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The process of decomposing organic waste in the presence of air is termed as
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas and heat means in the presence of air.
The steel used in the manufacture of rails is
Composition and metallurgy of rail steel
Carbon content of rail steel can go up to a maximum of 0.82 % and manganese content up to a maximum of 1.7 %. The normal rails are made of steel containing 0.7% C and 1% Mn, which are called as Carbon-Manganese rail steel.
Who has assumed the charge as Vice Chief of the Naval Staff on 30 Jan 2019?
Which of the following is not an indicator of air pollution?
The various indicators of air pollution are:
Suspended particulate matter
Soiling Index is the measurement of visibility interference in the atmosphere. It is also known as Smoke Index or Coefficient of Haze.
If the value of the a, b, c and d in the group index method of pavement design are 20, 30, 20 and 10 respectively, then the group index value will be
Group Index of the Soil (GI)
GI = 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd
a = (P - 35) ≯ 40
b = (P -15) ≯ 40
c = (WL - 40) ≯ 20
d = (IP - 10) ≯ 20
P = Percentage fines passing from 0.074 mm sieve.
WL = Liquid Limit
IP = Plasticity Index
G.I. = (0.2 × 20) + (0.005 × 20 × 20) + (0.01 × 30 × 10)
G.I. = 4 + 2 + 3 = 9
Which of the following alloy is used for making clocks and scientific instruments?
Invar is an alloy composed of Iron, nickel, and Carbon where Iron is a major component with 63%, nickel with 36% and Carbon with 1%. Invar is an alloy used for making clocks and scientific instruments because of its property of negligible coefficient of expansion.
Which browser is an inbuilt browser in windows?
Some commonly used web browsers are:
Internet Explorer is a __________.
Web browser: A browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content of Web pages, images, video and other files. The browser contacts the Web server and requests information and Web server sends the information back to the Web browser which displays the results on the computer.
Some commonly used web browsers are:
The typical steps in a conventional wastewater treatment follows the sequence:
The typical steps in a conventional wastewater treatment follows the sequence is
Screening – Sedimentation – Aerobic oxidation – Disinfection – Discharge
The four processes of wastewater treatment are:
Most accurate method of estimation is based on:
Detailed estimate is the most accurate method and consist of working out the quantities of each of item of works and working the cost. The dimensions are taken directly from the drawings and quantities of each item are calculated. Finally abstracting and billing is done.
This is prepared in two stages.
1. Details of measurements and calculation of quantities
2. Abstract of Estimated Cost
In the first stage, the quantity, availability, and transportation of materials parameters is being analyzed.
In the second stage, the total abstract of the above analysis is shown.
What is the IUPAC name of sec-Butyl chloride?
The Zeolite method of water softening become costly due to presence of
The process of softening of water through Zeolite method become expensive due to presence of iron and manganese compound because iron and manganese zeolite cannot be regenerated back to sodium zeolite.
Identify the incorrect statement/option: The psychological effect of noise pollution is
Noise pollution may cause or contribute to the following adverse effects:
The critical hydraulic gradient of a soil is 1.0. Its saturated unit weight is:
γ' = submerged unit weight of soil = γsat - γw
γw= unit weight of water
icr = 1
Neoprene is a
Elastomeric adhesives are based on natural rubbers, silicones, acrylonitrile butadiene (nitrile), neoprene, Butyl, polyurethane, styrene-butadiene
Thermoplastic adhesives are based on polyamides, cyanoacrylates, polyacrylates, polyvinyl acetate (PVA).
Thermosetting adhesives are based on epoxies, polyesters, polyimides and phenolics.
One-part adhesive are based on epoxies, urethanes, polyimides, acrylics, cyanoacrylates, urethanes, RTV silicones, urethanes.
Generation in computer terminology is
The generations of computers are characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.
The various generations of computers are listed below:
3Ds MAX is available for
3Ds Max is not available for MAC, Linux, and Android operating system.
3Ds Max can be easily run on Windows
What is the purpose of conducting the resection method in the plane table surveying?
Resection is a method of plane table surveying in which location of a plane table is unknown. Location of a plane table is determined by looking it to known points. It can be determined through:
An explosive which contains, 65% saltpetre, 20% sulphur and 15% charcoal is:
Blasting Powder contains, 65% saltpetre (KNO3), 20% sulphur and 15% charcoal.
Dynamite contains 75% nitro-glycerine, absorbed in 25% of sandy earth.
Nitrocellulose or Gun cotton made by saturating cotton with nitric acid.
Cordite contains nitro-glycerine. It is a powerful, smokeless explosive.
The Curing of a concrete for long time ensures better
The Curing of a concrete for long time ensures better
Which of the following expression holds for the Poisson’s model that accounts for nonuniformity of flow that is derived by assuming the random pattern of vehicle arrivals at a specified point?
