Mock Test: SSC JE Civil Engineering (CE)- 13

200 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series of SSC JE Civil Engineering | Mock Test: SSC JE Civil Engineering (CE)- 13

Attempt Mock Test: SSC JE Civil Engineering (CE)- 13 | 200 questions in 120 minutes | Mock test for SSC preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Mock Test Series of SSC JE Civil Engineering for SSC Exam | Download free PDF with solutions

Name a single letter which can be prefixed to the following words in order to obtain entirely new words?




After add 'S' on before these words



In a certain code "MOUSE" is written as "PRUQC" How is "SHIFT" written in that code?



A piece of paper is folded and cut as shown in the question figure. From the given answer figures, indicate how it will appear when opened.

Question figure:-

Answer figure:-


Hence the correct answer is option D.


From the given answer figures, select the one in which the question figure, is hidden/embedded.

Question Figure

Answer Figure


Hence the correct answer is option C.


Count the number of triangles in a given figure.

Solution: 8

Hence the correct answer is option C.


If (+ = × , - = ÷ , × = + , ÷ = -) Then which is the correct equation of the following?





Hence the correct answer is option (a).


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

1,5,25,125,?, ?, ?

Solution: it is an GP with multiplication factor 5 therefore the next term is 125×5=625,

625×5=3125, 3125×5=15625.


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

R, O, L, I, ?



Hence, the correct option is C.


A series is given, with one term missing. Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

41, 43 ,47, 53, ?

Solution: Consecutive even numbers are added.





Hence, the correct option is C.


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

Education, Portable, Synergy, Fruits,?


Education (number of letters 10)

Portable (number of letters 8)

Synergy (number of letters 7)

Fruits (number of letters 6)

Guilt (number of letters 5)

Hence, the correct option is B.


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.


Solution: 0, 1,8,27,64,125

this series is cube of 0 1 2 3 4 5


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.



O is shifting towards the right.

So, XXXXOXO be the next term

Hence the correct answer is option C.


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

Bmx, Dnw, Fou, ?


1st letter : B + 2 = D + 2 = F + 2 = H

2nd letter : M + 1 = N + 1 = O + 1 = P

3rd letter : X - 1 = W - 2 = U - 1 = T


Choose the correct alternative from the given ones that will complete the series.

Ago, Veal, Choke, decree, ?


Ago (number of letters 3)

Veal (number of letters 4)

Choke (number of letters 5)

decree (number of letters 6)

ensures (number of letters 7)

Hence, the correct option is B.


If '+' means 'x', '-' means '÷ ' , 'x' means '-' and ' ÷ ' means '+' Them the value of given equation is ?





If D × H = 4 × 8 then M × Q =?








Wallet : Cash : : Jar : ?

Solution: In wallet we keeping cash,


In Jar we keep Pickle.


A word is represented by only one set of numbers given in only one of the alternatives. The sets of only numbers given in the alternatives are p represented by two classes of alphabets as in two matrices given below. The columns and rows of Matrix-I are numbered from 0 to 4 and 2 to 6 respectively and that of Matrix-II are numbered from 2 to 6 and 7 to 0 respectively. A letter from these matrices can be represented first by its row and next by its column, e.g. 'H' can be represented by 04, 25, 32 etc. Similarly, you have to identify the set for the word given below.


Solution: YEAR = 23, 27, 15, 61

Hence, the correct option is A.


lav, mbw, ncx , ody, ?



Which of the following diagrams shows the relationship between Actors, Actresses, and Producers?

Solution: Actors, Actresses and Producers. All these are related to each other.


7 + 5 = 12

10 + 4 = 14

8 + 6 = 14


6 7 8

36 49 64

18 28 ?


6 × 6=36, 6 × 3=18

7 × 7 =49, 7 × 4=28

8 × 8 =64,8 × 5=40


Which answer figures complete the pattern in question figure?

Question Figure

Answer Figure


Hence the correct answer is option B.


Two positions of a cube are shown below. Identify the number at the bottom when the number at top is 5?

Solution: From figures (i) and (ii), it is clear that 4, 1, 3, and 6 he adjacent to 2. Therefore, 5 must lie opposite 2. Thus, if 5 is at the top, then 2 must be at the bottom.

Oasis : Water : : Island : ?

Solution: Oasis related to water Similarly Island related to land.

If MONKO is coded as 57637, Then how KLJMN be coded in the same code.



Hence the correct answer is option (b).


Direction: In each of the following questions, a series is given with one term missing. Choose the correct alternatives from the given ones that will complete the series.


Solution: rtxysxyz/rtxysxyz

Hence the correct answer is option C.


Direction: In each of the following questions, a series is given with one term missing. Choose the correct alternatives from the given ones that will complete the series.


Solution: abcdd/abccd/abbcd/a

Hence correct answer is option B.





Solution: QI.Q



Back : Forth : : ?

Solution: Back opposite forth Similarly Rise opposite fall.

In a certain code, language, 462 means ' lion is wild, 543 means 'Cat is hungry' , 165 means 'Wild and hungry'. Find the code for 'and'-


462 means' lion is wild,

543 means 'Cat is hungry'

165 means 'Wild and hungry'.

According to above-given data

Hungry (→)5

Wild (→)6

is (→)1


From a given alternative, select the word which can not be formed using the letters of the given words.


Solution: In this word GRANDMOTHER, 'L' is not in this word so, Thermal not made.








Which one of the given responses, would be a meaningful order of the following?

1. Elephant

2. Cat

3. Mosquits

4. Tiger

5. Whale.

Solution: Mosquits (→) Cat (→) Tiger (→) Elephant (→) Whale.

In the diagram given below, which letters represent the students who play cricket, as well as Football and Hockey?

Solution: The letter S' represents the students who play Cricket as well as Football and Hockey.

Direction: In the following questions below are given some statements followed by some given conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer:


Some apples are green.

All green things are healthy.


