Test: Class 12 Economics: CBSE Sample Question Papers- Term I (2021-22)


60 Questions MCQ Test Sample Papers for Class 12 Commerce | Test: Class 12 Economics: CBSE Sample Question Papers- Term I (2021-22)


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Attempt Test: Class 12 Economics: CBSE Sample Question Papers- Term I (2021-22) | 60 questions in 90 minutes | Mock test for Class 12 preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Sample Papers for Class 12 Commerce for Class 12 Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

The Government can achieve its budget objective of ‘Redistribution of Income’ by____________.

Solution:

The government’s objective of ‘redistribution of income’ can be achieved by levying high rate of tax on the rich and making expenditure of that amount for the welfare of the poor. Thus, rationalization of taxes or targeting those people who are poor.

QUESTION: 2

Balance of Payments of an economy records_____________ for a fiscal year.

Solution:

Balance of payment of an economy records exports and imports of goods and services, unrequited transfers and capital transfers received and paid. Thus, by making transactions of these, foreign exchange is received and paid. Thus, inflow and outflow of foreign exchange to/from the economy takes place in balance of payment.

QUESTION: 3

Identify which of the following bank does not interact directly with the general public?

Solution:

Reserve bank of India does not interact directly with the public. As Central bank deals with commercial banks and commercial banks deal with the public. Deposits are made by public with the commercial banks and central bank deal with commercial banks in controlling money supply and credit through various instruments or policies.

QUESTION: 4

Identify which of the following is not an example of ‘invisible item’ under Current Account of the Balance of Payments transactions:

Solution:

All the three options (a), (b) and (c) are invisible items under current account of the balance of payment transaction. But merchandise linked transactions are the goods exported or imported which is a part of visible items.

QUESTION: 5

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternative from the following:
Statement 1: Demonetization was the step taken by the Government of India in order to tackle the problems of corruption, black money, terrorism and circulation of fake currency in the Indian Economy.
Statement 2: Demonetization has ensured improved tax compliance in India over the period of time.

Solution:

Demonetization means taking away notes or coin from its status as legal tender. Both the statements are true as demonetization is a step taken by the government to deal with the problem of corruption, black money, terrorism and circulation of fake currency in the Indian economy. Also, it has improved tax compliance over a period of time.

QUESTION: 6

Ms. Sakshi, an economics teacher, was explaining the concept of ‘minimum percentage of the total deposits to be kept by any commercial bank with the Central Bank of the country, as per norms and statute prevailing in the country’.
From the following, choose the correct alternative which specifies towards the concept explained by her?

Solution:

Ms. Sakshi, an economics teacher explained the concept of ‘cash reserve ratio’ by saying that minimum percentage of the total deposits (net demand and time deposits) which is kept by any commercial bank with the central bank. Because through Cash reserve ratio, Central bank is able to control the money supply.

QUESTION: 7

Two friends Mira and Sindhu were discussing the exchange rate systems. ‘Under this system, the exchange rates are determined by the market forces of demand and supply. However, deliberate efforts are made by the competent authority to keep the exchange rates within a specific range’.
The above-mentioned statement was given by Sindhu, identify the type of exchange rate system was she talking about?

Solution:

The type of exchange rate that Sindhu is talking about is ‘Managed floating exchange rate’. In this type of exchange rate, with the help of market forces of demand and supply, exchange rate is determined. And competent authority, i.e., country’s central bank intervenes so as to maintain the exchange rate within a specific range. Central bank also keeps reserves of foreign exchange within the targeted value. Managed floating exchange rate is also called as ‘Dirty floating’.

QUESTION: 8

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternative from the following:
Statement 1: Public goods are those goods and services that are collectively consumed by the public.
Statement 2: Public goods are excludable and rivalrous in nature.

Solution:

Public goods are those goods which are collectively consumed by the public. The given statement 1 is true. For example, air.  But the statement 2 is false as public goods are non-excludable and non-rival in nature. Taking the example of air, no one can be excluded from consuming it and also if one group of people consumes the public good, here, air then the consumption of air for other people do not fall. 