The Poisson’s model that accounts for nonuniformity of flow which is derived by assuming the random pattern of vehicle arrivals at a specified point is given by
P(n) = probability of having n vehicles arrive in time t,
λ = average vehicle flow or arrival rate in vehicles per unit time,
t = duration of the time interval over which vehicles are counted, and
e = base of the natural logarithm (e = 2.718).
A beam is hinged at end A and fixed at B. A moment M is applied at end A. What is the moment developed at end B?
For end B is fixed so carry over factor is 1/2
Moment developed at end B,
A beam of length L carries a uniformly distributed load throughout its length. In which of the following condition will the strain energy be maximum?
Hence, maximum strain energy is for Cantilever beam.
The amount of water required to fill up the pore spaces in soil particles by replacing all air held in pore spaces is known as
Saturation capacity: The amount of water required to fill up the pore spaces in soil particles by replacing all air held in pore spaces is known as saturation capacity.
Field capacity: Field Capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased.
Available moisture: The difference in water content of the soil between field capacity and permanent wilting is known as available moisture.
Two plates of thickness 10 mm and 12 mm are connected together with a fillet weld. What is the minimum size of fillet weld?
As per IS: 800 - 2007, Clause 10.5.2.3, Table 21
Which virus infects the important files of MS word?
A virus is a program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.
Some of the common types of viruses are:
Wheel Barrow is an equipment used in a concrete project for
Wheelbarrow, truck mixer, dumper truck, belt conveyor, pipeline etc. are the various ways concrete is transported to the construction site.
A wheelbarrow is employed for hauling concrete in the longer distance in case of concrete road construction. If the distance is long or ground is rough it is likely that the concrete gets segregated due to vibration. To avoid this, wheelbarrows are provided with the pneumatic wheel, which helps in absorbing these vibrations.
When the Adiabatic Lapse Rate (ALR) is less than the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR), then the prevailing environmental lapse rate is called as
ELR > ALR – Superadiabatic lapse rate – Unstable Environment
ELR < ALR – Sub – adiabatic lapse rate – Stable Environment
ELR = ALR – Neutral Condition
ELR is negative – Inversion
Adiabatic Lapse Rate (ALR) is - 9.8oC per 1000 m rise
The process of adding a finely ground, fully hydrated Portland cement to the fresh concrete in order to make high strength concrete is called
The process of adding a finely ground, fully hydrated Portland cement to the fresh concrete in order to make high strength concrete is called seeding.
There are some more special methods of making high strength concrete and are given below
For construction of structures under water, the type of lime used is ______
This lime contains clay and some amount of ferrous oxide. It sets under water and hence also known as water lime. Depending upon the percentage of clay Indian Standard has divided hydraulic lime in three classes namely:
Class A – Eminently hydraulic
Class B – Semi Hydraulic
Class C – Non-hydraulic (or Fat lime)
As a result of greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere is gradually increasing. This is called _____.
As a result of the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere is gradually increasing. This is called Global warming. The exchange of incoming and outgoing radiation that warms the surface of Earth is known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, water vapors, nitrous oxide, and other gases.
If in a rigid-jointed space frame, (6m + r) < 6j, then the frame is
The degree of static indeterminacy of a rigid-jointed space frame is
Ds = (6m + r) - 6j
Where, m = number of members in the joint, r = number of equilibrium equations and j = number of joints
Ds = 0, then the truss is stable and determine, such trusses is called perfect trusses.
Ds > 0, then the truss is stable but indeterminate or over stiff
Ds < 0, then the truss is unstable or deficient.
Hence, Ds = (6m + r) - 6j < 0, the truss is unstable.
The brick which is light in weight, reduce the transmission of heat, sound and dampness, is known as
Hollow or Cellular or Cavity bricks:
They are light in weight about one-third the weight of the ordinary brick of the same size.
They also reduce the transmission of heat, sound and damp.
Such bricks have wall thickness of about 20 mm to 25 mm.
They are prepared from special homogeneous clay.
These bricks can be laid almost about four times as fast as the ordinary bricks.
They are used in the construction of brick partitioning.
Which of the following is unstratified?
These rocks are not stratified. They possess crystalline and compact grains. They cannot be split into a thin slab. Granite, trap, marble etc. are the examples of this type of rocks.
These rocks have a layered structure. They possess planes of stratification or cleavage. They can be easily split along these planes. Sandstones, limestones, slate etc. are the examples of this class of stones.
For a propped cantilever beam of length L carrying a uniformly distributed load w, as shown in figure, the reaction at point A will be
Deflection of end B = 0
(Downward deflection due to uniformly distributed load) – (upward deflection due to RB) = 0
The Black coloured soil, which is sticky and highly plastic in nature is
The phenomenon of metal which allows it to deform continuously at slow rate without any further increase in stress is known as
Creep: The phenomenon of metal which allows it to deform continuously at slow rate without any further increase in stress is known as creep.
Fatigue: It is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading.
Resilience: resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading.
