Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3


15 Questions MCQ Test English Language for SSC CHSL | Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3


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QUESTION: 1

While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the single sixyear presidential term, one of the most telling points against the single term has not been advanced. This kind of constitutional limitation on elections is generally a product of systems with weak or non-existent political parties. 

Since there is no party continuity or corporate party integrity in such systems, there is no basis for putting trust in the desire for re-election as a safeguard against mismanagement in the executive branch. Better under those conditions to operate on the basis of negative assumptions against incumbents. I do not know if the earliest proposal for a single, nonrepeatable term was made in the 1820s because that was a period of severely weak political parties. But I do feel confident that this is a major reason, if not the only reason, that such a proposal has been popular since the 1940s.  

Though the association of the non-repeatable election with weak political parties is not in itself an argument against the limitation, the fallout from this association does contribute significantly to the negative argument. Single-term limitations are strongly associated with corruption. In any weak party system, including the presidential system, the onus of making deals and compromises, both shady and honourable, rests heavily upon individual candidates. Without some semblance of corporate integrity in a party, individual candidates have few opportunities to amortize their obligations across the spectrum of elective and appointive jobs and policy proposals.

The deals tend to be personalized and the payoffs come home to roost accordingly.  If that situation is already endemic in conditions of weak or nonexistent parties, adding to it the limitation against re-election means that candidates and officials, already prevented from amortizing their deals across space, are also unable to amortize their obligations temporally. This makes for a highly beleaguered situation. The single six-year term for presidents is an effort to compensate for the absence of a viable party system, but it is a compensation ultimately paid for by further weakening the party system itself.

Observers, especially foreign observers, have often noted that one source of weakness in American political parties is the certainty of election every two or four years, not only because any artificial limitation on elections is a violation of democratic principles but also because when elections are set in a certain and unchangeable cycle, political parties do not have to remain alert but can disappear into inactivity until a known point prior to the next election. To rigidify matters by going beyond the determinacy of the electoral cycle to add an absolute rule of one term would hang still another millstone around the neck of already doddering political parties.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Suppose that America adopted a single-term political system. Considering the foreign observers mentioned in the passage. how would they be expected to respond to such a development? 

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

Go back to ¶5 to review what foreign observers say: they argue that fixed elections are a bad idea; elections should be held any time. Would a single-term system address this concern, work against it, or have no effect? Since the current terms are four years, and the single term would be six years, elections would be held less frequently, which would further irritate the foreign observers who consider democracy dependent on elections-on-demand. (B) fits.

QUESTION: 2

While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the single sixyear presidential term, one of the most telling points against the single term has not been advanced. This kind of constitutional limitation on elections is generally a product of systems with weak or non-existent political parties.

 Since there is no party continuity or corporate party integrity in such systems, there is no basis for putting trust in the desire for re-election as a safeguard against mismanagement in the executive branch. Better under those conditions to operate on the basis of negative assumptions against incumbents. I do not know if the earliest proposal for a single, nonrepeatable term was made in the 1820s because that was a period of severely weak political parties. But I do feel confident that this is a major reason, if not the only reason, that such a proposal has been popular since the 1940s.

 Though the association of the non-repeatable election with weak political parties is not in itself an argument against the limitation, the fallout from this association does contribute significantly to the negative argument. Single-term limitations are strongly associated with corruption. In any weak party system, including the presidential system, the onus of making deals and compromises, both shady and honourable, rests heavily upon individual candidates. Without some semblance of corporate integrity in a party, individual candidates have few opportunities to amortize their obligations across the spectrum of elective and appointive jobs and policy proposals.

The deals tend to be personalized and the payoffs come home to roost accordingly.  If that situation is already endemic in conditions of weak or nonexistent parties, adding to it the limitation against re-election means that candidates and officials, already prevented from amortizing their deals across space, are also unable to amortize their obligations temporally. This makes for a highly beleaguered situation. The single six-year term for presidents is an effort to compensate for the absence of a viable party system, but it is a compensation ultimately paid for by further weakening the party system itself.

 Observers, especially foreign observers, have often noted that one source of weakness in American political parties is the certainty of election every two or four years, not only because any artificial limitation on elections is a violation of democratic principles but also because when elections are set in a certain and unchangeable cycle, political parties do not have to remain alert but can disappear into inactivity until a known point prior to the next election. To rigidify matters by going beyond the determinacy of the electoral cycle to add an absolute rule of one term would hang still another millstone around the neck of already doddering political parties.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

According to the passage, which of the following is most likely to be true of a political system with weak political parties? 

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

What does the author say about weak political parties? They lead to a preference for single terms, which, when enacted, lead to corruption. Evaluate the choices with this main chain of causes and effects in mind. While three choices aren‘t touched on by the author, (C) is the main point made in ¶3 and the beginning of ¶ 4: single-term systems encourage individual bargains (which ultimately lead to corruption.)

QUESTION: 3

While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the single sixyear presidential term, one of the most telling points against the single term has not been advanced. This kind of constitutional limitation on elections is generally a product of systems with weak or non-existent political parties.

