Test: Paragraph Construction - 1


30 Questions MCQ Test Topic-wise Past Year Questions for CAT | Test: Paragraph Construction - 1


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QUESTION: 1

DIRECTION: The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. If you’ve seen a little line of text on websites that says something like “customers who bought this also enjoyed that” you have experienced this collaborative filtering firsthand.
B. The problem with these algorithms is that they don’t take into account a host of nuances and circumstances that might interfere with their accuracy.
C. If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! – the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.
D. Collaborative filtering is a mathematical algorithm by which correlations and co-occurrences of behaviors are tracked and then used to make recommendations.

Solution:

Reading the four sentences cursorily gives us a hint that they are about algorithm of collaborative filtering. Since the statement (d) introduces the topic and briefly explains collaborative algorithm, this is the first sentence in the sequence. The next sentence will be (a) because it gives the example of collaborative filtering along with the first hand experience to the readers. The next statement should talk about the problem with these algorithms. This statement is (b). The only one option is left now. This is option (c) and it follows the sequence by giving an example of the problem with these algorithms.

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTION : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2019)

A. His idea to use sign language was not a completely new idea as Native Americans used hand gestures to communicate with other tribes.
B. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, for example, observed that men who are deaf are incapable of speech.
C. People who were born deaf were denied the right to sign a will as they were “presumed to understand nothing; because it is not possible that they have been able to learn to read or write.”
D. Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pedro Ponce de León created a formal sign language for the hearing impaired.
E. For millennia, people with hearing impairments encountered marginalization because it was believed that language could only be learned by hearing the spoken word.

Solution:

At its first glance all the five options look related. Therefore, we will begin sequencing each sentence step by step.
Statement (e) looks like the opening statement: For millennia, people with hearing impairments encountered marginalization because it was believed that language could only be learned by hearing the spoken word. The idea is further expanded in sentence (c).
Marginalization is a form of prejudice. So the next sentence will be option (d) which speaks against this prejudice: Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pedro Ponce de León created a formal sign language for the hearing impaired.
The next sentence will be sentence (a) because it begins with ‘his’. It is used for Pedro Ponce de León. So the sentence will be: His idea to use sign language was not a completely new idea as Native Americans used hand gestures to communicate with other tribes.
From above, option (b) is left out as an odd one out. This will be our answer.

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTION : Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.

(2019)

A. ‘Stat’ signaled something measurable, while ‘matic’ advertised free labour; but ‘tron’, above all, indicated control.
B. It was a totem of high modernism, the intellectual and cultural mode that decreed no process or phenomenon was too complex to be grasped, managed and optimized.
C. Like the heraldic shields of ancient knights, these morphemes were painted onto the names of scientific technologies to proclaim one’s history and achievements to friends and enemies alike.
D. The historian Robert Proctor at Stanford University calls the suffix ‘-tron’, along with ‘-matic’ and ‘-stat’, embodied symbols.
E. To gain the suffix was to acquire a proud and optimistic emblem of the electronic and atomic age.

Solution:

When we begin looking for an opening sentence, we find only sentence (d) appears like an opening sentence. The other sentences are in need of some meaningful claim before them. They are abrupt and not clear unless some meaningful sentence precedes them. The sentence (d) talks about three suffix as symbols. These three suffix as symbols are further explained in sentence (a). Therefore (d) and (a) will form a sequence. Something more on suffix is added by statement (e), that is, to gain the suffix was to acquire a proud and optimistic emblem of the electronic and atomic age. From here, we can see that something more is further added to explain or discuss suffix (morphemes). Thus the sequence we get is daec. Option (b) emerges as the odd one out. It is unrelated to the passage and speaks of something entirely different out of the blue. Therefore answer is (b).

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTION : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. People with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading. B. An example of a lost cognitive instinct is mind-reading: our capacity to think of ourselves and others as having beliefs, desires, thoughts and feelings.
C. Mind-reading looks increasingly like literacy, a skill we know for sure is not in our genes, since scripts have been around for only 5,000-6,000 years.
D. Print-reading, like mind-reading varies across cultures, depends heavily on certain parts of the brain, and is subject to developmental disorders.