Plasticity: Ability of certain solids to flow or to change shape permanently when subjected to stresses of intermediate magnitude between those producing temporary deformation, or elastic behavior, and those causing failure of the material, or rupture
IRC recommends the value for coefficient of lateral friction as
IRC suggests the coefficient of lateral friction as 0.15 and the coefficient of longitudinal friction as 0.35-0.4 depending on the speed.
The choice of the value of coefficient of longitudinal and lateral friction is a very complicated issue since it depends on many variables.
Choose the option which is INCORRECT about the term friction.
Friction is the resistance to motion of one object moving relative to another.
While calculating the sight distance, the driver’s eye above road surface is assumed as
As per IRC the distance between a moving vehicles with the eye level of the driver at a height of 1.2 m and an object of 0.15 m, so that no collision occurs in case a situation arises to stop the vehicle.
The plan of a building is in the form of a square with centreline dimensions of outer walls as 9.6 m × 14.6 m. If the thickness of the wall in superstructure is 0.40 m, then its plinth area is:
Dimensions of outer walls = 9.6 m × 14.6 m.
Thickness of the wall = 0.40 m
Plinth area of the building
Plinth area of the building = (10 × 15) = 150 m2
Calculate the runoff (cm) from a rainfall of 3 hours. The intensity of the rainfall is 2 cm/hr. The evaporation and infiltration losses are 8 mm and 16 mm respectively.
Rainfall intensity = 2 cm/hr
Rainfall depth(cm) = 2 cm/hr × 3 hr = 6 cm
Runoff depth = Rainfall depth – Evaporation losses – infiltration losses
Runoff depth = 6 cm – 0.8 cm – 1.6 cm
Runoff depth = 3.6 cm
Which of the following is NOT true with respect to Kirchhoff's first law?
What is the main function of alumina in brick work?
A good brick earth should contain 20 – 30% of Alumina.
Alumina imparts plasticity to the earth, so that it can be moulded.
If it is excess raw bricks shrink and wrap during drying and burning.
The correct sequence of different layers of the atmosphere from the surface of the Earth upwards is
Structure of the atmosphere
The atmosphere is divided into five layers starting from the earth's surface:
A 24 mm diameter bolt of grade 4.6 is in double shear, the shearing strength of bolt will be (assume no threads in the shear planes)?
Shearing strength of all bolts (Ps)
Where n is number of bolts, d is diameter of bolt
m = 1 for single shear and m = 2 for double shear
Here m = 2 because of double shear in double cover butt joint
(fub is ultimate stress of bolt)
For 4.6 grade bolts, fub = 400 MPa, fyb = 240 MPa
Ps = 167.2 kN
Who has won the Men's singles final in the US Open Tennis 2018?
Which among the following indicates the orientation of sub-shells in an atom?
Which of the following is the information retrieval service?
Which among the following is the capital of Finland?
Helsinki is the capital of Finland.
While negotiating a curve, the radius of the curve is given by
(where W is the weight of the vehicle, P = centrifugal force, V = velocity of the vehicle and g = acceleration due to gravity)
While negotiating a horizontal curve, the relation between the W is the weight of the vehicle, P = centrifugal force, V = velocity of the vehicle, g = acceleration due to gravity, and radius of the curve is given by:
Therefore, Radius of the curve,
Light can travel in vacuum but not sound, because ________.
The number of cubic meters of the fill that can be constructed at a void ratio of 0.5 from 1000 m3 of borrow pit of soil that has a void ratio of 0.80 will be
Volume of solids remain same,
Which law of thermodynamics defines the concept temperature?
The Zeroth law of thermodynamics defines temperature. It states that “If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with the third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.”
Zeroth law – concept of temperature
First law – concept of internal energy
Second law – concept of entropy
The unit measurement for concrete work in RCC is in
The principle of units of measurements normally consists the following:
a) Single units work like doors, windows, trusses etc., are expressed in numbers.
b) Works consists linear measurements involve length like cornice, fencing, hand rail, bands of specified width etc., are expressed in running metres (m).
c) Works consist of areal surface measurements involve area like plastering, white washing, partitions of specified thickness etc., and are expressed in square meters (m2)
d) Works consists cubical contents which involve volume like earth work, cement concrete, Masonry etc. are expressed in Cubic metres (m3).
The levelling operation that removes humps and hollows and gives a true and uniform concrete in the finishing of concrete surface is called
The finishing of the concrete surface is finally achieved by the following operations:
1. Curing: It is the process of hardening the concrete mixes by keeping its surface moist for a certain period, in order to enable the concrete to gain more strength.
2. Screeding: it is the levelling operation that removes humps and hollows and gives a true and uniform concrete surface.
3. Floating: It is the process of removing the irregularities from the surface of concrete left after screening.
4. Trowelling: It is the final operation of finishing the concrete surface. It is performed where a smooth and dense surface is required.