I : Some apples are healthy

II : No apples are healthy.

Solution: Some apples are healthy

Hence the correct answer is option C.


Direction: In the following questions below are given some statements followed by some given conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer:


All scientists are hard-working.

No hard -working man is poor.


I : No scientist is poor.

II. No poor man is a scientist.


I : No scientist is poor.

II. No poor man is a scientist.

Hence the correct answer is option D.


78 : 15 : : 67 : ?






Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.

Solution: GFHJ

The first and third letters are alternate letters in all except option C.


Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.

Solution: First-second and third-fourth letters are at the same position one from the beginning and the other from the end, except for option C.

Hence the correct answer is option (c).


Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.

Solution: All words except option (c), are commonly used in human society.

Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.

Solution: Except option C all others options in given digit are follow this pattern

X 8 : X 6


Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.

Solution: Except option B all others are in day mode.

Find the odd word/number/letters/ number pair from the given alternatives.


7202 = 7 + 2 + 0 + 2 = 11

4025 = 4 + 0 + 2 + 5 = 11

6023 = 6 + 0 + 2 + 3 = 11

5061 = 5 + 0 + 6 + 1 ≠ 11

So, 5061 is different from others.


26 : 65 : : 28 : ?





QPO : RST : : IHG : ?




Pinky walks a distance of 600 mtr. towards East, turns left, and moves 500 mtr. Then turns left and walks 600 mtr and then turns left again and moves 500 mtr and halts. At what distance in meters is she from the starting point?


Therefore, since starting point is also the end point; Pinky

is 0 Km distance from the starting point.





Reconquer, Tranquil, Tequila, squish, ?


This series follow this pattern:

Words numbers in decreasing order -



If a mirror is placed on the line MN. Then which of the answer figure, is right image of the given figure?


Hence the correct answer is option C.


World Teachers' Day is celebrated on ________.

Solution: World Teachers' Day, also known as International Teachers Day, is held annually on October 5. Established in 1994, it commemorates the signing of the 1966 "Teaching in Freedom".

NOTE: September 5 is celebrated as Teacher's day in India as a mark of respect to the first Vice President of India S. Radhakrishnan.


The world’s only floating national park is situated in

Solution: The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park in the Bishnupur district of the state of Manipur in India. It is the only floating park in the world, located in North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.

The Olympic games of 2020 will be held in which country?

Solution: The Olympic games of 2020 are planned to be held from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo.

Which of the following is a famous Indian painter?

Solution: Satish Gujral is an Indian painter, sculptor, muralist, graphic designer, writer and architect of the post-independent era. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1999.

What are the main components of Brass Alloy?

  • Brass is an alloy that is made of copper and zinc.

  • Their flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast.


Todar mal was the finance minister of which Mughal ruler?


Raja Todar Mal was the Finance and revenue minister during the reign of Akbar. He was also one of the nine gems called ‘Navratnas’ of Akbar’s court.


In Indus valley civilization, Dholavira is famous for which of the following?

  • The kind of efficient system of Harappans of Dholavira, developed for conservation, harvesting and storage of water speaks eloquently about their advanced hydraulic engineering, given the state of technology in the third millennium BCE.

  • Archaeological Survey of India. One of the unique features of Dholavira is the sophisticated water conservation system of channels and reservoirs, the earliest found anywhere in the world, built completely of stone.


Vasco da Gama set foot on the Indian soil in the year –

Solution: Vasco da Gama’s fleet arrived in Kappadu near Kozhikode (Calicut), in Malabar Coast (present-day Kerala state of India), on 20 May 1498. The King of Calicut at that time was Samudiri (Zamorin). Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August 1498.

‘Satyamev Jayate’ has been borrowed from

Solution: Satyameva Jayate which means "Truth alone triumphs" is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. The Mundaka Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit Vedic text, embedded inside Atharva Veda. Upon independence of India, Satyameva Jayate was adopted as the national motto of India. It is inscribed in Devanagari script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and words 'Satyameva Jayate' are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency.

The National Anthem was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on

Solution: The National Anthem was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 24 January, 1950.

The “blood and iron” policy was followed by

Solution: Bismarck took the policy of blood and iron which means the policy of war for the unification of Germany.

Which of the following diseases is not spread by casual physical contact?

Solution: Syphilis and AIDS, both spread by direct physical contact and not by casual contact.

Echidna and Platypus which lay eggs belongs to the class ________.

  • Echidna and Platypus which lay eggs belong to the class of Mammalia.

  • They possess some of the reptilian features. These are considered as primitive mammals with both mammalian and reptilian features.

  • They are also warm-blooded and they nourish their young children which are the features of mammals.


Which of the following fibres is/are found in connective tissue?


Collagenous fibres- These fibres are colorless and hyaline. They are white in colour. These fibres can be stained by eosin. Examples are- Bone, Cartilage, Ligament, and tendon.

Elastin fibres- These fibres are made from fibre protein. They are less numerous, thinner, branched, anastomosing, and of a pale yellow colour. They are stained by orcein.

Reticulin fibres- These fibres are delicate, freely branching and inelastic fibres of reticulin protein. They are existing in eyebrows, newborns and help to regenerate wounds. They are stained with Argentophilic.


The tissue that separates xylem and phloem in a vascular bundle is known as ________.

Solution: Cambium is a layer of narrow, thin-walled cells between the xylem on the inside and the phloem on the outside. The cells are able to divide, making more xylem and phloem tissue.

Which of the following defines latent heat of fusion?

  • When the melting point of a substance is reached, the temperature of a substance does not change even though we continue to heat the substance. This additional heat gets used up in changing the state by overcoming forces of attraction between the particles. This is called the latent heat of fusion.

  • Amount of energy released when water vapor condenses to form liquid droplets is called latent heat of condensation.

  • Amount of heat energy that is required to change 1 Kg of liquid into a gaseous state at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point is called latent heat of vaporization.


Which of the following statements are correct?