Since there is no party continuity or corporate party integrity in such systems, there is no basis for putting trust in the desire for re-election as a safeguard against mismanagement in the executive branch. Better under those conditions to operate on the basis of negative assumptions against incumbents. I do not know if the earliest proposal for a single, nonrepeatable term was made in the 1820s because that was a period of severely weak political parties. But I do feel confident that this is a major reason, if not the only reason, that such a proposal has been popular since the 1940s.

Though the association of the non-repeatable election with weak political parties is not in itself an argument against the limitation, the fallout from this association does contribute significantly to the negative argument. Single-term limitations are strongly associated with corruption. In any weak party system, including the presidential system, the onus of making deals and compromises, both shady and honourable, rests heavily upon individual candidates. Without some semblance of corporate integrity in a party, individual candidates have few opportunities to amortize their obligations across the spectrum of elective and appointive jobs and policy proposals. The deals tend to be personalized and the payoffs come home to roost accordingly.

If that situation is already endemic in conditions of weak or nonexistent parties, adding to it the limitation against re-election means that candidates and officials, already prevented from amortizing their deals across space, are also unable to amortize their obligations temporally. This makes for a highly beleaguered situation. The single six-year term for presidents is an effort to compensate for the absence of a viable party system, but it is a compensation ultimately paid for by further weakening the party system itself.

 Observers, especially foreign observers, have often noted that one source of weakness in American political parties is the certainty of election every two or four years, not only because any artificial limitation on elections is a violation of democratic principles but also because when elections are set in a certain and unchangeable cycle, political parties do not have to remain alert but can disappear into inactivity until a known point prior to the next election. To rigidify matters by going beyond the determinacy of the electoral cycle to add an absolute rule of one term would hang still another millstone around the neck of already doddering political parties.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author‘s claim about single-term political systems?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

What is the author‘s main argument for avoiding the single-term system? It leads to corruption. Looking for something that would weaken this argument turns up (B), which contradicts the author‘s main reason for avoiding the single-term system.

QUESTION: 4

By regarding the expanding universe as a motion picture, you can easily imagine ―running the film backward.If you do so, you find the universe getting smaller and smaller, and eventually you come to the moment when its whole mass is crammed into an infinitely dense point. Before that time it didn‘t exist, or at least it didn‘t exist in its present form. Though there is some controversy about its exact age, most cosmologists would be inclined to agree that the universe has existed for about ten to twenty billion years. For scale, this can be compared to the four-and-a-half-billion-year age of the solar system, the time since the disappearance of the dinosaurs (sixty-five million years), and the age of the human race (about three million years).  

The event that marked the beginning of the universe was christened the Big Bang; the term has now entered the vernacular of our culture. Originally the name referred only to the single initiating event; now, however, astronomers have come to use it to mean the entire developmental process of the birth and expansion of the cosmos.  

The simple statement that the universe had a beginning in time is by now so obvious to astrophysicists that few give it a second thought. Yet it is a statement that has profound implications. Most civilizations embrace one of two opposite concepts of time. Linear time has a beginning, a duration, and an end; cyclical time, as its name suggests, continues around and around forever. In a universe that functions through cyclical time, the question of creation never arises; the universe always was and always will be. The minute you switch to linear time you immediately confront the vexing question not only of creation, but also of the Creator. Although there is no logical reason for the assumption, many people believe that if something comes into existence, it must do so in response to the actions of some rational being. Because of that belief, astronomers, even though they resist becoming involved in theological discussion, find themselves in one when they posit the Big Bang universe. It puts them squarely in the middle of an age-old debate.  

One common misconception about the Big Bang that should be disposed of immediately is the notion that the universal expansion is analogous to the explosion of an artillery shell. The galaxies are not like bits of shrapnel speeding away from a central explosion. The raisin-indough analogy is a more satisfactory way to think about the whole process.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

In the context of the passage, the phrase "age-old debate" (line 31) refers to:  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

What is the ―age-old debate‖ discussed at the end of ¶4? Read the previous lines for clues: astronomers are involved in a ―theological discussion‖ which involves the idea of a Creator. (A) summarizes this point in ¶4.

QUESTION: 5

By regarding the expanding universe as a motion picture, you can easily imagine ―running the film backward.‖ If you do so, you find the universe getting smaller and smaller, and eventually you come to the moment when its whole mass is crammed into an infinitely dense point. Before that time it didn‘t exist, or at least it didn‘t exist in its present form. Though there is some controversy about its exact age, most cosmologists would be inclined to agree that the universe has existed for about ten to twenty billion years. For scale, this can be compared to the four-and-a-half-billion-year age of the solar system, the time since the disappearance of the dinosaurs (sixty-five million years), and the age of the human race (about three million years).  

The event that marked the beginning of the universe was christened the Big Bang; the term has now entered the vernacular of our culture. Originally the name referred only to the single initiating event; now, however, astronomers have come to use it to mean the entire developmental process of the birth and expansion of the cosmos.  