A pipe of diameter 100 cm and length 10000 m connects two small reservoir having difference of water level as 32 m. The discharge through the pipe will be (Take π2g = 100 m/s2 and coefficient of friction (f) = 0.25)
In the case of single pipe connects to two reservoirs, the head loss in the pipe
f = coefficient of friction
f' = friction factor = 4 × f
L = length of pipe
V = velocity of fluid flowing through the pipe
Q = discharge through the pipe
D = Diameter of the pipe
Diameter of the pipe = 100 cm = 1 m and π2g = 100 m/s2
Head loss in the pipe
What is the CORRECT option for a rigid body to be in the equilibrium when the body is under the action of three forces?
For a rigid body to be in equilibrium when the body is under the action of three forces:
A solid body under three parallel forces will be in equilibrium if:
(i). The sum of the forces acting in one direction must be equal to the sum of the forces acting opposite in direction.
(ii). The algebraic sum of the moments of all forces about any point on the body must be zero.
A solid body applied to three forces whose lines of action are not parallel, is in equilibrium if the three following conditions satisfies:
(i). The lines of action are coplanar (in the same plane).
(ii). The lines of action are meeting at a point.
(iii). The vector sum of these forces is equal to the zero vector.
Which of the following method is not classified as a force method?
The moment distribution method is displacement method.
Theorem of three moments
Method of consistent deformation
Moment distribution method
Slope deflection method
Stiffnens matrix method
Which one of the following air pollutants are responsible for photochemical smog?
Photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone.
Photochemical smog depends on primary pollutants as well as the formation of secondary pollutants.
These primary pollutants include oxides of nitrogen, particularly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and volatile organic compounds.
The relevant secondary pollutants include peroxyl-acyl nitrates (PAN), tropospheric ozone, and aldehydes.
An important secondary pollutant for photochemical smog is ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the presence of sunlight.
The pre-jump and post-jump depth in a rectangular channel during a hydraulic jump are 0.25 m and 1.25 m, then the head loss in the jump is
Head loss during a hydraulic jump
where y1 = pre-jump depth and y2 = post-jump depth
The force in the member AB will be
Since at joint C, BC and CD are colinear and no external force acting joint C, therefore
FAC = 0
∴ FAB cos 30° + FAD cos 30° - 10 KN = 0
(∵ FAB = FAD)
∴ 2FAB cos 30° = 10 KN
Which of the following is CORRECT statement for critical flow through open channel?
The characteristics of critical flow are:
(i) The specific energy and specific force are minimum for the given discharge.
(ii) The Froude number is equal to unity.
(iii) For a given specific energy the discharge is maximum at the critical flow.
(iv) The velocity head is equal to half the hydraulic depth in a channel of small slope.
(v) Flow at the critical state is unstable.
The magnetic bearing of a line PQ is S 35o 30’ E. If the magnetic declination is 7o 00’ W, then the true bearing of the line PQ will be
The position of true meridian, magnetic meridian, and the line have been shown in the figure below:
Since the declination is to the west, the magnetic meridian will be to the west of true meridian.
Hence, true meridian = S 35o 30’ E + 7o 00’ = S 42o 30’ E
The term Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is generally used to describe:
Municipal solid waste includes commercial and domestic wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
Under certain limit, the bigger size of aggregate will
Size of aggregate affecting workability of concrete:
Weisbach triangle method is used for
Weisbach triangle method is used for connecting two ends of an underground tunnel as shown in the figure below.
In this method two wires are suspended vertically in a shaft forming a very small base line. The principal is to obtain bearing and coordinate of the wire base relative to the surface base. These values can then be transferred to the underground base.
The maximum depth of neutral axis for a beam with ‘400 mm’ as the effective depth, in limit state method of design for Fe 415 steel is
For fy = 415 N/mm2, xu, max = 0.48dand Es = 2 × 105 N/mm2
xu, max = 0.48d = 0.48 x 400 = 192 mm
for fy = 250 N/mm2, xu, max = 0.53d and
For fy = 500 N/mm2, xu, max = 0.46d
Which of the following is not an assumption of Bernoulli’s theorem?
Assumptions of Bernoulli’s theorem:
The triangular shaped masonry work, provided at the end of a sloped roof is called as
The triangular shaped masonry work provided at the end of a sloped roof is called as gable.
Arch is structural construction of masonry construction of wedge-shaped blocks of stone or brick arranged in the form of curve supporting wall.
Jambs are the vertical sides of a finished opening of a door, window etc.
Parapet is the portion of low height wall constructed along the edge of roof to protect the users.
Under fatigue stresses, which one of the following joint fails earlier?
Under fatigue stresses, welded connection fails suddenly. So welded connection is not preferred under fatigue stress.
In a meter gauged railway track, the ruling gradient is 1 in 200 on a particular section of the track. The allowable ruling gradient on a 3o curve in the track will be
According to Indian Railway provision for grade compensation for curvature is given by
0.04% per degree of curve for Broad Gauge (B.G.)
0.03% per degree of curve for Meter Gauge (M.G.)
0.02% per degree of curve for Narrow Gauge (N.G.)
Allowable ruling gradient after grade compensation will be
Which of the following fuels causes minimum environmental pollution?