  • Solids can diffuse into liquid, e.g. When a crystal of Copper Sulphate is dropped into a glass of water, it gets diffused.

  • Liquids can diffuse into liquids, e.g. when ink is dropped into water.

  • Gases can diffuse into liquids, e.g. oxygen dissolved in water to be used by aquatic animals.


Melting point of ice is ________ .

  • Melting point is a temperature at which a substance converts from its solid-state to liquid state at the atmospheric pressure.

  • Melting point of ice is 273.16 K or 0ºC ( 0ºC = 273.16 K).


Which model of an atom is similar to a Christmas pudding?

Solution: J. J. Thomson proposed the plum pudding model of the atom in 1904. In this atomic structure model, he considered atoms to have a cloud of negative charge and the positive charges. Thomson’s model of the atom was compared to plum pudding and watermelon. He compared the red edible part of the watermelon to positively charged sphere whereas the seeds of watermelon to negatively charged particles.

Among which of the following coal types, which one is referred as Brown coal?

  • Lignite is referred to as brown coal which is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

  • It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content.


Silver-containing lead as an impurity is removed by which of the following process?

  • Silver containing lead as an impurity is removed by cupellation.

  • Cupellation is a refining process in which ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures to separate noble metals present in the ore.


The toxic heavy metal found in modem tannery industries is

Solution: Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point.

Which of the following pairs is CORRECT?

Solution: The Tropic of Capricorn is the circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees south where the sun is directly overhead at noon on December 21, the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere.

Panama Canal joins which two oceans?

Solution: The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.

Which of the following cities is the capital of the desert country Mali?

Solution: Bamako is the capital city of Mali, the country which is situated in the north - west part of the African continent. It is one of the 16 countries via which tropic of cancer passes through.

The Siachen Glacier is in

Solution: The Siachen Glacier is in Ladakh. It is located in the eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalayas near Ladakh.

Where is Benghazi port?

Solution: The Port of Benghazi is a major seaport in the city of Benghazi, Libya, on the Mediterranean Sea coast within the Gulf of Sidra. It has been reopened after 3 years.

Which forests are you likely to come across if you are travelling in Ganga-Brahmaputra delta?

Solution: Mangroves are various large and extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics—mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. This area also has the largest delta in the world, the Sunderban Delta.

Which of the following soils would facilitate the plant growth the most?

Solution: Humus usually refers to the natural decay of material such as leaves in the soil's top layer. It is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays. Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clayminerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter.

Which of the following subjects is included in the Union List?

Solution: Lighthouse is a part of Union List while theatres, agriculture and prison are parts of State list.

Cross elasticity of demand between petrol and car?

Solution: The cross elasticity of demand for complementary goods is negative. Examples of such goods are cars and petrol. The increase in price of cars decreases the demand for petrol and vice versa.

Which of the following states does not have a bicameral legislature?

Solution: Bicameral states are - Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Jammu and Kashmir. Thus, Rajasthan is not a bicameral state.

If the demand curve for apples is downward-sloping, then an increase in the price of apples will result in

Solution: When price changes there is an opposite change in the quantity demanded as measured on the horizontal axis.

In the case of an inferior good, which of the following must be true?

Solution: An increase in consumer income will decrease the demand for the good, because it is inferior and consumers can buy a good quality of product now.

If the supply curve of mobile phones see a leftward shift, then what can be its cause?

Solution: If the supply curve of mobile phones see a leftward shift, then it indicates an increase in the labor costs of producing phones.

International Energy Agency is established under the framework of?

Solution: The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) framework in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

The term stagflation refers to?

Solution: A condition of slow growth rate and relatively high unemployment is known as stagflation. It is characterized by persistent high inflation combined with high unemployment and stagnant demand in a country's economy.

Who among the following is the head of the Bench that would hear cases on family law issues, labour, civil cases, public premises eviction, land law, etc.?

Solution: The Chief Justice of India has changed the subject-wise roster for judges in the Supreme Court to categorise cases for Justice R. Banumathi, who now heads a Bench. The Bench headed by Justice Banumathi would hear cases on family law issues, labour, civil cases, public premises eviction, land law, etc. The subject-wise roster was first implemented from February 5, 2018.

Who has been appointed as the brand ambassador for road safety by the Union ministry of Road, Transport and Highways?

Solution: Akshay Kumar was appointed as brand ambassador for road safety by the Union ministry of Road, Transport and Highways to promote road safety through its new campaign. As a part of the campaign, Union Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari launched three short videos, featuring Akshay Kumar to create road safety awareness.

As per the proposal submitted by the Union of India to colour-code vehicles, the colour of the stickers to be used for vehicles running on petrol and CNG is _________.

Solution: The Supreme Court approved a proposal submitted by the Union of India (UOI) to colour-code vehicles according to the fuel they run on, in an effort to help counter air pollution. The apex court ruling allows for blue stickers to be used for vehicles running on petrol and CNG, and orange stickers for diesel vehicles. However, it clarified that this would only be applicable in Delhi and NCR.

Which of the following states is famous for its Muga variety of silk?

Solution: Assam is famous for its Muga variety of silk. It is registered as Geographical Indication Tag of Assam with Joha Rice, Tezpur Litchi.

When is the 'International Day of Remembrance and Tribute to the Victims of Terrorism' observed?

Solution: On 21 August, the United Nations observe the 'International Day of Remembrance and Tribute to the Victims of Terrorism'. This day is meant to pay tribute to the individuals across the globe who have been attacked, injured, traumatized, or lost their lives because of terrorist attacks.

Which country has launched a new observation robot Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout, towards the Ryugu asteroid's surface on 3rd October 2018?

Solution: A Japanese probe launched a new observation robot towards an asteroid. The Hayabusa2 probe launched the French-German Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT), towards the Ryugu asteroid's surface. MASCOT's launch comes after the Hayabusa2 dropped a pair of MINERVA-II micro-rovers on the Ryugu asteroid. MASCOT can take images at multiple wavelengths and measure magnetic fields.