Solution:

1 could be either in the beginning or in the end because it is in the nature of introduction or conclusion. However, it will not come in the beginning because it starts off by differentiating print-reading and mind reading. We must have these terms explained before this sentence. If you notice the statement (d), it has discussed these terms. Therefore, it is clear that 1 will follow (d). That is (d) will come first and then (a) will be there. Therefore, we have (d, a) sequences. Our opening sentence can be either (b) or (c). It may be noted that (b) has a better introductory tone which should be followed by statement (c) because this statement explains what mind reading is. Immediately after mind reading, we have the statement on print reading, which should follow statement (c).
The final sequence we have now is (b, c, d, a). This is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 5

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit. Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer’s knowledge of the world is not the same as the physicist’s knowledge. In fact, an engineer’s know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.

Solution:

The passage is about pure science and applied science with specific examples of physics and engineering. The passage makes a further claim that engineers may find some theories of physics useful even when they are not validated by physics. The passage also discusses about the challenges of validating a theory in physics.
Option (a) is completely off the mark. According to this option relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science. In the passage we actually find that pure science is not always directing the applied science. The theories that are false in pure science are used in the applied science. Option (c) does not capture the sense of the passage. It says “The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.” This is not the complete sense of the passage because the passage talks about the relationship between the pure science and the applied science. Option (d) distorts the meaning of the passage. It says Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. The passage talks about the broad differences and the relationship between pure and applied science. Option (d) is just a specific example, so it can be eliminated.
Option (b) captures the essence of the passage. It says “Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.” Therefore, it is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 6

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of humanlike meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

Solution:

If we read the passage carefully, we can tone it down to few essential elements. These are: 1. Language and displaced reference 2. Ability to think about distant things precedes the ability to speak about them. (c). Mental categories can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.
Option (a) This option makes the mistake of claiming that only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings. Even if this claim is true, this assertion is nowhere made in the passage.
Option (c) This option can be ruled out because displaced reference is a distinguishing feature of language, not of humans. (For example: This may not have been true of primitive humans who had not developed a language).
Option (d) Option (d) can be ruled out because this option claims that thoughts precede all speech acts, while the passage claims that “Thought precedes meaningful referential communication”. There is a difference between the two. Option (b) This option is exact and to the point. It does not clash with anything made out in the passage.

QUESTION: 7

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders alerted the public to the psychoanalytical techniques used by the advertising industry. Its premise was that advertising agencies were using depth interviews to identify hidden consumer motivations, which were then used to entice consumers to buy goods. Critics and reporters often wrongly assumed that Packard was writing mainly about subliminal advertising. Packard never mentioned the word subliminal, however, and devoted very little space to discussions of “subthreshold” effects. Instead, his views largely aligned with the notion that individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.

Solution:

If you read the options carefully, you will understand that you need to have a clear understanding of “hidden persuasion”, “subliminal level”, “supraliminal level” etc. You can find the essence of the passage in the conclusion, which is: “individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.” Now your task is to find the statement that is closest to this statement.
Option (a) talks about subliminal level, so we can eliminate it. Option (c) also talks about subliminal level, so we can eliminate it. Now the choice is between option (b) and option (d).
However, we will have to eliminate option (b) because it says that “the people targeted are aware of being persuaded,” while the truth according to the passage is “individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge”. Option (d) is closest to this view because it maintains that “though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.” So option (d) is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTION : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. Metaphors may map to similar meanings across languages, but their subtle differences can have a profound effect on our understanding of the world.
B. Latin scholars point out carpe diem is a horticultural metaphor that, particularly seen in the context of its source, is more accurately translated as “plucking the day,” evoking the plucking and gathering of ripening fruits or flowers, enjoying a moment that is rooted in the sensory experience of nature, unrelated to the force implied in seizing.
C. The phrase carpe diem, which is often translated as “seize the day and its accompanying philosophy, has gone on to inspire countless people in how they live their lives and motivates us to see the world a little differently from the norm.
D. It’s an example of one of the more telling ways that we mistranslate metaphors from one language to another, revealing in the process our hidden assumptions about what we really value.