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen (if one considers water not as an emission) or used in a contained cell (allowing to react galvanically) also capable of 'reversing' the reaction if needed.
A soil sample with void ratio of 0.45 is having water content of 10% and the specific gravity of soil solid is 2.7. The air content in the soil sample will be
For a given soil sample,
S × e = w × G
S = degree of saturation
e = void ratio
w = water content
G = specific gravity of the soil solid
S = 0.6
Air content + Degree of saturation = 1
ac + S = 1
ac = 1 − S = 1 − 0.6 = 0.4
ac = 40%
If the plates of a capacitor are brought closer to each other, what will be the effect on capacitance?
As per IS 1942 : 1970, the chain of length 30 m, having ______ number of links.
As per IS 1942:1970, the surveying chain are categories into four different length;
Where will the deleted files be stored?
In computing, the Trash (also known as the Recycle Bin in Windows) is the temporary storage for files that have been deleted in a file manager by the user, but not yet permanently erased from the file system.
Typically, a recycle bin is presented as a special file directory to the user, allowing the user to browse deleted files, undelete those that were deleted by mistake, or delete them permanently (either one by one, or by the "Empty Trash" function).
Which of the following shows the CORRECT graph for the stress-strain curve for an ideal elastic strain hardening material?
The stress- strain diagrams for different type of materials are given below:
The diameter of circular sewer laid at a slope of 1 in 900 is 4 m. The flow rate of the sewer when running half full will be (take Manning’s coefficient, n = 0.02)
Depth of flow = D/2
Wetted area of the sewer (A)
Wetted perimeter (P) = πD/2
Hydraulic mean radius (R) = A/P = D/4
Velocity or flow rate through the sewer,
The very finely ground cement with high C3S content designed to develop high early strength required for manufacture of concrete sleeper for Indian Railways is called as
IRS-T 40 Special Grade Cement:
IRS-T-40 special grade cement is manufactured as per specification laid down by ministry of Railways under IRST40: 1985.
It is a very finely ground cement with high C3S content designed to develop high early strength required for manufacture of concrete sleeper for Indian Railways.
The other uses of this cement are:
Bitumen grade 80/100 indicates that under the standard test conditions, penetration value of bitumen would vary from:
Penetration value is a measure of hardness or consistency of bituminous material. It is the vertical distance traversed or penetrated by the point of a standard needle into the bituminous material under specific conditions of load, time and temperature. This distance is measured in one-tenth of a millimeter. Bitumen grade 80/100 indicates the penetration value of bitumen from 8 mm to 10 mm.
Batching error means inaccuracy in the quantity of
Which of the following prizes is given for fiction?
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
If a group of 10 friction piles are designed to carry a total load capacity of 1225 kN and the load carrying capacity of a single pile in clayey strata is 155 kN, then the efficiency of the pile group is
Load carrying capacity of a single pile = 155 kN
Total load carrying capacity of pile group = 1225 kN
The efficiency of group pile
Area of the side face reinforcement of a beam where the depth of web exceeds 750 mm shall be not less than:
Shear reinforcements in the form of vertical stirrups and or bent up longitudinal bars
Side face reinforcement in the web of the beam provided when the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750 mm shall not be less than 0.1% of the web area, distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or web thickness, whichever is less.
The pile which can be driven on an angle is called as
The pile which can be driven on an angle is called as batter pile.
The ability to install driven piles on an angle, or batter, gives them a distinct advantage with respect to their ability to carry lateral loads.
Batter piles carry lateral loads primarily in axial compression and/or tension while vertical deep foundations carry lateral loads in shear and bending.
Which method is used for the preparation of a contour plan for a route survey?
Uses of indirect method of contouring:
Cross section method: This method is suitable for route survey, when cross sections are taken transverse to the longitudinal section.
Square or grid method: The method is used for large scale mapping and at average precision.
Cross section method Procedure:
Strait of Malacca separates which two land masses?
What is the process of slow cooling of hot glass called?
Where is the largest population of Bhil Tribe found in India?
The Bhil are an indigenous tribe in the Kolarian group and were the earliest settlers in India. According to the 2011 Census of India, Bhil is the most populous tribe in Madhya Pradesh with a total population of 4,618,068, constituting 37.7 per cent of the total ST population.
Ascending order according to width is
So the order will be,
Carrigeway < Formation way < Right of way
The adverse effect(s) of acid rain is(are)
When the quantity of acids in the raining water is more than the average, then such rain is called 'Acid rain'.
We are aware that normally rainwater has a pH of 5.6. When the pH of the rainwater drops below 5.6, it is called acid rain.
Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid from the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur which are acidic in nature can be blown by wind along with solid particles in the atmosphere and finally settle down either on the ground as dry deposition or in water, fog and snow as wet deposition.
Acid rain is a byproduct of a variety of human activities that emit the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier, burning of fossil fuels (which contain sulphur and nitrogenous matter) such as coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and reaction with water are major contributors to acid rain because polluted air usually contains particulate matter that catalyses the oxidation.