The Android Dev Summit will be organized at the Computer History Museum on 7 - 8 Nov 2018. Where is the Computer History Museum?

Solution: The Android Dev Summit is being organized at the Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California on 7 - 8 Nov 2018. The last one was in 2015, and it also happened at the Computer History Museum. Android Developer Days, or ADD, is an open conference held at various locations worldwide each year.

What is the theme of the 10th BRICS Summit?

Solution: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on July 25 landed in South Africa to take part in the 10th BRICS Summit in Johannesburg. The theme for the 2018 BRICS summit in Africa is 'cooperation for inclusive growth and sharing the benefits of the fourth industrial revolution'. Twin stamps of Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela were also released during the meeting of PM Modi and Cyril Ramaphosa.

Name the country that accounts for the largest chunk of the total foreign money with Swiss banks?

Solution: India has moved up to 73rd place in terms of money parked by its citizens & companies with Swiss banks. India had slipped to 88th place with a 44% plunge in such funds in 2016, but the latest data shows an increase of over 50% during 2017 to CHF 1.01 billion (about Rs 7,000 cr). The UK continued to account for the largest chunk at about CHF 403 billion of the total foreign money with Swiss banks.

_______ Metro will open India’s first exquisite air-conditioned bed space dormitory.

Solution: Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) will open India’s first exquisite air-conditioned bed space dormitory. The fully air-conditioned rooms are equipped with locker facility, free WiFi, round-the-clock check-in and check-out facility, and security cameras. It was inaugurated by Kochi's Mayor Soumini Jain. The current governor of Kerala is P. Sathasivam.

The constitution of India refers to the budget as the ________.

Solution: The constitution of India refers to the budget as the Annual Financial Statement.
  • Budget is a statement of the estimated expenditure and receipts of the Union Government in a financial year.

  • Provisions of the Budget are mentioned in Article 112.


The President can appoint an interim or acting Chairman of Union Public Service Commission in case –

Solution: The President can appoint acting Chairman of Union Public Service Commission in the following cases:
  • The Office of the Chairman falls vacant due to resignation or removal of the Chairman.

  • The Chairman is unable to discharge his duties on a regular basis.

  • The Acting Chairman remains in office until full-time chairman is appointed or the regular Chairman resumes regular duty.


Element X forms a chloride with the formula XCl2, which is a solid with a high melting point. X would most likely be in the same group of the Periodic Table as

Solution: In the chemical formula of the chloride it is given XCl2, which means two chlorine atoms will fulfill the stability criteria (octet/duplet rule) for the central atom, X. Now that is possible only when the central atom has 2 valence electrons which is possible with Magnesium (Mg) and the atom in the group 2 of the periodic table.

The hardest Rock is

Solution: There's no single hardest rock on Earth. The strongest types, on the other hand, include quartz in their makeup: quartzite, quartz sandstones, rhyolites and granites, according to the MadSci Network.

Wrought Iron Contains Carbon Upto :

Solution: Wrought iron, one of the two forms in which iron is obtained by smelting; the other is cast iron. Wrought iron is a soft, ductile, fibrous variety that is produced from a semi-fused mass of relatively pure iron globules partially surrounded by slag. It usually contains less than 0.1 percent carbon and 1 or 2 percent slag. It is superior for most purposes to cast iron, which is overly hard and brittle owing to its high carbon content. Dating back to antiquity, the first iron was smelted directly from iron ore by heating the latter in a forge with charcoal, which served both as a fuel and a reducing agent. While still hot, the reduced iron and slag mixture was then removed as a lump and worked (wrought) with a hammer to expel most of the slag and weld the iron into a coherent mass.

Limestone are generally known as :

Solution: Limestone is a hard sedimentary rock (formed by the deposit of minerals on the earth's crust within water) and is made up of minerals, calcite and aragonite - different crystal forms of calcium carbonate.

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and mollusks. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)


Sewer pipe are made of


Nowadays, PVC sewers are used for carrying sewage. Plastic sewers are resistant to corrosion. Such types of sewer are light in weight, smooth and can be bent easily. But these types of sewer (Plastic sewers) have a high coefficient of thermal expansion and cannot be used in very hot areas. Other types of Sewer materials

Wooden Sewers (Rare now) Stoneware Sewers


A pug mill is used for

Solution: Manufacturing of bricks consists of the following 4 operations or steps.

1.Preparation of brick clay or brick earth

2.Moulding of bricks

3.Air drying of bricks

4.Burning of bricks

Pugmill is the machine used for tempering brick earth.

Tempering is the process of adding water to the clay and allowing it to stand undisturbed for a few days before mixing occurs. This will begin to soften and break down the lumps of clay making the mixing process easier.


The size of modular bricks is-

Solution: With mortar thickness, the dimension of the brick becomes 200 mm×100 mm×100 mm which is also known as the nominal size of the modular brick.

So, the size of a modular brick can also be stated as- 20 cm×10 cm×10 cm

Hence, the correct option is A.


A well-seasoned timber may contain moisture up to?

Solution: According to IS 399:1963, the weight of the timber is specified at 12% moisture content.

When we refer to seasoned timber, we are usually referring to timber that has moisture contents in the range from 9% to 14%.


Ultimate strength of cement provided by

Solution: The dicalcium silicate is provided initially with low strength but with the time it increases the strength of cement.

Dicalcium silicate, C2S: C2S hydrates and hardens slowly. It is largely responsible for strength gain after one week. This is a fluxing agent which reduces the melting temperature of the raw materials in the kiln (from 3,000o F to 2,600o F)


The slope correction for a length of 30 m along a gradient of 1 in 20 is:


Slope correction =

Difference in elevation between points,

∴ Slope correction = = 0.0375m = 3.75 cm


If whole circle bearing of a line 1200 its reduced bearing is


To the starting point, always North 180 - 120 = 60.

