Test: History - 1

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'Banabhatta' was the court poet of which emperor?


Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years 606-647CE in north India. Bana's principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of the world's earliest novels, Kadambari. The other works ttributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya.


The first Indian ruler, who established the supremacy of Indian Navy in the Arabian Sea was


Rajaraja Chola I created a powerful standing army and a considerable navy, which achieved even greater success under his son Rajendra Chola I. One of the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest of the 'old islands of the sea numbering 12,000', the Maldives. Chola Navy also had played a major role in the invasion of Lanka.


The Saka era commencing from A.D. 78, was founded by -


The date of Kanishka's accession is disputed, ranging from 78 to 248. The generally accepted date of 78 is also the basis for an era presumably started by the akas and used in addition to the Gregorian calenr by the present-day Indian government Gandhara School of art is mainly related tona Buddhism which encouraged image wor.


Ganhadra school of art came into existence in -


Theahaya hip. The Kushan kings, particularly Kanishka, encouraged the Gandhara artists. The Gandhara scul ptures have been found in the ruins of Taxila and in various ancient sites in Afghanistan and in West Pakistan. They consist mostly of the images of the Buda and relief sculptures presenting scenes from Buddhist texts. A number of Bodhisattva figures were carved out. A figure of Gandhara shows the first sermon in the deer park and the death of the Buddha. In all these figures there is a realistic treatment of the body although it is draped. In these sculptures theres a tendency to mould the human body in a realisti manner paying great attention to accuracy and physical details particularly in the presentation of muscles, moustaches, etc. Also the representation of the thick bold fold lines forms a distinct characteristic Thus the Gandhara sculptures offer a striking contrast to what has been discovered elsewhere in India.


With whom is 'Junagarh Rock Inscription' associated?


The Junagadh rock inscription, found in Junagadh was carved under the orders of King Rudradaman who had obtained the title of Mahakshatrapa. He was the grandson of the famous Mahakshatrapa Chastana and was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapa dynasty. The inscription is a chronicle about the rebuilding of a dam named Urjayat around the lake Sudarshana. The dam lay in the region of Saurashtra and the closest town appears to have been a place called Girinagar. It was fed by the rivers Suvarnasikata and Palasini, along with other smaller streams. The dam was originally built by Vaishya Pushyagupta who was the governor of the region under Chandragupta Maurya. Conduits from the dam were later built under orders of his grandson; Emperor Asoka.


Nalanda University was a great center of learning, especially in -


Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta-I or Kumara Gupta-II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.


The language used to write source materials in ancient time was -


Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakrit group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. T. W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects if North India.


India's trade with the Roman Empire came to an end with the invasion of Rome by the -


Roman trade with India started around the beginning of the Common Era following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt. Following the Roman Persian Wars Khosrow, I of the Persian Sassanian Dynasty captured the areas under the Roman-Byzan tine empire. The Arabs, led by Amr ibn al-'As, crossed into Egypt in late 639 or early 640 C.E. That advance marked the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt and the fall of ports such as Alexandria, used to secure trade with India by the Greco Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty. The decline in trade saw Southern India turn to Southeast Asia for international trade where it influenced the native culture to a greater degree than the impressions made on Rome. The Hunas invaded the Roman Empire under Attila the Hun in 454 C.E.


The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of -


The Indus Valley Civilization, marked by its remarkable level of urbanization despite being a Bronze Age culture, is noted for its cities built of brick, road side drainage system, and multistoried houses. Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard, with
windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom.


Who started the Saka Era and when?


Most of what is known about Kanishka derives from Chinese sources, particularly Buddhist writings When Kanishka came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between his reigns is believed to have lasted 23 years. The year 78 marks the beginning of the Saka era, a system of dating that Kanishka might have initiated.


Worship of Mother Goddess was associated with -


In view of the large number of figurines found in the Indus valley, some scholars believe that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility, a common practice among rural Hindus even today.


Alexander and Porus fought a battle at


The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Hydaspes River (Uhelum River) in the Punjab near Bherain what is now modern-day Pakistan. The battle resulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab, which lay beyond the confines of the defeated Persian Empire, into the Alexandrian Empire. The battle is historically significant foropening up India for Greek political (Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) which was to continue for many centuries.


Mahabalipuram is an important city that reveals the interest in arts of -


Mahabalipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was
wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Lord Mahavira died at -


Pawapuri is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in Bihar. Around 500 BC, Lord Mahavira, the last of the 24 Tirthankaras achieved Moksha or Nirvana. He was cremated at Pawapuri, also known as Apapuri (the sinless town).


The gold coins were introduced first in India by -


The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sens that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of numerous coins, and they help in the reconstruction the history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi.


Which of the following dynasties conquered Sri Lanka and South East Asian countries?


The Chola navy played a vital role in the expan of the Chola Empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon islands and Sri Vijaya (present day Indonsia), the spread of Hinduism, Dravidian architecture and Dravidian culture to Southeast Asia and in curbing the piracy in Southeast Asia in the 900 CE. Inscriptions and historical sources assert that the Medieval Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent a naval expetion to Indo-China, the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian archipelago in 1025 in order to subdue the Srivijaya Empire.


The most distinguished ruler of the Chalukyan dynasty was -


Pulakesin-II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Bad ami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan. Pulikeshi-II routed the Pallava king Mahendra varman-I in the battle of
Pullalur. In a decisive battle fought on the banks of the river Narmada, Pulakesin defeated Harshavardhana.


"Harsha Charita" was written by -


The Harshacharita is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. Hewas the 'Asthana Kavi', meaning 'Court Poet', of King Harsha.


Tripitaka' is the religious book of -


Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon. As the name suggests a Tripitaka traditionally contains three "baskets" of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka, a Vinaya Pitaka and an Abhidharma Pitaka.


Which of the following materials was mainly used in the manufacture of Harappan seals?


Seals are an impressive part of surviving art of Harappan culture. Of these the great majority has animals engraved on them and a short inscription They are mainly made of terracotta which is a type of earthenware, or clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic where the fired body is porous.

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