The simple statement that the universe had a beginning in time is by now so obvious to astrophysicists that few give it a second thought. Yet it is a statement that has profound implications. Most civilizations embrace one of two opposite concepts of time. Linear time has a beginning, a duration, and an end; cyclical time, as its name suggests, continues around and around forever. In a universe that functions through cyclical time, the question of creation never arises; the universe always was and always will be. The minute you switch to linear time you immediately confront the vexing question not only of creation, but also of the Creator. Although there is no logical reason for the assumption, many people believe that if something comes into existence, it must do so in response to the actions of some rational being. Because of that belief, astronomers, even though they resist becoming involved in theological discussion, find themselves in one when they posit the Big Bang universe. It puts them squarely in the middle of an age-old debate.  

One common misconception about the Big Bang that should be disposed of immediately is the notion that the universal expansion is analogous to the explosion of an artillery shell. The galaxies are not like bits of shrapnel speeding away from a central explosion. The raisin-indough analogy is a more satisfactory way to think about the whole process.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

Review the gist of the passage and keep the author‘s main points in mind while evaluating the choices. Three of the choices match points the author makes, but (B) directly contradicts the time frames mentioned in ¶2, which indicate that the solar system is much younger than the universe itself. Note that your research for question 4 helps you here.

QUESTION: 6

By regarding the expanding universe as a motion picture, you can easily imagine ―running the film backward.‖ If you do so, you find the universe getting smaller and smaller, and eventually you come to the moment when its whole mass is crammed into an infinitely dense point. Before that time it didn‘t exist, or at least it didn‘t exist in its present form. Though there is some controversy about its exact age, most cosmologists would be inclined to agree that the universe has existed for about ten to twenty billion years. For scale, this can be compared to the four-and-a-half-billion-year age of the solar system, the time since the disappearance of the dinosaurs (sixty-five million years), and the age of the human race (about three million years).  

The event that marked the beginning of the universe was christened the Big Bang; the term has now entered the vernacular of our culture. Originally the name referred only to the single initiating event; now, however, astronomers have come to use it to mean the entire developmental process of the birth and expansion of the cosmos.

 The simple statement that the universe had a beginning in time is by now so obvious to astrophysicists that few give it a second thought. Yet it is a statement that has profound implications. Most civilizations embrace one of two opposite concepts of time. Linear time has a beginning, a duration, and an end; cyclical time, as its name suggests, continues around and around forever. In a universe that functions through cyclical time, the question of creation never arises; the universe always was and always will be. The minute you switch to linear time you immediately confront the vexing question not only of creation, but also of the Creator. Although there is no logical reason for the assumption, many people believe that if something comes into existence, it must do so in response to the actions of some rational being. Because of that belief, astronomers, even though they resist becoming involved in theological discussion, find themselves in one when they posit the Big Bang universe. It puts them squarely in the middle of an age-old debate.  

One common misconception about the Big Bang that should be disposed of immediately is the notion that the universal expansion is analogous to the explosion of an artillery shell. The galaxies are not like bits of shrapnel speeding away from a central explosion. The raisin-indough analogy is a more satisfactory way to think about the whole process.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.Why does the author compare the universe to a motion picture?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

Go back to the comparison to a motion picture described in ¶1. What is the author‘s purpose in the first paragraph? To argue that the universe had a beginning
in time. The comparison is used to reinforce this point: (A) reflects this.

QUESTION: 7

Of course, in his attempts at field investigation, the historian is at the disadvantage that the countryside has changed in many respects since the period which he is studying. He is not permitted to use H.G. Wells‘s time machine, to enable him to see it as it actually was. Inevitably he is concerned in the main, if not exclusively, with literary and other materials, which have survived from that stretch of the past which interests him.  

Old maps may be plans of cities, charts of sea coasts and estuaries, cartularies of landed estates, or topographic delineations of land areas. These clearly engage the interest of historians and geographers alike, and they call for a combination of the methods and viewpoints of each. Maps can be conceived of and considered in several quite different ways, being properly regarded, and so assessed, as works of art—at best as objects of colour, skill, form, and beauty. They may alternatively be regarded purely for their cartographic aesthetic.  

The main queries which then arise are the following: how is it that the map-maker has carried out his task and with skill of what echelon and with what degree of success has he done so? Such an inquiry falls to the specialist field of historical cartography. An antiquarian map may also be approached in a means akin to that of the student who conceives it as a font contemporaneous with the time of its production. Thus, the historical cartographer may seek to bring grist to his mill and to consider the map‘s reliability as a satisfactory source of empirical evidence. By such means also the regional historian, in his search for essentials about such past matters as the availability of roads, the extent of enclosed farmland, or the number and location of mines and quarries, is no less an interested party.

 The value of old maps as documents useful for historicity depends necessarily on to what degree they depict and on how accurately. For virtually all periods of pre-modern history some maps have survived to serve as historiography, depicting, however imperfectly, certain features of past geography. The work of Claudius Ptolemy—who lived in the 2nd century A.D.—for centuries provided the basis for maps of the known world and its major regions. Although many were drawn on the scientific basis which he provided, they nevertheless embodied many errors—of location, distance, and the shape of areas of land and sea.  

