream, heat is transferred from the wire to the gas and hence the temperature of the wire reduces, and due to this, the resistance of the wire also changes. This change in resistance of the wire becomes a measure of flow rate.