If the whole circle bearing of a line is 120o , its reduced bearing is S 60o E.


Shift of a curve is

Solution: The shift is the change in position of the circular curve due to the introduction of the transition curve. It is given by

According to Unwin formula the diameter D of a Rivet of a plate of thickness t is


Formula : d = 6.04 × √t


d = Nominal Diameter of Rivet in mm

t = Thickness of Plate in mm.

The Unwin formula is used to determine the size of the rivet. Unwin's formula gives a relation between hole diameter of rivet and thickness of the connected plates. The 'd' in the formula represents nominal diameter of the rivet in millimeters (mm) and 't' represents thickness of the plate in millimeters


Mass density of ∫ is given by:

Solution: For this question, you need to do it from the definition of density

density = mass volume density = mass volume

all you have do is to make mass the subject of the above equation

mass= density × volume


Differential manometers are used to measure:

Solution: Differential manometers have a wide range of uses in different disciplines. One example is that they can be used to measure the flow dynamics of a gas by comparing the pressure at different points in the pipe.

Bearing stiffeners are designed as:

Solution: the combined effect of forces from moment and shear should be considered while designing fasteners or welds for end connections of girders, beams, and trusses. When flanges or moment connection plates for end connections of beams and girders are welded to the flange of an I- or H-shape column, a pair of column-web stiffeners having a combined cross-sectional area Ast not less than that calculated from the following equations must be provided whenever the calculated value of Ast is positive


Permissible stress may also know as:

Solution: This Regulation does not provide design formulas nor permissible stresses or strains, but requires the adequacy of the design to be established by appropriate calculations and demonstrated by cylinders being capable of consistently passing the materials, design qualification, production and batch tests specified in this Regulation, and also know as working stress

A tie is a :

Solution: A tension member is designed as a structural member subjected to tensile force in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis. A tension member is also called a tie member or simply a tie.

Minimum DO(dissolved oxygen) aquatic life to survive in water,

Solution: Most dissolved oxygen is introduced into water through aeration, flowing over rocks, or as a waste product of photosynthesis. It is generally considered that DO levels of at least 4-5 PPM are sufficient for most aquatic life, however, good fishing waters average about 9.0 PPM.

Bernoulli’s equation Assume that:

Solution: Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline.

Atmospheric pressure varies with

Solution: Atmospheric pressure is caused by the gravitational attraction of the planet on the atmospheric gases above the surface, and is a function of the mass of the planet, the radius of the surface, and the amount of gas and its vertical distribution in the atmosphere.[citation needed] It is modified by the planetary rotation and local effects such as wind velocity, density variations due to temperature and variations in composition

In sewers the generally found is

Solution: Residential sewer pipes primarily contain the gases found in air (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.). Often, methane is the gas of next highest concentration, but typically remains at nontoxic levels, especially in properly vented systems.

Sewer gas can contain methane and hydrogen sulfide, both highly flammable and potentially explosive substances. As such, the ignition of the gas is possible with flame or sparks.


Bods is Biochemical oxygen demand at a temperature of

Solution: The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water

Acidity in water is caused due to

Solution: Carbon dioxide is the most common cause of acidity in water.

It can have a number of natural causes. One of them could be caused by rain, which is mildly acidic, as well as trees and roots, and soil microbes that emit carbon dioxide and produce acids. Other causes could be acidic mine drainage and spills, as well as chemical dumps that can further pull down the pH in water.


The plasticity index is the numerical difference between

Solution: It is the numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil and indicates the magnitude of the range of the moisture contents over which the soil is in a plastic condition as defined by the tests. The liquid and plastic limits are both dependent on the amount and type of clay in a soil, but the plasticity index is generally only dependent on the amount of clay present. It indicates the fineness of the soil and its characteristics as regards plasticity and cohesiveness, i.e., its power to change shape without altering its volume. The information regarding the type of clay in the soil may be obtained by considering the PI in relation to the LL. A high value of PI indicates excess of clay or colloids. When the PL is equal to or greater than the LL, the PI is zero.

'Talus' is the soil transported by:

Solution: Several types of transported soils exist, including colluvial, alluvial, glacial and aeolian. Colluvial soil is transported by gravity. Alluvial soil is moved by running water. Glacial soil is formed from the interaction of ice and snow. Heavy ice masses push glacial soils from one place to another. Aeolian soil is moved by wind. This soil can be classified into dunes or loess.

Coefficient of uniformity is

Solution: Uniformity coefficient (Cu) is given by: Its value should be more than 4 for well-graded gravel and more than 6 for well-graded sand. Were, D60 = particle size at 60% finer.

Uniformity Coefficient (AKA Coefficient of Uniformity or Cu) – the ratio of D60 to D10, which is the slope of the grain size distribution curve of your sample.


The relationship between void Ratio (e) and porosity ratio (n) is

Solution: Void ratio and porosity are inter-related to each other as follows


Flow net can be drawn only if the flow is

Solution: Flow net can be drawn only if the flow is Distortion.

The discharge through a V-notch weir varies-

Solution: The discharge through a V-notch weir varies as H5/2

The basic principle is that discharge is directly related to the water depth above the crotch (bottom) of the V; this distance is called head (h). The V-notch design causes small changes in discharge to have a large change in depth allowing more accurate head measurement than with a rectangular weir.


The runoff is affected by

Solution: For recent years, runoff generation and hydrological processes in Hailiutu River basin have been greatly changed by climate change and human activity, especially water and soil conservation construction. In this study, the trends in precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and river runoff as well as the effects of precipitation change and human activity on runoff variation have been studied

The point of contra flexure occurs in

Solution: In a bending beam, a point is known as a point of contra flexure if it is a location at which no bending occurs. In a bending moment diagram, it is the point at which the bending moment curve intersects with the zero line.

Match the list-1 with list-2 and select a correct answer by using code.