The medieval portolan charts of the Mediterranean Sea and the later charts which provided sailing directions, produced in Holland, were accurate enough to be useful in practical navigation. Plans of important cities of Europe, so well-drawn as to yield evidence of their earlier form and extent, are notably offered in Braun and Hogenberg‘s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published at Cologne and, in England, in John Speed‘s plans of cities. Similarly, John Ogilby‘s Britannia, Volume the First, appearing in 1675, gives detailed information of England's road system as it existed nearly three centuries ago. However, few of the early maps approach modern standards, which require accurate representation of distances and of heights above mean sea-level and the use of carefully distinguished symbols. This is because it was not until the 18th century that cartography, as an exact science, was born.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are NOT true?  

I. Most maps produced before the 18th century are not as accurate as maps produced after the 18th century.  

II. The maps of Claudius Ptolemy were not used as a model by later mapmakers.

III. Historians have generally been uninterested in using maps as a tool to learn about the past. 

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

Don‘t start with RN I to answer this question! It appears in only one choice and so isn‘t a time-effective starting point. RN II appears in three choices, so start there. RN II directly contradicts the author‘s point in ¶4 that Ptolemy‘s maps served as templates for other maps for centuries. Eliminate (B). RN III contradicts the main point of the passage: historians are interested in maps as historical tools. Since RNs II and III are both untrue, only choice (D) is possible. Though there‘s no need to check RN I, it can be verified as true by looking at the main point of the last paragraph.

QUESTION: 8

Of course, in his attempts at field investigation, the historian is at the disadvantage that the countryside has changed in many respects since the period which he is studying. He is not permitted to use H.G. Wells‘s time machine, to enable him to see it as it actually was. Inevitably he is concerned in the main, if not exclusively, with literary and other materials, which have survived from that stretch of the past which interests him.

 Old maps may be plans of cities, charts of sea coasts and estuaries, cartularies of landed estates, or topographic delineations of land areas. These clearly engage the interest of historians and geographers alike, and they call for a combination of the methods and viewpoints of each. Maps can be conceived of and considered in several quite different ways, being properly regarded, and so assessed, as works of art—at best as objects of colour, skill, form, and beauty. They may alternatively be regarded purely for their cartographic aesthetic.  

The main queries which then arise are the following: how is it that the map-maker has carried out his task and with skill of what echelon and with what degree of success has he done so? Such an inquiry falls to the specialist field of historical cartography. An antiquarian map may also be approached in a means akin to that of the student who conceives it as a font contemporaneous with the time of its production. Thus, the historical cartographer may seek to bring grist to his mill and to consider the map‘s reliability as a satisfactory source of empirical evidence. By such means also the regional historian, in his search for essentials about such past matters as the availability of roads, the extent of enclosed farmland, or the number and location of mines and quarries, is no less an interested party.

 The value of old maps as documents useful for historicity depends necessarily on to what degree they depict and on how accurately. For virtually all periods of pre-modern history some maps have survived to serve as historiography, depicting, however imperfectly, certain features of past geography. The work of Claudius Ptolemy—who lived in the 2nd century A.D.—for centuries provided the basis for maps of the known world and its major regions. Although many were drawn on the scientific basis which he provided, they nevertheless embodied many errors—of location, distance, and the shape of areas of land and sea.  

The medieval portolan charts of the Mediterranean Sea and the later charts which provided sailing directions, produced in Holland, were accurate enough to be useful in practical navigation. Plans of important cities of Europe, so well-drawn as to yield evidence of their earlier form and extent, are notably offered in Braun and Hogenberg‘s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published at Cologne and, in England, in John Speed‘s plans of cities. Similarly, John Ogilby‘s Britannia, Volume the First, appearing in 1675, gives detailed information of England's road system as it existed nearly three centuries ago. However, few of the early maps approach modern standards, which require accurate representation of distances and of heights above mean sea-level and the use of carefully distinguished symbols. This is because it was not until the 18th century that cartography, as an exact science, was born.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

There‘s not much to go on in the passage by way of opinion, but even a simple prediction can yield fast results. What is the author‘s main point? Old maps have historical value. Scanning the answer choices with even this broad prediction immediately turns up (A), which states much the same thing.

 

QUESTION: 9

Of course, in his attempts at field investigation, the historian is at the disadvantage that the countryside has changed in many respects since the period which he is studying. He is not permitted to use H.G. Wells‘s time machine, to enable him to see it as it actually was. Inevitably he is concerned in the main, if not exclusively, with literary and other materials, which have survived from that stretch of the past which interests him.

 Old maps may be plans of cities, charts of sea coasts and estuaries, cartularies of landed estates, or topographic delineations of land areas. These clearly engage the interest of historians and geographers alike, and they call for a combination of the methods and viewpoints of each. Maps can be conceived of and considered in several quite different ways, being properly regarded, and so assessed, as works of art—at best as objects of colour, skill, form, and beauty. They may alternatively be regarded purely for their cartographic aesthetic.  