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 2H2SO4 (aq)
4NO2 (g) + O2 (g)+ 2H2O (l) → 4HNO3 (aq)
The bad effects of acid rain
An air vessel is usually provided at the summit of a syphon in order to
A syphon is a long-bent pipe used to connect two reservoirs at different levels through a high ridge. The highest point of the syphon is called the summit.
The interruption such as cavitation in the flow is caused by the pressure difference. Thus, an air vessel is provided at the summit in order to avoid this interruption in the flow and to get continuous flow.
The amount of bleaching powder containing 50% available chlorine to be added to treat one litre of such water sample is 0.5 mg. The chlorine demand of the water sample will be
Chlorine demand = Amount of Bleaching powder
Chlorine demand = 0.25 mg/L
When water is flowing through some confined aquifer, the spring formed is known as:
Artesian Springs occur when the groundwater, under pressure, finds its way to the land surface. The spring flows because the pressure in the aquifer (water bearing soil or rock), which is covered by a confining layer (clay or other impervious material), is greater than atmospheric pressure at the land.
With which game is the 'Agha Khan Cup' associated?
‘Agha Khan Cup’ is associated with the game of Hockey whereas Agha Khan Gold Cup is associated with Football.
The range of the optimum moisture for the standard proctor test for clayey soil is
Range of optimum water content
Maximum strain energy that can be stored in a body is known as
The energy stored in a body, when strained within elastic limit is known as strain energy.
The maximum strain energy which can be stored in a body is termed as proof resilience.
The proof resilience per unit volume of a material is known as modulus of resilience.
The disease which is not caused by water pollution is
Asthma is a condition in which a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell and produce extra mucus, which makes it difficult to breathe. It is caused due to air pollution.
The chemical formula of Hematite is ________.
When warm air rises up and cold air from the surrounding areas rushes in to fill its place then this sets up ________ in air.
When warm air rises up and cold air from the surrounding areas rushes in to fill its place then this sets up convection in air.
The shape of Indifference curve indicates ________.
An indifference curve is a graph showing combination of two goods that give the consumer equal satisfaction and utility. Each point on an indifference curve indicates that a consumer is indifferent between the two and all points give him the same utility.
Which element is most electronegative among Arsenic, Nitrogen and Phosphorus?
When two liquids do not mix with each other to form a solution, what is it called?
For example- Alcohol and water.
Euler’s equation in the differential form for motion of liquids is given by
The Euler’s Equation of motion in the differential form given by the following equation:
This equation is based on the assumptions that the flow is ideal and viscous forces are zero.
The integration of the Euler’s equation of motion with respect to displacement along a streamline gives the Bernoulli equation.
Which of the following is/are effects of ozone depletion?
Effects of ozone depletion
The optical phenomenon that is primarily responsible for the observation of rainbow on a rainy day is ________.
The inclination of the failure plane behind a vertical wall in the passive pressure case is inclined to the horizontal at
Coefficient of passive earth pressure,
The angle which the failure plain makes with the major principal plane is equal to As the major principal plane is vertical, the failure plane makes an angle of with the horizontal (which is the minor principal plane).
Which of the following is NOT a mouse usage?
A computer mouse is an input device that is most often used with a personal computer. Moving a mouse along a flat surface can move the on-screen cursor to different items on the screen. Items can be moved or selected by pressing the mouse buttons (called clicking). The mouse has two buttons, the left button, and right button, with a scroll wheel in between the two.
Use of a mouse:
Fundamental rights in the Indian constitution has been taken from which country's constitution?
1. Impeachment of the president
2. Functions of president and vice-president
3. Removal of Supreme Court and High court judges
4. Judicial review
5. Independence of judiciary
6. The preamble of the constitution
Which of the following represents the approximate overflow rate (litres/hours/m2) for the plain sedimentation tank?
For Plain sedimentation tank
12 – 18 m3/m2/day or 12000 litres/ m2/day – 18000 litres/m2/day
Therefore, in per hours
500 litres /m2/ day or 750 litres /m2/ day
Which of these poets were awarded 'Saraswati Samman 2017' on 22 January 2019?
If b = breadth of the beam, d = effective depth and fy = Characteristic strength in N/mm2. Minimum area of tension reinforcement shall be less than the following:
Tension reinforcement (As per IS 456: 2000, clause 188.8.131.52)
The minimum area of tension reinforcement should be governed by
where As = minimum area of tension reinforcement,
b = breadth of rectangular beam or breadth of web of T-beam,
d = effective depth of beam,
fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2
The maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04 bD,
where D is the overall depth of the beam.
Where was the Vaikom Satyagraha (1924-25) started?
Vaikom Satyagraha was a Satyagraha in Travancore, Kerala against untouchability in Hindu society.
Hence, 1 is the correct answer.