QUESTION: 9

Under the Balance of Payments structure of a nation, the two main categories of accounts for the classification of the transactions are ________ and ________.  
i. current account
ii. unilateral transfer account
iii. capital account
iv. loan account
Identify the correct alternatives from the following:

Solution:

Balance of payment of a country comprises of two accounts: (a) Current account, and (b) Capital account. Current account records transactions related to export and import of goods and services, unilateral transfers received and paid to and from rest of the world and capital account records transactions related to Borrowings and loans given, Investment made to and from rest of the world, and change in foreign exchange reserves.

QUESTION: 10

Identify which of the following is not a function of the Reserve Bank of India?

Solution:

RBI, i.e. central bank of India performs various functions such as banker to the government of India, custodian of gold reserve of India, financial advisor to government of India, also act as banker to commercial banks. But RBI does not perform the function of issue of coins and one-rupee notes. This function of issue of onerupee notes and coins is performed by ministry of finance. 

QUESTION: 11

Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1956 formed the basis of the_________ Five Year Plan.

Solution:

Industrial policy Resolution (IPR), 1956 was introduced in second five-year plan. It covered various issues related to the industrial enterprises of the country. In this, industries were divided into three types: Schedule A, Schedule B and Schedule C. 

QUESTION: 12

Occupational structure refers to___________.

Solution:

Occupational structure can be defined as distribution of workforce among various different sectors of the economy such as primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.

QUESTION: 13

_____________ is the portion of agricultural produce which is sold in the market by the farmers, after meeting their self-consumption requirements.

Solution:

Due to green revolution, ‘marketable surplus’ could be generated. Marketable surplus can be defined as that portion of agricultural produce which farmers sell in the market after fulfilling their selfconsumption requirements.

QUESTION: 14

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternatives given below:
Statement 1 : Poverty line in India is defined in terms of monetary value of the minimum nutritional (calorific) requirements of an individual in a day.
Statement 2 : The definition of poverty line in monetary terms has not changed over the years.

Solution:

Poverty line in India can be defined as the minimum nutritional requirements of an individual in a day measured in monetary value. Also, the statement 2 is false because the definition of poverty line in monetary terms has changed over the years.

QUESTION: 15

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternatives given below:
Statement 1: India is often called as the ‘outsourcing hub’ of the world.
Statement 2: Availability of skilled manpower is one of the prime factors responsible for the status gained by India at the international platform.

Solution:

Human capital implies skills, expertise, knowledge acquired by human resource by making expenditure on education, health and other factors. Because of skilled manpower in India, it has become ‘outsourcing hub’ of the world. India’s population converted into human capital is an important factor which is responsible for the status India has gained at the international platform.

QUESTION: 16

Before the advent of Green Revolution in 1960’s, India was primarily dependent on _________for the supply of food grains.

Solution:

Before the green revolution in 1967-68, India was not self-sufficient in foodgrains. India was heavily dependent on USA (United States of America) for the supply of foodgrains. But after green revolution, it led to rise in production of foodgrains by a larger amount.

QUESTION: 17

From the following given sets of statements in column I and II, choose the correct pair of statements.

Solution:

The correct pair of statement is (D). As portfolio investment and foreign institutional investment are same concepts. It means while purchasing an asset, owner does not have any direct control. For example, purchase of bonds and shares does not give management control to the owner but only ownership control.

QUESTION: 18

National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) was set up in 1982 as a/ the_________body to coordinate the activities of all institutions involved in the rural financing system.

Solution:

NABARD is an apex body or organisation which helps in promoting the strength of various credit institutions, like, cooperatives, commercial banks and regional rural banks. Also, it provides financial help to the non-farm sector.

QUESTION: 19

The Government of India has decided to vaccinate the adult population of India (with Covaxin/ Covishield), without any charge. This would be categorized as ____________.

Solution:

Vaccinating the adult population of the country with Covaxin /Covishield without any charge would mean that this type of expenditure by government is neither creating any asset nor causing any fall in liability. Hence, it is categorized as revenue nature expenditure.

QUESTION: 20

____________ is not a reason for poverty in India. 

Solution:

Poverty in India arises due to various reasons such as population explosion, low capital formation, higher unemployment, inequalities in income, etc. But ‘rise in per capita GDP’ is not the reason for poverty in India. Rather, it reduces poverty.