The main queries which then arise are the following: how is it that the map-maker has carried out his task and with skill of what echelon and with what degree of success has he done so? Such an inquiry falls to the specialist field of historical cartography. An antiquarian map may also be approached in a means akin to that of the student who conceives it as a font contemporaneous with the time of its production. Thus, the historical cartographer may seek to bring grist to his mill and to consider the map‘s reliability as a satisfactory source of empirical evidence. By such means also the regional historian, in his search for essentials about such past matters as the availability of roads, the extent of enclosed farmland, or the number and location of mines and quarries, is no less an interested party.

 The value of old maps as documents useful for historicity depends necessarily on to what degree they depict and on how accurately. For virtually all periods of pre-modern history some maps have survived to serve as historiography, depicting, however imperfectly, certain features of past geography. The work of Claudius Ptolemy—who lived in the 2nd century A.D.—for centuries provided the basis for maps of the known world and its major regions. Although many were drawn on the scientific basis which he provided, they nevertheless embodied many errors—of location, distance, and the shape of areas of land and sea.  

The medieval portolan charts of the Mediterranean Sea and the later charts which provided sailing directions, produced in Holland, were accurate enough to be useful in practical navigation. Plans of important cities of Europe, so well-drawn as to yield evidence of their earlier form and extent, are notably offered in Braun and Hogenberg‘s Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published at Cologne and, in England, in John Speed‘s plans of cities. Similarly, John Ogilby‘s Britannia, Volume the First, appearing in 1675, gives detailed information of England's road system as it existed nearly three centuries ago. However, few of the early maps approach modern standards, which require accurate representation of distances and of heights above mean sea-level and the use of carefully distinguished symbols. This is because it was not until the 18th century that cartography, as an exact science, was born.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. According to the passage, all of the following would be considered maps EXCEPT: 

 

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

The ―according to the passage opening tips you off that this is a detail question, and consequently, that we‘re only looking for types of maps supported by examples in the passage. While three of the maps deal with geographic features similar to those the author touches on in the passage, a star chart wouldn‘t have anything to do with the author‘s idea of maps as something representing terrestrial features.

QUESTION: 10

The person who, with inner conviction, loathes stealing, killing, and assault, may find himself performing these acts with relative ease when commanded by authority. Behaviour that is unthinkable in an individual who is acting of his own volition may be executed without hesitation when carried out under orders. An act carried out under command is, psychologically, of a profoundly different character than spontaneous action.

The important task, from the standpoint of a psychological study of obedience, is to be able to take conceptions of authority and translate them into personal experience. It is one thing to talk in abstract terms about the respective rights of the individual and of authority; it is quite another to examine a moral choice in a real situation. We all know about the philosophic problems of freedom and authority. But in every case where the problem is not merely academic there is a real person who must obey or disobey authority. All musing prior to this moment is mere speculation, and all acts of disobedience are characterized by such a moment of decisive action.  

When we move to the laboratory, the problem narrows: if an experimenter tells a subject to act with increasing severity against another person, under what conditions will the subject comply, and under what conditions will he disobey? The laboratory problem is vivid, intense, and real. It is not something apart from life, but carries to an extreme and very logical conclusion certain trends inherent in the ordinary functioning of the social world. The question arises as to whether there is any connection between what we have studied in the laboratory and the forms of obedience we have so often deplored throughout history. The differences in the two situations are, of course, enormous, yet the difference in scale, numbers, and political context may be relatively unimportant as long as certain essential features are retained.  

To the degree that an absence of compulsion is present, obedience is coloured by a cooperative mood; to the degree that the threat of force or punishment against the person is intimated, obedience is compelled by fear. The major problem for the individual is to recapture control of his own regnant processes once he has committed them to the purposes of others. The difficulty this entails represents the poignant and in some degree tragic element in the situation, for nothing is bleaker than the sight of a person striving yet not fully able to control his own behaviour in a situation of consequence to him.  

The essence of obedience is the fact that a person comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out another‘s wishes, and he therefore no longer regards himself as culpable for his actions. Once this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred, all of the essential features of obedience—the adjustment of thought, the freedom to engage in cruel behaviour, and the types of justification experienced by the person (essentially similar whether they occur in a psychological laboratory or on the battlefield)—follow. The question of generality, therefore, is not resolved by enumerating all of the manifest differences between the psychological laboratory and other situations, but by carefully constructing a situation that captures the essence of obedience—a situation in which a person gives himself over to authority and no longer views himself as the cause of his own actions. 

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT false?  

Solution:

¶1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldn‘t when so ordered by authority.
¶2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
¶3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
¶4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his own behaviour.
¶5 expands on the point in ¶4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.

Review the main points in the map, and read the stem carefully: you‘re looking for something that‘s not false, i.e., that is true. While three choices don‘t follow from the passage, (D) summarizes the point made in ¶3 that the lab is a good place to study obedience.

QUESTION: 11

The person who, with inner conviction, loathes stealing, killing, and assault, may find himself performing these acts with relative ease when commanded by authority. Behaviour that is unthinkable in an individual who is acting of his own volition may be executed without hesitation when carried out under orders. An act carried out under command is, psychologically, of a profoundly different character than spontaneous action.