The shear force diagram for a simply supported beam of a span L is shown in the figure. The maximum bending moment in the beam is:
Resultant force at point D,
FD – W = 0
FD = W
At point C,
FD + FC = 0
FC = -W,
FA = W and FB = -W
Therefore, the beam with the loading and its bending moment diagram is shown in the figure below:
Hence, the maximum bending moment of the beam is (W × a).
A force acting on a body of mass 1.5 kg, accelerates it from rest to a velocity of 4 m/s. The change in the momentum of the body is
Momentum of a body is defined to be the product of its mass m and velocity v, and is denoted by p.
p = mv
Δp = m2v2 – m1v1 = m (v2 – v1) = m (4 – 0) = 1.5 × 4 = 6 kg m/s
In flat slab design, the critical section for shear shall be considered from the periphery of the column (capital/drop panel) and perpendicular to the plane of the slab at a distance:
As Per IS 456: 2000, Clause 31.6.1
The critical section for shear shall be at a distance d/2 from the periphery of the column/capital/ drop panel, perpendicular to the plane of the slab where d is the effective depth of the section.
Moment in the slab is more near the column, therefore the slab is thickened near the column by providing the drops as shown in the figure below:
The drop panel is also called the capital of the column.
Which among the following glasses can cut off the UV rays?
Air binding in rapid sand filter occurs due to
The clogging of a filter due to resistance offered by the medium particle along with the impurities exceeds the static head of water.
Due to the above resistance negative head or vacuum pressure is developed at the bottom layer of the filter medium.
The negative head created in the bottom releases dissolve gases that rises to the surface and leads to binding of the voids of the filter medium from the bottom.
The above process of operational trouble caused in rapid sand filter is called as Air Binding.
To avoid Air Binding:
Proper cleaning of filter should be done when
Sewage waste is a
According to nature, pollutants can be classified into Non-degradable pollutants and Bio - degradable pollutants.
Those pollutants which cannot be broken down into simpler, harmless substances in nature.
DDT, plastics, polythene, bags, insecticides, pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, metal articles like aluminium cans, synthetic fibres, glass objects, iron products and silver foils are nonbiodegradable pollutants. (Tables)
Those pollutants which can be broken down into simpler, harmless substances in nature.
Sewage waste, domestic waste, etc. are the bio-degradable waste.
What is the SI unit of angular frequency?
Which city is called as the Pittsburgh of India?
EPROM stands for
Beams and Arches of span less than 6 m may be stripped after
A hacker contacts your phone or E-mails and attempts to acquire your password is called
A Threat is any circumstance or event with the potential to cause harm to the system or activity in the form of destruction, disclosure, and modification of data, or denial of service. A threat is a potential for harm.
Some of the common terms associated with threats and their description are as follows:
Spoofing: A spoofing attack is when a malicious party impersonates another device or user on a network in order to launch attacks against network hosts, steal data, spread malware, or bypass access controls. There are several different types of spoofing attacks that malicious parties can use to accomplish this. They are IP Address Spoofing Attacks, ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Spoofing Attacks, DNS Server Spoofing Attacks, etc.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
China clay is an example of:
Kaolin, also called as china clay, soft white clay that is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of porcelain china and is widely used in the making of paper, rubber, paint, and many other products.
During a survey two points were fixed as P and Q having RL 268.4 m and 276.4 m respectively at a distance of 50 m. It was seen that the contour interval was found to be 2 m and therefore four points on the four contours of RL’s 270 m, 272 m, 274 m and 276 m respectively. By using Proportionality, the distance of 274 m contour from P will be
Level difference between P and Q = 276.4 m – 268.4 m = 8 m
Distance between P and Q = 48 m
Therefore, the distance of 274 m contour from point P will be
Watering done prior to the sowing of the crops is called ________.
Paleo Irrigation: During the initial days of irrigation before the crop is sown, the soil is very dry. In such cases, the soil is moistened with water as it helps in ploughing and sowing the crops. It is the watering done prior to the sowing.
Kor watering: It is the first watering which is given to the crop, when the crop is few centimetres high.
Duty: It is the number of hectares of land irrigated for full growth of a given crop by a supply of 1 cumecs of water continuously during the entire base period of that crop.
Delta: The total water depth required by a crop to attain its full maturity in its base period.
In a shear test on cohensionless soils, if the initial void ratio is less than critical void ratio (ec), the sample will:
If the initial void ratio is less than the critical void ratio, this means it is dense sand. Hence volume will initially decrease and then increase.
A turbine generates the power of 150,000 kW while working at the speed of 300 rpm at the head of 100 m. What is the specific speed of the turbine?
Specific speed: It is defined as the speed of a similar turbine working under a head of 1 m to produce a power output of 1 kW. The specific speed is useful to compare the performance of various type of turbines. The specific speed differs for different type of turbines and is same for the model and actual turbine.