List-1 (test)

List-2 (test)

A. Acid test

1. Compressor strength

B. Attrition

2. Weathering

C. Crushing test

3. Toughness

D. Impact test

4. Rate of wear



List - 2(test)

A. Acid test

1. Weathering

B. Attrition

2. Rate of wear

C. Crushing test

3. Compressor strength

D. Impact test

4. Toughness


Maximum deflection of a cantilever due to pure bending moment, M, at free and is

Solution: The maximum deflection of a cantilever due to pure bending moment, M, at free and is

This is the standard value result.

Value of slope = ML/EI.

Value of Deflection= ML2/2EI.


If P is the internal pressure in a thin cylinder of diameter d and thickness t to develop hoop stress is:

Solution: If P is the internal pressure in a thin cylinder of diameter d and thickness t develop hoop stress is

Planimeter is used for measuring

Solution: A planimeter, also known as a platometer, is a measuring instrument used to determine the area of an arbitrary two-dimensional shape.

A point determined by resection on a plane table is called?

Solution: The plane table surveying is the fast method of surveying. In this type of surveying plotting of the plan and field observations can be done simultaneously. In case of plane table surveying Geometrical conditions of site are manuscript in the map sheet using plane table and alidade after that topographic details are arranged on the map.

The point at topmost of the celestial sphere is:

Solution: Zenith- The point on the celestial sphere directly overhead.

The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction (plumb line) opposite to the gravity direction at that location (nadir). The zenith is the "highest" point on the celestial sphere.


What is the used of the Aeration and destination of water treatment process,

Solution: Although removal of free carbon dioxide increases the pH of the water and renders it less corrosive from this standpoint, aeration also results in the saturation of water with dissolved oxygen. This does not generally present a problem when original oxygen content is already high. However, in the case of a well water supply that is high in carbon dioxide but devoid of oxygen, aeration simply exchanges one corrosive gas for another.

Pile foundation are suitable for

Solution: In waterlogged areas the shear strength of soil is less so it's difficult to get a hard strata for foundation so in this deep pile foundation or the best piles in such types of piles is Under Reamed piles or double Under Reamed piles, these are best in such types of expansive soil.

Dampness Causes-


Dampness in the wall causes efflorescence and sometimes dampness is responsible for disintegration of bricks, stones, tiles etc. The wall decoration (like painting) gets damaged due to dampness. Dampness promotes and accelerates growth of termites.


What means the 'dry rot' in trees?

Solution: Dry rot only spreads when moisture is present. Once the wood dries, the fungus stops growing. The problem is that the new wood inhabited by the dormant fungus has been altered in a way that makes it better at absorbing water. The next time it rains, this wood absorbs an even larger amount of water and the fungus starts to grow yet again. This is an ingenious survival strategy on the fungi's part, but it makes treating dry rot difficult.

Slacking of lime is affected by

Solution: As stated previously, the calcium carbonate is heated in the rotary or vertical kilns to drive away CO2 from limestone CaCO3 to produce calcium oxide CaO. This process is called calcination.

Calcination conditions highly affect the quality of quicklime CaO that results from this process. The following factors are the major determinants of the quality of CaO :

A. Chemical composition of limestone.

B. Temperature of kiln during calcination

C. Residence time of lime in kiln

D. The concentration of CO2 in the kiln atmosphere.


The sensitiveness of a level tube decrease

Solution: This quality depends mainly upon the radius of curvature of the level tube which may vary from 10 to 300 meters —the larger the radius, the greater the sensitiveness. Sensitivity is also increased by increase in the length of the bubble and by decrease of viscosity and surface tension of the liquid in the level tube.

After dividing a substance into two equal parts, which of the following properties of the substance reduces to half?

Solution: Yes, it is the correct answer as the internal energy of a substance depends on its mass. After dividing the substance into two equal parts, the internal energy of each part reduces to half. It is an extensive property.

Energy equation usually applicable to

Solution: The Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE) is used for open systems to determine the total energy flows.

The maximum permissible width of a vehicle is

Solution: The Federal Government first enacted size regulations for CMVs with the passage of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. This Act provided a maximum vehicle width of 96 inches (2.44 meters) on the Interstate highway system. Subsequently, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1976 increased the allowable width for buses to 102 inches (2.6 meters). The Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982 extended the same width requirement of 102 inches to commercial trucks. At the same time, the STAA expanded the highway network on which the Federal width provision applied from the Interstate to the National Network (NN) of highways.

California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is tested to

Solution: The California bearing ratio test is a penetration test meant to evaluate subgrade strength of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement.

Following types of transition curves are mostly used in Indian Railway?

Solution: Cubic parabola Indian Railways mostly uses the cubic parabola for transition curves. The equation of the cubic parabola is

Ring and ball test of bitumen used find out

Solution: The softening point is the temperature at which a material softens beyond some arbitrary softness. It can be determined, for example, by the Vicat method, Heat Deflection Test or a ring and ball method. A ring and ball apparatus can also be used for the determination of softening point of bituminous materials.

What is gauge distance of broad gauge-

Solution: Broad gauge is also called wide gauge or large line. The distance between the two tracks in these railway gauges is 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in). It would not be wrong to say that any gauge, wider than standard gauge or 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ inches), is called broad gauge.

A Railway yard in which wagons are received sorted and new trains are formed called a

Solution: The arrangement made with an elaborate set of sidings for sorting of wagons at important stations according to traffic requirements, is called marshaling yard. Goods tarins are marshaled so that wagons are placed in the order of the stations at which these are to be detached. Marshaling yards are provided only at important junction stations which act as a distributing centre for various destinations. The functions of a marshaling yard can be compared with those of the heart in a human body. The important functions of a marshaling yard are: reception, sorting, and departure.