The important task, from the standpoint of a psychological study of obedience, is to be able to take conceptions of authority and translate them into personal experience. It is one thing to talk in abstract terms about the respective rights of the individual and of authority; it is quite another to examine a moral choice in a real situation. We all know about the philosophic problems of freedom and authority. But in every case where the problem is not merely academic there is a real person who must obey or disobey authority. All musing prior to this moment is mere speculation, and all acts of disobedience are characterized by such a moment of decisive action.  

When we move to the laboratory, the problem narrows: if an experimenter tells a subject to act with increasing severity against another person, under what conditions will the subject comply, and under what conditions will he disobey? The laboratory problem is vivid, intense, and real. It is not something apart from life, but carries to an extreme and very logical conclusion certain trends inherent in the ordinary functioning of the social world. The question arises as to whether there is any connection between what we have studied in the laboratory and the forms of obedience we have so often deplored throughout history. The differences in the two situations are, of course, enormous, yet the difference in scale, numbers, and political context may be relatively unimportant as long as certain essential features are retained.  

To the degree that an absence of compulsion is present, obedience is coloured by a cooperative mood; to the degree that the threat of force or punishment against the person is intimated, obedience is compelled by fear. The major problem for the individual is to recapture control of his own regnant processes once he has committed them to the purposes of others. The difficulty this entails represents the poignant and in some degree tragic element in the situation, for nothing is bleaker than the sight of a person striving yet not fully able to control his own behaviour in a situation of consequence to him.  

The essence of obedience is the fact that a person comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out another‘s wishes, and he therefore no longer regards himself as culpable for his actions. Once this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred, all of the essential features of obedience—the adjustment of thought, the freedom to engage in cruel behaviour, and the types of justification experienced by the person (essentially similar whether they occur in a psychological laboratory or on the battlefield)—follow. The question of generality, therefore, is not resolved by enumerating all of the manifest differences between the psychological laboratory and other situations, but by carefully constructing a situation that captures the essence of obedience—a situation in which a person gives himself over to authority and no longer views himself as the cause of his own actions. 

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.In the context of the points being made by the author in the passage, the phrase ―absence of compulsion‖ (line 30) refers to: 

Solution:

¶1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldn‘t when so ordered by authority.
¶2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
¶3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
¶4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his own behaviour.
¶5 expands on the point in ¶4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.

Review the lines in context. The author argues that this ―absence of compulsion‖ goes hand in hand with a ―cooperative mood,‖ which suggests that the phrase means the person is obeying on their own free will. (B) says the same.

QUESTION: 12

The person who, with inner conviction, loathes stealing, killing, and assault, may find himself performing these acts with relative ease when commanded by authority. Behaviour that is unthinkable in an individual who is acting of his own volition may be executed without hesitation when carried out under orders. An act carried out under command is, psychologically, of a profoundly different character than spontaneous action.

The important task, from the standpoint of a psychological study of obedience, is to be able to take conceptions of authority and translate them into personal experience. It is one thing to talk in abstract terms about the respective rights of the individual and of authority; it is quite another to examine a moral choice in a real situation. We all know about the philosophic problems of freedom and authority. But in every case where the problem is not merely academic there is a real person who must obey or disobey authority. All musing prior to this moment is mere speculation, and all acts of disobedience are characterized by such a moment of decisive action.  

When we move to the laboratory, the problem narrows: if an experimenter tells a subject to act with increasing severity against another person, under what conditions will the subject comply, and under what conditions will he disobey? The laboratory problem is vivid, intense, and real. It is not something apart from life, but carries to an extreme and very logical conclusion certain trends inherent in the ordinary functioning of the social world. The question arises as to whether there is any connection between what we have studied in the laboratory and the forms of obedience we have so often deplored throughout history. The differences in the two situations are, of course, enormous, yet the difference in scale, numbers, and political context may be relatively unimportant as long as certain essential features are retained.  

To the degree that an absence of compulsion is present, obedience is coloured by a cooperative mood; to the degree that the threat of force or punishment against the person is intimated, obedience is compelled by fear. The major problem for the individual is to recapture control of his own regnant processes once he has committed them to the purposes of others. The difficulty this entails represents the poignant and in some degree tragic element in the situation, for nothing is bleaker than the sight of a person striving yet not fully able to control his own behaviour in a situation of consequence to him.  

The essence of obedience is the fact that a person comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out another‘s wishes, and he therefore no longer regards himself as culpable for his actions. Once this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred, all of the essential features of obedience—the adjustment of thought, the freedom to engage in cruel behaviour, and the types of justification experienced by the person (essentially similar whether they occur in a psychological laboratory or on the battlefield)—follow. The question of generality, therefore, is not resolved by enumerating all of the manifest differences between the psychological laboratory and other situations, but by carefully constructing a situation that captures the essence of obedience—a situation in which a person gives himself over to authority and no longer views himself as the cause of his own actions. 

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.Which of the following findings would serve to most WEAKEN the author‘s claim in the passage about obedience to authority?  