Solution:

If you read the statements as given in the question, you will note that they are all about the phrase carpe diem. The first sentence therefore, has to be the one that explains the phrase. The statement (c) explains the phrase, so it will come first. The second sentence/statement has to be the one that digs its background or history. This statement is the second statement. That is (c) is followed by (b), so we get (cb). The next statement may be about its example or about the problems with phrases when translating from one language to the other. So, the next statement will be (d). The sequence we get now is (cbd). Since (a) is the only one left, it will automatically come there. We can also note that (a) is in the form of a conclusion or general statement. Therefore, the sequence we get now is (cbda).

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTION : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. We’ll all live under mob rule until then, which doesn’t help anyone.
B. Perhaps we need to learn to condense the feedback we receive online so that 100 replies carry the same weight as just one.
C. As we grow more comfortable with social media conversations being part of the way we interact every day, we are going to have to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.
D. A new norm will arise where it is considered unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.

Solution:

If you read the four sentences randomly, you will realize it is about social media and our response to it. Statement (c) is the introductory sentence because it opens the discussion by making a claim that we must be open to legitimate criticism as we learn to live with social media. This is a sentence about what we need to learn. The next related sentence is also about what we need to learn more. This is about responding to feedbacks. This is given out in sentence (b). The next related sentence is about new norms emerging due to increased social media interaction. This is statement (d). Finally we are left with sentence one (a). This is in the form of the conclusion or a generalized statement. Therefore, the sequence is (cbda).

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTION : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2019)

A. One argument is that actors that do not fit within a single, well-defined category may suffer an “illegitimacy discount”.
B. Others believe that complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.
C. Some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities that span or combine categories, while other organizations possess narrow identities.
D. Identity is one of the most important features of organizations, but there exist opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.
E. Those who think that complex identities are beneficial point to the strategic advantages of ambiguity, and organizations’ potential to differentiate themselves from competitors.

Solution:

together, odd one out (a)
Statement (d) looks like an introductory sentence on the topic of identity.  Statement (c) is closely related to (d) as it expands the notion of identity by claiming that some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities. Therefore (d) and (c) will come together. The next sentence will be (e) because it explains the opinion of some people on complex identities and their advantages to an organization. Statement (b) follows (e) because it explains the opinion of others on complex identity and how it can be disadvantageous to an organization. Therefore, we are left with only (a). This statement is totally unrelated to the four statements that are related. So (a) is the odd one out.

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTIONS for the questions :  The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. Such a belief in the harmony of nature requires a purpose presumably imposed by the goodness and wisdom of a deity.
B. These parts, all fit together into an integrated, wellordered system that was created by design.
C. Historically, the notion of a balance of nature is part observational, part metaphysical, and not scientific in any way.
D. It is an example of an ancient belief system called teleology, the notion that what we call nature has a predetermined destiny associated with its component parts.

Solution:

When you read the four sentences, you can easily make out the first sentence by examining each of them. When you read the first sentence “Such a belief in harmony...” you can infer something comes before it that stands for “such a belief”. The next sentence begins with “these parts” and you can sense something should come before for which “these parts” stand. Similarly the fourth sentence begins with “it is an example”, so we can guess something must come before for which ‘it is an example’ works as a reference. The third sentence stands alone without the need of a prior sentence to make sense of it. So the first number is (c).
Sentence (d) follows next because we can infer “the notion of a balance of nature” is an example of an ancient belief system....So the sentence to follow (c) is (d). Sentence (d) ends with “component parts” and sentence (b) begins with “these parts”. So these two sentences are together with (b) following the (d). Finally we are left with (a) which naturally follows (b). Therefore, the right sequence is (c, d, b, a).

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTIONS for the questions : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when property sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. Conceptualisations of ‘women’s time’ as contrary to clock-time and clock-time as synonymous with economic rationalism are two of the deleterious results of this representation.
B. While dichotomies of ‘men’s time’, ’women’s time’, clock-time, and caring time can be analytically useful, this article argues that everyday caring practices incorporate a multiplicity of times; and both men and women can engage in these multiple-times
C. When the everyday practices of working sole fathers and working sole mothers are carefully examined to explore conceptualisations of gendered time, it is found that caring time is often more focused on the clock than generally theorised.
D. Clock-time has been consistently represented in feminist literature as a masculine artefact representative of a ‘time is money’ perspective.