Specific Speed of Turbine,
Where N = speed of turbine, P = power generated, and H = head generated
The depth of tension cracks in a soft clay (ϕu = 0) is
Let Zc = Depth of tension crack
At Z = Zc, pa = 0
For ϕu = 0, ka = 1
∴ Depth of tension crack
The gases which are generally evolved during anaerobic decomposition of sewage are:
The end products of the anaerobic decomposition of sewage are acids, alcohols and gases.
Some common type of gases evolved during anaerobic decomposition of sewage are carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Hydrogen sulphide and methane
What is the modular ratio to be used in the analysis of RC beams using working stress method if the grade of concrete is M20?
As per IS: 456-2000, modular ratio is given by
For M20 concrete
σcbc = 7 N/mm2
When is the World Earth Day celebrated?
In a 1 in 16 model of a spillway, discharge is 3 m3/s, then the corresponding discharge in prototype is
In a spillway the predominant force is gravity, therefore the Froude law will be applicable for the model and prototype study.
Froude Model Law:
Scale ratio for velocity (Vr = Vm/Vp) = (Lr)0.5
Scale ratio for time, Tr = (Lr)0.5
Scale ratio for discharge, Qr = (Lr)2.5
Scale ratio for Force, Fr = (Lr)3
Scale ratio for Power, Pr = (Lr)3.5
Bar AC shown in the figure is fixed at both ends and is subjected to a torque T at B where AB = L/3. Then torque at end A is ______
Here θA = θC
T = TA + TC
Now, T = TA + TB = TA + ½ TA
Which of the tools are used in the hand demolition method of demolition of the building?
Hammer and chisel are the tools used in hand demolition.
Gas cutting equipment to cut the rebar.
Diamond floor saw
Concrete wall saw
Hydraulic chain saw
The instrument used for setting out an offset at right angle, is called as:
1. Open cross staff is used to setting out an offset at right angle.
2. French cross staff is used for setting out an offset at angle of 45 degree.
3. Optical square is used for setting out accurately the long offsets.
4. adjustable cross staff is used for setting out an offset at any angle.
Where has the second India-Myanmar bilateral Army exercise named 'IMBEX 2018-19' commenced on 14 January 2019?
In which type of foundation the length is considerably greater than its width?
Strip footing: A strip footing is another type of spread footing which is provided for a load bearing wall. The length of strip footing is considerably greater than its width. A strip footing is also known as continuous footing.
Mat or Raft foundation: It is a large slab supporting a number of columns and walls under entire structure or a large part of the structure. It is used to cover the foundation of whole building area.
Pile foundation: A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground to act as a steady support for structures built on top of it. It is also called as deep foundation. Length of pile is very much greater than that of its lateral dimension.
Clam shell is a machine used for
Clam shell is a machine used for Excavating. Clam shell is a bucket or grapple (as on a dredge) having two hinged jaws.
Hoe can be used to excavate relatively stiffer earth from a depth below the standing level of the equipment.
Drag line can be used to collect the loose material from a much larger depths.
Power shovel can be used to excavate the loose earth material effectively and can be used in undulating grounds because it has a crawler mounting.
Which of the factor does not influence the strength of a concrete that may be developed by workable, properly placed mixture of cement, aggregate and water?
The factor that influences the strength of a concrete that may be developed by workable, properly placed mixture of cement, aggregate and water under the same mixing, curing and testing conditions are:
A 30 m chain after measuring a distance of 6000 m was found to be 10 cm more than the designed length. If the chain was standardised before the commencement of survey then the true length is
Measured distance = 6000 m
Error in chain = 10/100 = 0.1 m
∴ Actual or true distance = Measured distance x (1 + e/L)
= 6020 m
Which one of the following places of Indus Valley Civilization was situated on the bank of Ravi River?
Stokes’ law does not hold good if the size of particle is greater than:
For particles smaller than 0.1 mm (or 100 μm) Stokes law holds very well. For particles greater than 0.1 mm Stokes law does not hold as regard aqueous suspension.
Hence, according to the question, Stokes’ law does not hold good if the size of the particle is greater than 0.2 mm.
What is the maximum slenderness ratio of lacing bars in a built-up column?
As per IS:800 – 1984 Clause 184.108.40.206
The slenderness ratio of the lacing bar for the compression members shall not exceed 145.
Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
Green House Gases (GHG):
The major greenhouse gases are
So Ethane is not a greenhouse gas
Using straight line method annual deprecation D is equal to:
Method of Depreciation
Straight Line Method a fixed amount of original cost is lost every year and is deducted from the original cost as long as the useful service life and salvage value remain unchanged. Thus, at the end of the utility period only the salvage value remains.
Which one is an input device of the computer?
Components of Computer
Input devices are used to enter data or instructions into a computer.
Output unit receives the information from the processing unit and provides the result in a human-readable form.
Storage devices are the computer hardware used to remember/store data.
A rectangular channel of width 2√5 m carries a discharge of 40 m3/s. The critical depth of water flowing through the channel is (Take g = 10 m/s2)
For a rectangular channel, the critical depth is given by
where q = discharge per unit width and g = acceleration due to gravity.