Solution:

¶1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldn‘t when so ordered by authority.
¶2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
¶3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
¶4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his own behaviour.
¶5 expands on the point in ¶4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.

What is the author‘s main argument about obedience? People do things they don‘t want to do because they feel compelled to by authority. Look for something that challenges this point: If (C) is true, the author‘s point about not wanting to do things, most clearly expressed in ¶1, makes no sense. If people have no strong ethical values, then bad actions wouldn't necessarily be against their will.

QUESTION: 13

As formal organizations, business corporations are distinguished by their particular goals, which include maximization of profits, growth, and survival. Providing goods and services is a means to this end. If, for example, a number of individuals (outsiders or even insiders) believe that a company‘s aggressive marketing of infant formula in third world countries is morally wrong, the company is unlikely to be moved by arguments based on ethos alone as long as what it is doing remains profitable. But if those opposed to the company‘s practice organize a highly effective boycott of the company‘s products, their moral views will soon enter into the company‘s deliberations indirectly as limiting operating conditions. They can, at this point, no more be ignored than a prohibitive increase in the costs of certain raw materials.  

Although the concepts and categories of ethics may be applied to the conduct of corporations, there are important differences between the values and principles underlying corporate behaviour and those underlying the actions of most individuals. If corporations are by their nature end- or goal-directed how can they acknowledge acts as wrong in and of themselves? Is it possible to hold one criminally responsible for acts that if performed by a human person would result in criminal liability?  

The first case of this type to achieve widespread public attention was the attempt to prosecute the Ford Motor Company for manslaughter as the result of alleged negligent or reckless decision making concerning the safety engineering of the Pinto vehicle. Although the defendant corporation and its officers were found innocent after trial, the case can serve as an exemplar for our purposes.  

In essence, the prosecution in this case attempted to show that the corporation had produced and distributed a vehicle that was known to be defective at the time of production and sale, and that even after a great deal of additional information accumulated regarding the nature of the problems, the corporation took no action to correct them. The obvious non-corporate analogy would be the prosecution of a person who was driving a car with brakes known to be faulty, who does not have them repaired because it would cost too much, and who kills someone when the brakes eventually fail and the car does not stop in time. Such cases involving individuals are prosecuted and won regularly.

If corporations have no concept of right or wrong because they are exclusively goal-directed, can they be convicted in cases of this type, and what purpose would be served by such a conviction? Perhaps we can make a utilitarian argument for convicting corporations of such crimes. The argument would be that of deterrence; conviction and punishment would deter other corporations from taking similar actions under similar circumstances. However, there appears to be considerable evidence that deterrence does not work on corporations, even if, arguably, it works on individuals. The possibility of being discovered and the potential magnitude of the fine merely become more data to be included in the analysis of limiting conditions.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q.A claim that things have ethical value to corporations only insofar as they are instrumental in furthering the ultimate goals of the corporation is:  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 discusses the goals and ethical limitations of corporations (3M example)
¶2 explains methods for making corporations respond to moral concerns.
¶3 contrasts the corporations with individuals and outlines some individual ethics.
¶4 asks if corporations can be held responsible for ethical crimes. ¶s5 and 6 describe a failed attempt to prosecute a corporation for such crimes (Pinto).
¶7 presents a possible argument in favour of prosecution: deterrence. Evidence shows no deterring effect on corporations, though.

The author argues that this is true, and gives an example in ¶s1 and 2. (C) and (D) can be eliminated. Does this argument have to necessarily be true? There‘s nothing in the argument to indicate that there could never be an exception. (B) is the only choice left standing.

QUESTION: 14

As formal organizations, business corporations are distinguished by their particular goals, which include maximization of profits, growth, and survival. Providing goods and services is a means to this end. If, for example, a number of individuals (outsiders or even insiders) believe that a company‘s aggressive marketing of infant formula in third world countries is morally wrong, the company is unlikely to be moved by arguments based on ethos alone as long as what it is doing remains profitable. But if those opposed to the company‘s practice organize a highly effective boycott of the company‘s products, their moral views will soon enter into the company‘s deliberations indirectly as limiting operating conditions. They can, at this point, no more be ignored than a prohibitive increase in the costs of certain raw materials.  

Although the concepts and categories of ethics may be applied to the conduct of corporations, there are important differences between the values and principles underlying corporate behaviour and those underlying the actions of most individuals. If corporations are by their nature end- or goal-directed how can they acknowledge acts as wrong in and of themselves? Is it possible to hold one criminally responsible for acts that if performed by a human person would result in criminal liability?  

The first case of this type to achieve widespread public attention was the attempt to prosecute the Ford Motor Company for manslaughter as the result of alleged negligent or reckless decision making concerning the safety engineering of the Pinto vehicle. Although the defendant corporation and its officers were found innocent after trial, the case can serve as an exemplar for our purposes.  