QUESTION: 21

In a hypothetical economy, Mr. Neeraj has deposited ₹100 in the bank. If it is assumed that there is no other currency circulation in the economy, then the total money supply in the economy will be ________________.

Solution:

If money deposited in the bank is `100, and no other money is circulating in the economy, then the total money supply in the economy is ₹100 because money supply can be defined as total stock of money available in the economy at a given point of time in the form of currency and demand deposits.

QUESTION: 22

‘Since independence, India has witnessed a considerable fall in the Infant Mortality Rate in India’ Identify which of the following may not be one of the reasons for the fall in the Infant Mortality Rate?

Solution:

Infant mortality rate can be defined as number of deaths per 1000 live births of children below one year of age in a year. All these reasons, improvement in health facilities, improvement in educational standards, and technological expansion over the years can lead to fall in infant mortality rate but option (c) fall in standard of living of people increases the infant mortality rate.

QUESTION: 23

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternatives given below:
Statement 1: Subsidies do not add any burden on the financial health of a nation.
Statement 2: Complete removal of subsidies may violate the aim of equitable distribution of income.

Solution:

Subsidies are given to the farmers so that they get inputs at prices which are lesser than the market price. As the statement 1 is false, subsidies do add burden on the financial health of a nation. If with the help of subsidies, government tries to remove the gap between rich and poor, hence aim of equitable distribution of income may be violated if subsidies is removed.

QUESTION: 24

Prior to India’s independence, the stagnation in the agricultural sector was mainly caused by ___________.

Solution:

Before India’s independence, the agricultural sector stagnated due to mainly land settlement system. Various land revenue systems such as Zamindari system, Ryotwari system and Mahalwari system exploited cultivators, or farmers very badly which led to decline in agriculture sector.

QUESTION: 25

_________ accepts deposits from the public and lend out this money to interest earning investment projects.

Solution:

When a commercial bank receives deposits, it keeps a part of it with the Central bank and a part with itself. These are called legal reserves. The money lent comes back to it as deposits. Again it keeps a part of it with the central bank and a part with itself and lends the rest. This process continues. In this way bank gives loans which is many a times the original deposit.

QUESTION: 26

Agriculture sector appears to be _________ affected by the economic reform process.

Solution:

Public investment in agriculture sector especially in infrastructure like irrigation, power, etc. has been reduced in the reform period.

QUESTION: 27

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Assertion (A): In rural India, horticulture plays a vital role in providing food and nutrition to the rural population.
Reason (R): Various horticultural activities in Indian villages have improved the economic conditions of many farmers. Such activities have become a lucrative source of livelihood for many people in rural India.

Solution:

Horticulture plays an important role in providing employment opportunities. It has become a sustainable livelihood option for farmers thereby improving their economic condition.

QUESTION: 28

The objective of government budget is to achieve _________.

Solution:

The objective of government budget is maintaining economic stability in the economy. During inflation, government should reduce its expenditure and increase tax rate and during deflation, it should its expenditure and reduce tax rate.

QUESTION: 29

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and reason (R):
Assertion (A): Import substitution leads to saving of foreign exchange.
Reason (R): Import substitution leads the goods to be produced in the country itself. 

Solution:

Import substitution leads to restricting imported foreign goods but producing those goods in the domestic country. Import substitution helps in saving foreign exchange in the country by importing less through restrictions like tariffs and quotas.

QUESTION: 30

Which of the following should not be included in the balance of payments account?

Solution:

Bonus shares to equity shareholders does not involve provision of new resources and no transaction is recorded.

QUESTION: 31

Read the following statements carefully and choose the correct alternative:
Statement 1: Payment of salaries and interest is a revenue expenditure.
Statement 2: Revenue expenditure can be defined as the expenditure which leads to neither creation of asset nor reduction in liability of the government. 

Solution:

Revenue expenditure like salaries, pensions, interest, etc. is a revenue expenditure because it leads to neither creation of asset nor reduces liability.

QUESTION: 32

Aid provided by a country to another country will come in which of the following accounts of the second country?

Solution:

The current account represents a country’s imports and exports of goods and services, payments made to foreign investors, and transfers such as foreign aid.

QUESTION: 33

Which of the following is the false regarding the positive contribution by the British rule?