The maximum allowable super elevation is


Maximum And Minimum Superelevation As Per I.R.C

When a vehicle is moving on a curved path it is subject to an outward force known as centrifugal force. In order to counteract the effect of centrifugal force, the outer edge of the pavement is raised with respect to the inner edge. This transverse inclination provided to the pavement surface is known as superelevation

Maximum Superelevation

As per IRC, the maximum superelevation in plain and rolling terrain and in the snowbound area is 1 in 15 or 4° or 7 %. On hill roads not bound by snow, a maximum superelevation up to 10% has been recommended by IRC.


The convexity provided on the surface of a highway is known as-

Solution: The convexity provided to the road surface in the transverse direction, to drain off rainwater is known as camber or cross fall or cross slope. Usually, the camber is provided on the straight road by raising the center of the carriageway with respect to the edges.

Best direction of Runway is -

Solution: Prevailing winds dictate the direction of runways, yes land has to do with it but the main condition is the wind direction, see many airports in North America and Canada have the same runway numbers or close, most major airports have 2 to 4 runways to delay with changing winds and amount of traffic.

Density of steel in kg/m3 is-

Solution: The density of steel is between 7480 and 8000 kilograms per cubic meter. The density of steel is given as a range rather than a singular number because steel is an alloy containing both iron and carbon atoms.

If the carbon content is increased, ductility of steel is -

Solution: The ductility of steels varies depending on the types and levels of alloying elements present. An increase in carbon, for example, will increase the strength but decrease the ductility. Hardness is the ability of a material to resist abrasion or penetration on its surface.

Maximum permissible bearing stress (σ) is:-


Maximum permissible bearing stress (σ) is:- σ=0.75 fy.

Permissible values Axial tensile stress = 0.6 fy.

Bearing stress = 0.75 fy

Maximum shear stress = 0.45 fy.

Stress in slab base = 185 MPa for all types of steels.


The heaviest I -section for depth is -

Solution: Osmium is the most dense metal! Many people are familiar with lead (11.3 kg/L), but osmium is twice as dense (22.6 kg/L)! Each liter (about 1/4 gallon) of osmium weighs 22.6 kg (50 lbs). For comparison, each liter of water weighs only 1 kg (~2.2 lbs). Some other heavy metals include tungsten and gold (19.3 kg/L), which are almost as dense as osmium.

Standard loads are given in ?


Standard loads are given in IS=875.

Structural loads or actions are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to structure components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of structural analysis. Excess load or overloading may cause structural failure, and hence such possibility should be either considered in the design or strictly controlled. Mechanical structures, such as aircraft, satellites, rockets, space stations, ships, and submarines, have their own particular structural loads and actions. Engineers often evaluate structural loads based upon published regulations, contracts, or specifications. Accepted technical standards are used for acceptance testing and inspection.


The maximum spacing of vertical Stiffeners is:-

Solution: The maximum spacing of vertical Stiffeners is : 1.5 d

Stiffeners are transverse plates used in plate girders to avoid local web buckling and are spaced 1.5 times the distance b/w flange angles.


Maximum Slenderness Ratio of a steel column


Short Steel column - lambda is less than 50.

Intermediate - 50 -250

Long - 250 above.


The angle of fillet weld varies between: -

Solution: In order to do fillet welding, the angle between joining surfaces shall be within a range of 60 to 120 degrees. Important factors that decide the capacity of fillet welds are the grade of electrode used for welding, the length of weld and throat thickness of weld which depends on leg length.

A specific task in CPM is known as:-

Solution: The performance of a specific task in CPM is known as Activity.

Residential Building always & treated as:-

Solution: RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: These building include any building in which sleeping accommodation provides for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities. It includes single or multifamily dwellings, apartment houses, lodgings or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories, and residential hostels.

The material which has the same elastic properties in all direction called?

Solution: The materials having the same elastic properties in all directions are called isotropic.

Isotropic materials have identical material properties in all directions at every given point. This means that when a specific load is applied at any point in the x, y, or z-axis, isotropic materials will exhibit the same strength, stress, strain, young's modulus, and hardness.


A simple supported Beam at a UDL over SPAN the maximum Bending moment occur:-

Solution: Bending moment (UDL) = (Kg-mm or Kg-m) Bending moment (point load) = Force x Distance ( This is actually for a horizontal beam with load acting is a point load) (Kg-mm or Kg-m)

Which turbine is used, when 450-meter headed of water is available?

Solution: Pelton Wheel turbine is used, when 450-meter heads of water is available.

A Pelton wheel is an impulse-type water turbine invented by American inventor Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s. The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse of moving water, as opposed to water's dead weight like the traditional overshot water wheel.


Unit discharge through a turbine is?

Solution: The unit discharge is the discharge through a turbine when the head on the turbine is unity. Mathematically, unit discharge is

Bar chart is suitable for : -

Solution: Bar charts are suitable for minor works for comparing between categories of data. The bar graph shows results of a survey carried out within a health club.

Determination of the water content of coarse grain soil is done by-

Solution: This test is done to determine the water content in soil by calcium carbide method as per IS: 2720 (Part II) – 1973. It is a method for rapid determination of water content from the gas pressure developed by the reaction of calcium carbide with the free water of the soil. From the calibrated scale of the pressure gauge the percentage of water on total mass of wet soil is obtained and the same is converted to water content on dry mass of soil.

Numerically, it represents the mass per unit volume of matter. Density determination by pycnometer is a precise method.


Number of independent elastic constants is ?

Solution: For an isotropic elastic material there are only 2 independent elastic constants.

Weight of 1m3 brick earth about?

Solution: Weight of one brick = 3.2 to 4.0 kg on an average consider 3.6 kg.

So, one-meter cube comprises of 500 bricks.

= 500×3.6 = 1800 kg.


M10 grade concrete approximates is :-

Solution: In this designation, the letter M refers to the mix and the number to the specified 28-day cube strength of mix in N/mm2. The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively.

Underwater construction used?