Solution:

Read all the options or sentences. The first sentence is sentence (d) because this sentence is in the nature of introduction or simple definition of clock time which has been discussed at a more complex level in the other options. Sentence (d) talks of the representation of clock-time. The next sentence where there is reference of this representation with the use of the word representation is sentence (a). So the sequence we get is (d, a).
The next sentence will be sentence (c). Let us see how. Sentence (a) talks of deleterious effect which is harmful effect. The theme of negative or deleterious effect is further extended in sentence number (c) “it is found that caring time is often more focused on the clock than generally theorised” We are now left with sentence number (b), which is a form of conclusion to the introduction of an article as evident from “this article argues....” in the sentence number (b). So the right sequence is (d, a, c, b).

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS for the questions : The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

Privacy-challenged office workers may find it hard to believe, but open-plan offices and cubicles were invented by architects and designers who thought that to break down the social walls that divide people, you had to break down the real walls, too. Modernist architects saw walls and rooms as downright fascist. The spaciousness and flexibility of an open plan would liberate homeowners and office dwellers from the confines of boxes. But companies took up their idea less out of a democratic ideology than a desire to pack in as many workers as they could. The typical open-plan office of the first half of the 20th century was a white-collar assembly line. Cubicles were interior designers’ attempt to put some soul back in.

Solution:

If you read the options, you will realize all of them are correct but we have to choose the best among them, and the best among them is the one that puts across the idea succinctly without missing out on original elements in the passage. Let us begin with the option (a). This is correct and it carries the idea of intention of the inventors of wall free office spaces and the reason why they did not work out.
Option (b) is also correct but instead of directly stating the reason why wall free offices did not work, it has been stated indirectly that companies did not care for worker’s satisfaction. The reason in the passage is “But companies took up their idea less out of a democratic ideology than a desire to pack in as many workers as they could.” Even though this answer is correct the first option is preferable.
Option (c) is correct but it does not explain the reason why wall free office did not work as has been done in the option (a). So option (c) is also rejected.
Option (d) is also correct but to say that the companies did not believe in democratic ideology would be incorrect where as the fact is the companies took up their ideas less out of a democratic ideology than a desire to pack as many workers as they could. There is a difference between companies not believing in democratic ideology and less out of democratic ideology. So this option is also rejected. Therefore, option (a) is the best choice.

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS for the questions : The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

Language is an autapomorphy found only in our lineage, and not shared with other branches of our group such as primates. We also have no definitive evidence that any species other than Homo sapiens ever had language. However, it must be noted straightaway that ‘language’ is not a monolithic entity, but rather a complex bundle of traits that must have evolved over a significant time frame.... Moreover, language crucially draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory: the language faculty as a whole comprises more than just the uniquely linguistic features.

Solution:

In this question you have to read the passage and then decide which is the best one sentence summary of the passage out of the given options. After you read the passage and the options, you will find all the options nearly summarize the passage. So you can try to find the options in which one or more crucial elements may be missing or something new may have been added.
Option (a) is correct because an autapomorphy is a distinctive feature, known as a derived trait. However, we will have to see, if there is some more options with improvements over this one. Option is more specific, accurate and captures all essential information. Option (c) is also correct but it fails to capture the essence such as evolved, features of cognitive process such as memory. Option (d) is also correct but it does not capture the essence of the paragraph. It merely mentions one characteristic or fact.

QUESTION: 15

DIRECTIONS for the questions : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2019)

A. Ocean plastic is problematic for a number of reasons, but primarily because marine animals eat it.
B. The largest numerical proportion of ocean plastic falls in small size fractions.
C. Aside from clogging up the digestive tracts of marine life, plastic also tends to adsorb pollutants from the water column.
D. Plastic in the oceans is arguably one of the most important and pervasive environmental problems today.
E. Eating plastic has a number of negative consequences such as the retention of plastic particles in the gut for longer periods than normal food particles.