In essence, the prosecution in this case attempted to show that the corporation had produced and distributed a vehicle that was known to be defective at the time of production and sale, and that even after a great deal of additional information accumulated regarding the nature of the problems, the corporation took no action to correct them. The obvious non-corporate analogy would be the prosecution of a person who was driving a car with brakes known to be faulty, who does not have them repaired because it would cost too much, and who kills someone when the brakes eventually fail and the car does not stop in time. Such cases involving individuals are prosecuted and won regularly.

If corporations have no concept of right or wrong because they are exclusively goal-directed, can they be convicted in cases of this type, and what purpose would be served by such a conviction? Perhaps we can make a utilitarian argument for convicting corporations of such crimes. The argument would be that of deterrence; conviction and punishment would deter other corporations from taking similar actions under similar circumstances. However, there appears to be considerable evidence that deterrence does not work on corporations, even if, arguably, it works on individuals. The possibility of being discovered and the potential magnitude of the fine merely become more data to be included in the analysis of limiting conditions.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. If a company that produced shampoo products opted to stop the routine testing of its products on animals because it decided that it is wrong to cause the animals pain, what effect would this have on the argument made in the passage?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 discusses the goals and ethical limitations of corporations (3M example)
¶2 explains methods for making corporations respond to moral concerns.
¶3 contrasts the corporations with individuals and outlines some individual ethics.
¶4 asks if corporations can be held responsible for ethical crimes.
¶s5 and 6 describe a failed attempt to prosecute a corporation for such crimes (Pinto).
¶7 presents a possible argument in favour of prosecution: deterrence. Evidence shows no deterring effect on corporations, though.

A new situation: evaluate it in the context of the passage‘s broad themes. Where does a company that voluntarily gives up profit to spare animals from pain fit in the author‘s idea of corporations? It doesn‘t. It‘s an example of ethical concerns trumping economics, which the author claims doesn't happen. We‘re looking for an answer choice that somehow indicates weakening, and (D) alone fits this.

QUESTION: 15

As formal organizations, business corporations are distinguished by their particular goals, which include maximization of profits, growth, and survival. Providing goods and services is a means to this end. If, for example, a number of individuals (outsiders or even insiders) believe that a company‘s aggressive marketing of infant formula in third world countries is morally wrong, the company is unlikely to be moved by arguments based on ethos alone as long as what it is doing remains profitable. But if those opposed to the company‘s practice organize a highly effective boycott of the company‘s products, their moral views will soon enter into the company‘s deliberations indirectly as limiting operating conditions. They can, at this point, no more be ignored than a prohibitive increase in the costs of certain raw materials.  

Although the concepts and categories of ethics may be applied to the conduct of corporations, there are important differences between the values and principles underlying corporate behaviour and those underlying the actions of most individuals. If corporations are by their nature end- or goal-directed how can they acknowledge acts as wrong in and of themselves? Is it possible to hold one criminally responsible for acts that if performed by a human person would result in criminal liability?  

The first case of this type to achieve widespread public attention was the attempt to prosecute the Ford Motor Company for manslaughter as the result of alleged negligent or reckless decision making concerning the safety engineering of the Pinto vehicle. Although the defendant corporation and its officers were found innocent after trial, the case can serve as an exemplar for our purposes.  

In essence, the prosecution in this case attempted to show that the corporation had produced and distributed a vehicle that was known to be defective at the time of production and sale, and that even after a great deal of additional information accumulated regarding the nature of the problems, the corporation took no action to correct them. The obvious non-corporate analogy would be the prosecution of a person who was driving a car with brakes known to be faulty, who does not have them repaired because it would cost too much, and who kills someone when the brakes eventually fail and the car does not stop in time. Such cases involving individuals are prosecuted and won regularly.

If corporations have no concept of right or wrong because they are exclusively goal-directed, can they be convicted in cases of this type, and what purpose would be served by such a conviction? Perhaps we can make a utilitarian argument for convicting corporations of such crimes. The argument would be that of deterrence; conviction and punishment would deter other corporations from taking similar actions under similar circumstances. However, there appears to be considerable evidence that deterrence does not work on corporations, even if, arguably, it works on individuals. The possibility of being discovered and the potential magnitude of the fine merely become more data to be included in the analysis of limiting conditions.  

Directions: Read the above paragraph and answer the following:

Q. Which of the following assertions would most strengthen the author‘s claim that deterrence will not work on corporations?  

Solution:

Mapping the Passage
¶1 discusses the goals and ethical limitations of corporations (3M example)
¶2 explains methods for making corporations respond to moral concerns.
¶3 contrasts the corporations with individuals and outlines some individual ethics.
¶4 asks if corporations can be held responsible for ethical crimes.
¶s5 and 6 describe a failed attempt to prosecute a corporation for such crimes (Pinto).
¶7 presents a possible argument in favour of prosecution: deterrence. Evidence shows
no deterring effect on corporations, though.

A strengthen question. Quickly paraphrase the author‘s reasons for claiming (in the last paragraph) that deterrence won‘t work: companies will just treat it as an economic consideration like any other. Search for a choice that reflects this. Only (B) has to do with economics! Further, it reinforces the idea that companies will shrug off potential penalties that have little economic consequence.

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