Solution:

Britain maintained a monopoly control over India’s exports and imports. As a result, more than half of India’s foreign trade was restricted to Britain while the rest was allowed with a few other countries like China, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Persia (Iran).

QUESTION: 34

Agriculture sector was stagnating or backward due to:
(i) Modernisation
(ii) High economic growth
(iii) Low productivity
(iv) Low investment

Solution:

During British rule, agriculture sector was stagnating and backward due to investment was very low and productivity in agriculture output was also falling.

QUESTION: 35

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Assertion (A): It is essential to develop proper storage facilities in rural areas.
Reason (R): Farmers can wait for better prices for their products in the market.

Solution:

Farmers are forced to sell their crops at very low prices to traders because of the fear of getting damage from fire, rodents or pests due to lack of proper storage facilities.

QUESTION: 36

_________ is an example of capital receipt.

Solution:

Borrowings is a capital receipt as it creates a liability.

QUESTION: 37

Arrange the following events in the correct chronological order:
(i) ‘Expert group’ was formed.
(ii) ‘Study group’ was formed by Planning Commission.
(iii) ‘Jail cost of living’ criteria used by Dadabhai Naoroji to estimate poverty line.
(iv) Task force on projection of minimum needs and effective consumption demand was formed.

Solution:

Expert group was formed. – 1989
Study group was formed by Planning Commission – 1962
‘Jail cost of living’ criteria by Dadabhai Naoroji to reduce poverty – Preindependent India
Taskforce on Projection of minimum needs and effective consumption demand was formed – 1979

QUESTION: 38

What is the term used for the policy, which promote setting up an upper limit of the land that could be owned by a landowner?

Solution:

Land Ceiling means fixing the maximum size of land which could be owned by an individual. The purpose of land ceiling was to reduce the concentration of land ownership in a few hands.

QUESTION: 39

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and for Reason (R) :
Assertion (A): India became an exporter of primary products and an importer of finished consumer and capital goods produced in Britain.
Reason (R): Restrictive policies of commodity production, trade and tariff pursued by the colonial government adversely affected the structure, composition and volume of India’s foreign trade.

Solution:

Britain exploited India by making India an exporter of primary products like raw silk, cotton etc and importer of finished goods like cotton and woollen clothes.

QUESTION: 40

Choose the correct statement from the following:

Solution:

Poverty alleviation programmes were criticized on the basis that there was unequal distribution of assets and benefits of poverty alleviation programmes have made non-poor more rich and poor more vulnerable.

QUESTION: 41

Human development is a _________ of human welfare.

Solution:

HDI was developed to track as a development indicator of human welfare.

QUESTION: 42

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Assertion (A): India adopted the import substitution policy during the first seven Five-year plans precisely.
Reason (R): Import substitution was to substitute the imports of our economy with domestic production.

Solution:

India adopted import substitution policy during the first seven Five-year plans precisely to protect domestic industries.

QUESTION: 43

When there is investment in education and health, then it leads to _________ in national income of a country and hence _________ in economic growth.

Solution:

Investment made in education and heath leads to investment in human capital which leads to improvement in production and productive capacity, leads to innovation and improvement in technology. Thus, it leads to rise in national income and hence increase in economic growth.

QUESTION: 44

Which of the following doesn’t highlight the status of industrial sector during the colonial period?

Solution:

The restrictive policies of commodity production, trade and tariff pursued by the colonial government adversely affected the structure, composition and volume of India’s foreign trade.

QUESTION: 45

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Assertion (A): Current account is a part of Balance of Trade.
Reason (R): Current account records exports and imports of goods and services and transfer payments.

Solution:

Balance of Trade is a part of current account.
Balance on Current Account =Trade balance + Invisibles balance

QUESTION: 46

Operation flood is related to _________ revolution.

Solution:

Operation flood is related to White Revolution. It increased production of milk in the country and also increased employment for the poor farmers.

QUESTION: 47

Choose the correct alternative given below for the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Assertion (A): In cottage industries, machines are not used whereas these are used in small sector.
Reason (R): Cottage industries are smaller industries than the small sector industries. 

Solution:

Cottage industries are industries whose labour force consists of family units or individuals working at home with their own equipment.

