Khosla's theory of independent variables is used in the design of
Canal modules help in
A canal outlet or a module is a small structure built at the head of the watercourse so as to connect it with a minor or a distributary channel.
Canal outlets are also called
A good irrigation module is the one, which
A good irrigation module should fit well to the decided principles of water distribution. It should be simple and cheap. It should draw its fair share of silt.
The rate of change of discharge through an irrigation outlet becomes equal to the rate of change of water depth in the channel, when its.
Sensitivity is defined as the ratio of the rate of change of discharge through the outlet to the rate of change of water level of the distributary, referred to the normal depth of the channel.
A fully modular canal outlet has its
Rigid modules or modular outlets are those through which the discharge is constant and fixed within limits irrespective of the fluctuations of the water levels of either the distributary or of the water course or of both .
∴ sensitivity = 0, and flexibility = 0.
An irrigation outlet is said to be proportional, when its
The outlet is said to be proportional when the rate of change of outlet discharge equals the rate of change of channel discharge.
∴ outlet is, 'proportional' when flexibility’ equals unity.
A free pipe outlet is a
Pipe outlet discharging freely into the atmosphere is the simplest and the oldest type of a flexible outlet. The discharge through such an outlet will depend only upon the water level of the distributary, and will be independent of the water level of the watercourse.
For a specified weir foundation geometry and applied head, the pressure distribution on the base of the impervious floor of a weir is
When seepage takes place below a horizontal floor without any sheet piles, the streamlines are