Urinary bladder helps to :
The urine formed by filtration of blood by kidney is stored in urinary bladder temporarily. Urinary bladder helps to void urine when disered.
Counter current mechanism :
i. It operates in all vertebrates.
ii. It produces hypertonic urine.
Counter current mechanism operates in mammals but not in all vertebrates. Due to counter current mechanism it produces hypertonic urine, highly concentrated.
Diabetes insipidus is caused due to :
Diabetes insipidus is rate variety of diabetes characterized by excessive thrust and excretion of large amount of urine. It is caused due to reduced secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin hormone.
The part of a nephron which adds some material to the filtrate is :
Each nephron consists Bowman’s cup, tubules and loops of Henle’s. filtration of blood occurs in glomerulus cells present in Bowman’s cup. Some materials are added to initial filtrate in distal convoluted tubule.
Read the following statements about urine formation :
i. ultrafiltration doesn’t need any energy expenditure by kidney cells.
ii. selective reabsorption of glucose, water, urea, hormones, amino acids etc takes place through passive transport.
iii. PCT cells have many microvilli along with few mitochondria since most of nutrients are absorbed passively.
During urine formation, ultra filtration takes place in which energy is not required by cells of kidney. Selective reabsorption of glucose , water, salt etc. occurs actively and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) do not have microvilli.
Rahul is anaemic and few days ago suffered from massive haemorrhage. Now what problems he may face :
If anemic person suffered from massive haemorrhage, the problem he may face includes, very low blood pressure, accumulation of wastes products in body and no glomerular filtration in kidney.
In which part of nephron, reabsorption of glucose is maximum from filtrate?
Sodium reabsorption occurs through tubular reabsorption in proximal and distal convoluted tubules only. The proximal convoluted tubule is involved in active reabsorption of sodium into the peritubular capillary network and passive flow of water flows. It accounts for 67% of sodium reabsorption. DCT reabsorption of sodium is also an active process but is under hormonal regulation i.e., conditional response.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D.
If in glomerular capillaries, pressure of blood is 75 mm Hg, osmotic pressure of plasma proteins is 30 mm Hg, and hydrostatic pressure of fluid in renal tubule is 25 mm Hg then net force or the filtration pressure will be calculated as :
Net force of filtration pressure is equal to the blood pressure of glomerular capillaries minus sum of the osmotic pressure of plasma and hydrostatic pressure of fluid in renal tubule. So, filtration pressure = 75 – [ 30 + 20 ] mm Hg.
Reema is on dialysis and she is unable to conceive due to high levels of waste products in her body fluids. Her doctor can suggest her
When both and kidney of a person get damaged and not able to filter the blood, dialysis is used to remove nitrogenous wastes. High wastes accumulation unable a woman to conceive. The ultimate solution to this problem is kidney transplant.
Vasa recta is absent or reduced in:
Vasa recta is absent or highly reduced in cortical nephrons.
The hormone with enzymatic action which catalyses conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin is :
A fall in glomerular blood flow/glomerular blood pressure/GFR can activate the JG cells to releasereninwhich converts angiotensinogen in blood to angiotensin I and further to angiotensin II.
People with chronic kidney disease are usually affected by anemia. It happens because damaged kidney doesn’t secrete sufficient :
The person suffering from chronic kidney disease are usually affected by anemia. The damage kidney is not able to secrete sufficient erythropoietin in blood that help in absorption of iron.
Towards the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney is a notchcalled:
Towards the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney is a notch called hilum through which ureter, blood vessels and nerves enter.
Vasopressin is a hormone involved in regulation of urine formation. It is secreted from :
An excessive loss of fluid from the body can activate these receptors which stimulate the hypothalamus to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin from the neurohypophysis.
Match the kidney disorders and its symptoms :
Ketosis is the presence of actoacetic acid in urine, polydipsia is the condition of frequent thrist, alkaptonuria is the presence of homogentisic acid in urine and haematuria is the presence of blood in urine.
Which blood vessel takes blood away from the kidney?
The renal vein takes blood away from the kidney. The process starts with renal artery which enters the kidney as afferent arteriole. It carries the urea loaded blood into the glomerulus of the kidney. The blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule and runs parallel to the loop of Henle. The urea is absorbed into the nephric filtrate by the process of tubular secretion in the loop of Henle, distal convulated tubule and collecting duct. The process of tubular secretion helps to secrete the urea from the blood to the collecting duct which is finally excreted in form of urine. The purified blood comes from the kidney through the renal vein and drained into vena cava outside kidney.
So, the correct answer is 'Renal vein'.
The basic functional unit of human kidney is
Dev consumes large amount of alcohol and result is polyuria and dehydration due to :
A person consuming large quantity of alcohol may develop polyuria, excessive production of urea and suffer from dehydration due to decrease in level of antiduretic hormone or vasopressin.
In human excretory system :
i. kidneys and ureters are paired structures but urinary bladder is single.
ii. Kidneys are situated between the levels of last thoracic and third lumbar vertebra.
The excretory system in human consistsof a pair of kidneys, one pair of ureters, aurinary bladder and a urethra. Kidneys are reddish brown, bean shaped structures situated between the levels of last thoracic and third lumbarvertebra close to the dorsal inner wall of the abdominal cavity.
Read the following about renal threshold :
i. The renal threshold of glucose is 180 mg/100ml of blood.
ii. If blood level of glucose exceeds 180mg, it leads to diabetes insipidus.
iii. If blood level of glucose exceeds 180mg, it leads to diabetes mellitus.
The renal threshold is the state when glucose is present in urine. The renal threshold of glucose is 180 mg/100 ml of blood. If blood glucose level exceeds 180 mg, it leads to diabetes insipidus.