QUESTION: 48


Which type of poor has been represented by the above diagram?

Solution:

The occasionally poor are those who are rich most of the time but may sometimes have a patch of bad luck.

QUESTION: 49

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. The agricultural financial institutions should be _________.

Solution:
QUESTION: 50

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. Choose the correct alternative given below from the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R)
Assertion (A): The interest rate on loans should be low and it should be different for different uses.
Reason (R): High interest rate and large amount of mortgage as security makes it difficult for farmers to borrow loans.

Solution:
QUESTION: 51

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. The conditions of loans and their repayment needs to be _________.

Solution:

The conditions of loans and their repayment should be different so that it can suit different circumstances.

QUESTION: 52

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. Read the following statements and select the correct alternative from the following:
Statement 1: The financial institutes need to have trained staff and devoted personnel.
Statement 2: There should be full knowledge of agriculture with the financial institutes.

Solution:

The financial institutes need to have adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions and persons should have full knowledge of agriculture.

QUESTION: 53

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. Which among the following are the institutional sources of finance for agriculture?

Solution:

Institutional sources are those credit sources that are formal and involves the formalities of providing or proving the means to pay back the loan.

QUESTION: 54

Agriculture in India has not reached its total potential. It is observed that the following measures can be undertaken to reach the maximum potential of the agricultural production:
(I) The supply of finance should be fully institutionalised and dependence on private sources for credit should be eliminated.
(II) The interest rate should be low in general. The banks should charge different rates for different uses.
(III)The basis of credit should not be mortgage of any security. Production or productivity of land should be the basis for the approval of loans.
(IV)The conditions of repayment of loans should be different so as to suit different circumstances.
(V) It should be ensured that finance is used for production. Loans can be given in the form of goods like seeds, fertilisers, etc.
(VI)There should be adequately trained and devoted personnel to manage the financial institutions. The persons should have full knowledge of agriculture and interest of farmers. The person should be able to guide the farmers on how to use the loan systematically.

Q. Choose the correct alternatives given below from the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R):
Statement 1: As compared to demand for rural credit, the volume of rural credit in the country is not sufficient.
Statement 2: Institutional sources are not able to provide adequate credit to the all rural farmers of the country.

Solution:

The development of co-operative credit institutions like Primary agricultural credit societies, land development banks, commercial banks and regional rural banks, have failed to cover the entire rural farmers of the country.

QUESTION: 55

Q. Choose the correct alternative given below from the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R)
Assertion (A): The share of agriculture sector to GDP has fallen from 1950-51 (59%) to 1990-91 (34.9%).
Reason (R): The agriculture sector accounts for the largest share of workforce.

Solution:

The share of agriculture sector to GDP has fallen from 1950 to 1991 because industrial sector became well diversified by 1990, largely due to the public sector.

QUESTION: 56

Q. The market value of all the final goods and services produced in the country during a period of one year is called as:

Solution:

Gross domestic product (GDP) measures the economic growth of a country. It measures the market value of all final goods and services produced in the country during a period of one year.

QUESTION: 57

Q. As the table shows, share to GDP in 1990 of service sector has increased. What does this statement imply?

Solution:

Increased share of service sector to GDP shows that the economy is developing economically.

QUESTION: 58

Q. Read the following statements and select the correct alternative from the following:
Statement 1: The share of industrial sector to GDP has risen over the years.
Statement 2: The share of service sector to GDP has risen over the years.

Solution:

The sectoral contribution of industrial sector to GDP has risen from 13.0% to 24.6% and by service sector has risen from 28.0% to 40.5%.

QUESTION: 59

Q. All the three sectors, i.e. agriculture, industry and service sectors are _________ on each other.

Solution:

All the three sectors i.e., agriculture, industry and service sector are interdependent on each other. All that is produced in the primary sector is if no use until it undergoes a change into finished product which is also not possible without transportation.

QUESTION: 60

Q. Contribution of service sector has increased due to:

Solution:

Contribution of service sector to GDP has increased due to Globalisation as many of the services such as voice-based business processes (popularly known as BPO or call centres), record keeping, accountancy, banking services, music recording, film editing, book transcription, clinical advice or even teaching are being outsourced by companies in developed countries to India.

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