Solution:

If you read the sentences, you will realize they all talk about plastic or ocean plastic. So we will find out which sentences should go together. Sentence number (e) “Eating plastic has a number of negative consequences....” is related to sentence number (c) “Aside from clogging up the digestive tract...” Both these sentences talk about the negative aspects of plastic and the consequences for marine animals who eat plastic. Sentence number (a) also talks about the problems with ocean plastic because marine animals eat it. So sentence number (a),(e) and (c) are in sequence. Now we have to choose between (d) and (b). Sentence number (d) is a better choice because it talks about plastic in ocean as an environmental problem. So the sequence is (d, a, e, c), while (b) is the odd man out.

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS for the question : The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

(2019)

Social movement organizations often struggle to mobilize supporters from allied movements in their efforts to achieve critical mass. Organizations with hybrid identities—those whose organizational identities span the boundaries of two or more social movements, issues, or identities—are vital to mobilizing these constituencies. Studies of the post-9/11 U.S. antiwar movement show that individuals with past involvement in non-anti-war movements are more likely to join hybrid organizations than are individuals without involvement in non-anti-war movements. In addition, they show that organizations with hybrid identities occupy relatively more central positions in inter-organizational contact networks within the antiwar movement and thus recruit significantly more participants in demonstrations than do nonhybrid organizations.

Solution:

While all the four options go on to say something or the other as summary of the passage, most of them are not balanced and take merely one side or factor into account. The summary is one that succinctly captures the essence of the passage. The passage concludes that it is easy to mobilize people into a movement from hybrid organizations in comparison to the non-hybrid organizations. Option (a) is correct. In the passage too the following statement is there: “Studies of the post-9/11 U.S. antiwar movement show that individuals with past involvement in non-anti-war movements are more likely to join hybrid organizations” So we will retain this option for now. Option (b) is also correct as can be seen in the very first sentence of the passage: “Social movement organizations often struggle to mobilize supporters from allied movements in their efforts to achieve critical mass”.
Option (c) is also correct as can be seen from the following sentence in the passage: “In addition, they show that organizations with hybrid identities occupy relatively more central positions in inter-organizational contact networks within the antiwar movement and thus recruit significantly more participants”.
Similarly option (d) is also correct. However, we have to identify the best one among them. The best option will be the most general response because it has to capture the essence of the passage and that is not based on one example here and there.
Option (a) is rejected because it is a specific 9/11 statement rather than a generalized statement. Option (b) is rejected because it is a statement taken from a passage rather than the summary.
Option (c) also suffers from the same deficiency, that is, it is a statement randomly taken from the passage.
However, option (d) is the summary and the right choice because it is the conclusion of the passage and represents the broad essence of the passage. So this is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS for the questions : Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.

(2019)

A. Socrates told us that ‘the unexamined life is not worth living’ and that to ‘know thyself is the path to true wisdom.
B. It suggests that you should adopt an ancient rhetorical method favored by the likes of Julius Caesar and known as ‘illeism’ – or speaking about yourself in the third person.
C. Research has shown that people who are prone to rumination also often suffer from impaired decision making under pressure and are at a substantially increased risk of depression.
D. Simple rumination – the process of churning your concerns around in your head – is not the way to achieve self-realization.
E. The idea is that this small change in perspective can clear your emotional fog, allowing you to see past your biases.

Solution:

In this question, you only need to find out the sentence that does not fit with the rest of the sentences which are related in some way. As a first step read all the sentences without caring for their order so as to find a common theme. You will find that the idea of ‘rumination’ has been introduced. (c) and (d) sentences have the word ‘rumination’ in them. So they are related. Sentence (e) begins with ‘the idea is that...”. There is a suggestion of alternative idea as opposed to rumination becauserumination can be harmful. The alternative idea is suggested by the word ‘illeism’. Therefore we can see the direct link between (e) and (b).  Therefore, (d, c, b, e) are related and make a coherent paragraph while option (a) is left out which is the answer.

QUESTION: 18

DIRECTION for the question : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when property sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. Living things—animals and plants—typically exhibit correlational structure.
B. Adaptive behaviour depends on cognitive economy, treating objects as equivalent.
C. The information we receive from our senses, from the world, typically has structure and order, and is not arbitrary.
D. To categorize an object means to consider it equivalent to other things in that category, and different—along some salient dimension—from things that are not.