Solution: It is also known as water lime. This lime contains clay and some amount of ferrous oxide. It sits underwater and hence is also known as water lime. Depending upon the percentage of clay IS has divided hydraulic lime in three classes namely:
  • Class A – Eminently hydraulic

  • Class B – Semi Hydraulic

  • Class C – Non-hydraulic (or Fat lime)

At the core, underwater construction is simply industrial construction that happens to take place underwater. Activities vary greatly but include bridge inspection, building repair, repair of wastewater treatment facilities, and equipment installation.


To mark the position of station or terminal points in survey used to -

Solution: These are also called marking or chaining pins. Accompanying each chain are ten arrows, which are used to mark the end of the chain during the process of chaining. They are pointed at one end and have a ring or eye at the other for the facility of carrying.

The number of link 30-meter metric chain

Solution: n 30-meter metric chain the length of the link is 20cm to hence the no. of links is equal to 150 links. Unable to measure the fraction of a chain easily bress tags are provided at every 5m length and small brass rings at every one meter length.

A Centrifugal Pump gives maximum efficiency when its blades are

Solution: In the case of backward-facing blades, the maximum efficiency occurs in the region of maximum power. If, for some reasons, Q increases beyond there occurs a decrease in power. Therefore the motor used to drive the pump at part load, but rated at the design point, may be safely used at the maximum power.

The efficiency of a centrifugal pump will be maximum when the blades are bent backward.


A Hyetograph is a graph representing:

Solution: A hyetograph is a graphical representation of the distribution of rainfall intensity over time. The maximum intensity may not be reached as uniformly as shown in the SCS hyetographs.

The standard recording rain gauge adopted in India is of-

Solution: Types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders, weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauges and simple buried pit collectors. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages for collecting rain data.

Floating or Natural Syphon Type Rain Gauge

The working of this type of rain gauge is similar to weighing bucket rain gauge. A funnel receives the water which is collected in a rectangular container. A float is provided at the bottom of the container, and this float raises as the water level rises in the container. Its movement being recorded by a pen moving on a recording drum actuated by a clock work.

When water rises, this float reaches to the top floating in water, then syphon comes into operation and releases the water outwards through the connecting pipe, thus all water in the box is drained out. This rain gauge is adopted as the standard recording rain gauge in India and the curve drawn using this data is known as mass curve of rainfall.


Delta ∆m, duty (d) in hectare and Base period (R) in day are related as:


Let a crop of Base period B for which 1 cumec water is supplied continuously for its full growth.

Then the total volume of water supplied during B days for that Crop = (1×B×24×60×60) cubic meter.

By the definition of duty, it is clear that it matures D hectares of land.

Then the total depth of water supplied during base period B = (1×B×24×60×60)/(D×10000) = meters

We know the total depth of water supplied during the base period of a crop is Delta.



Hence, the correct option is A.


The most economical method of soil conservation is to : -

Solution: Afforestation means planting trees. As we know, the roots of the trees help to hold the soil layer firmly, it is evident that it helps not to make the soil loose and prevents erosion. Thus by planting more and more trees, the top layer of the soil becomes less prone to erosion by wind, water etc.

The degree of indeterminacy of the beam given below is : -


The hinge will create 2 members.

The Number of internal reaction components released.


Muller Breslau Principle is applicable to get the influence line of which one of the following?

Solution: The Müller-Breslau principle uses Betti's law of virtual work to construct influence lines. To illustrate the method let us consider a structure AB. Let us apply a unit downward force at a distance x from A, at point C. Let us assume that it creates the vertical reactions and supports A and B, respectively. Let us call this condition “System 1.” In “System 2”, we have the same structure with a unit deflection applied in the direction of. Here is the deflection at point C.

A good brick should not absorb water by weight more than

Solution: Should not absorb water more than 20% of its own dry weight after 24 hours, immersion in cold water.

Have a minimum crushing strength of 105 kg per sq. cm when tested according to the test.

Should not show appreciable sign of efflorescence either in dry state or subsequent to soaking in water.


Yield line theory result in

Solution: The yield line theory is the ultimate load theory. Both the virtual work method as well as equilibrium method give the upper bound solution, i.e the computed collapse load on the basis of an assumed yield line pattern is bound to be larger than the actual collapse load.

The characteristic strength of concrete is refined as that compressive strength below which not more than

Solution: The characteristic strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. concrete cubes of size (100 mm 3).

What is the rest mass energy of an electron?




Optimum moisture content is obtained from,

Solution: Relationship between maximum dry density of soil and optimum moisture content can be obtained from soil compaction curve obtained from standard proctor test. This relationship helps in determining the optimum water content at which maximum dry density of soil can be attained through compaction.

Shrinkage in concrete increase its-

Solution: Bond Strength

Shrinkage of the concrete causes the concrete to grip reinforcing bars more tightly. This increases friction between concrete and steel and so improves bond strength, especially for plain bars.


Slump test for concrete is carried out to determine

Solution: The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets. It is performed to check the workability of freshly made concrete, and therefore the ease with which concrete flows. It can also be used as an indicator of an improperly mixed batch.

An arch may be subjected to-


An arch may be subjected to Bending moment. The resultant internal couple is called the bending moment while the resultant internal force is called the shear force (if it is transverse to the plane of element) or the normal force (if it is along the plane of the element).


Global warming is caused mainly by?

Solution: Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are also increasing. A global 2015 Pew Research Center report showed that a median of 54% of all respondents considered it "a very serious problem". Significant regional differences exist, with Americans and Chinese (whose economies are responsible for the greatest annual CO2 emissions) among the least concerned.

Bearing stiffeners are designed as

Solution: Bearing stiffeners are required in a plate girder when a concentrated load, applied to either the top or bottom flange, exceeds the local yielding, crippling, or sideways buckling capacity of the web.

Zinc oxide is a pigment having colour-


Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water, and it is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants, [5] paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods, batteries, ferrites, fire retardants, and first-aid tapes. Although it occurs naturally as the mineral zincite, most zinc oxide is produced synthetically.