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QUESTION: 1

The cause of turbulence in fluid flow may be

Solution:

QUESTION: 2

In a turbulent flow in a pipe, the shear stress is

Solution:

In turbulent flow shear stress

τ = τ_{0} (1 - y/r_{0})

where,

r_{0} = Radius of pipe

y = Distance measured from pipe wall

_{ζ0} = Shear stress at boundary

QUESTION: 3

In the case of turbulent flows in circular pipes, the maximum velocity u_{m} and the mean velocity V are related as (u_{m} - V)lu =

Solution:

Turbulent flow

For smooth pipe,

Average velocity,

g_{0} = radius of pipe

y = distance measured from pipe boundary

u = shear velocity

from equation (i)

(iii) - (ii) gives

(b) Rough pipe

It gives,

same for both pipes rough or smooth

QUESTION: 4

The distance from pipe boundary, at which the turbulent shear stress is one-third the wall shear stress, is

Solution:

In turbulent flow shear stress at distance y from pipe boundary,

QUESTION: 5

A flow in which the quantity of liquid flowing per second is not constant, is called

Solution:

A fluid motion is said to be turbulent when the fluid particles move in an entirely haphazard or disorderly manner, that results in a rapid and continuous mixing of the fluid leading to momentum transfer as flow occurs. At any point in a turbulent flow the velocity and pressure are the functions of time thereby rendering such a flow as unsteady.

QUESTION: 6

Which of following conditions would entail a greater energy dissipation in turbulent flow?

1. Smaller eddy size

2. Lower viscosity

3. Large intensity ofturbulence

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

Solution:

QUESTION: 7

Match List-I (Nature of flow) with List-II (Friction factor equation) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List- I

1.Turbulent flow with rough boundary

2. Turbulent flow with smooth boundary

3. Turbulent flow with R_{e} < 10^{5}

4. Laminar flow

Solution:

QUESTION: 8

Turbulent flow generally occurs

Solution:

Reynolds number, R_{e} = Vd/v

When R_{e} < R_{ec} Laminar flow occurs at very small velocities or through narrow passage (small d) or for highly viscous fluids (high v) the Re will be small and flow will remain laminar. For high velocities through large passage Reynolds number will be sufficient to cause turbulence.

QUESTION: 9

A pipe line carrying water has surface-protrusions of average height 0.10 mm. If the shear stress developed is 7.85 N/m^{2}, then the pipe surface will act as

Solution:

k_{s} = 0.10 mm

τ = 7.85 N/m^{2}

Since roughness value lies between 4 and 100 the pipe act as in transition.

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