Solution:

When you read the 4 sentences randomly, you cannot make a head or tail out of it. All the sentences appear independent and unrelated. It is difficult to find the first sentence, but if you try to make sense of the sentences, you will realize that the author is trying to answer questions about structure, category and adaptive behaviour. Next, he takes each of these concepts once by one. So the first sentence begins by explaining or defining what is adaptive behaviour. Then the next sentence is about category. This is followed by the structure and order. The sentence adaptive behaviour comes first because it contains the word object. The next sentence explains the object. The third sentence informs us about structure (each object has structure). The last sentence is like a conclusion or general statement that says about correlational structure. So the sequence is (b, d, c, a).

QUESTION: 19

DIRECTION for the questions : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2019)

A. A particularly interesting example of inference occurs in many single panel comics.
B. It’s the creator’s participation and imagination that makes the single-panel comic so engaging and so rewarding.
C. Often, the humor requires you to imagine what happened in the instant immediately before or immediately after the panel you’re being shown.
D. To get the joke, you actually have to figure out what some of these missing panels must be.
E. It is as though the cartoonist devised a series of panels to tell the story and has chosen to show you only one - and typically not even the funniest.

Solution:

You have to find out the sentence that does not go with the rest. So, read all the options randomly one by one. As you read the sentences, you realize all of them have the common theme of single-panel, humor, cartoon etc. Let us try to sequence the sentences. The first sentence is either the first number or the second number sentence because it answers the question what makes the single panel comic so engaging in one complete sentence. Sentence number one gives us an interesting example of inference. For now we will keep both of them.
The next sentence is (e) which explain further what is single panel (a series of panels out of which cartoonist chose one). Sentence number (d) talks about having to figure out the missing panels to get the joke. This has to do with inference, so we can keep the sentence number (a). Sentence number (c) is about you having to figure out what happened before and after the panel that was shown to you. Therefore, you have to infer something. So this is another reason to keep sentence number (a). Therefore, (a, c, d, e) forms a coherent paragraph while (b) is the odd man out.

QUESTION: 20

DIRECTION for the question : The four sentences (labelled a, b, c, d) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

(2019)

A. To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise.
B. A tonality is a condition of music in which the constructs of the music do not‘live’ within the confines of a particular key signature, scale, or mode.
C. After you realize the amount of knowledge, skill, and technical expertise required to compose or perform it, your tune may change, so to speak.
D. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music.

Solution:

You can decide which sentence should come first by taking note of the word that a sentence begins with. The first sentence of a meaningful paragraph should not generally start with words like “To”, “After”, and “However”. So the first sentence should be number (b) statement. In addition, the beginning sentence must define a concept if the concept has been used in the para. The next sentence should give out the meaning or definition further or give an example. Therefore, it will be followed by number (a). Next, a contrary idea or condition should explicate it further, which is explicated by number (d). Finally, the number (c) is left out which will come in the end and its correct position may be confirmed by its nature as a conclusive statement. The right sequence that we get is (b, a, d, c). 

QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for the question : Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

(2018)

Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two.
Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

Solution:

Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and mimetic of the natural development of genetically identical twins from the embryo after fertilization The paragraph says that artificial embryo twinning is low-tech which means use of technology in the process is minimum; and it ‘is mimetic of’ or mimics or exactly copies the natural process of the embryo splitting into two individuals after fertilisation. So, it is neither ‘unlike’ (option A) nor ‘close to’ (option B)the natural process, rather exactly like it. Option D is incorrect as it says the twinning takes place ‘during’ fertilisation rather than after.

QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for the question : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2018)

1. Translators are like bumblebees.
2. Though long since scientifically d isproved, this factoid is still routinely trotted out.
3. Similar pronouncements about the impossibility of translation have dogged practitioners since Leonardo Bruni’s De interpretatione recta, published in 1424.
4. Bees, unaware of these deliberations, have continued to flit from flower to flower, and translators continue to translate.
5. In 1934, the French entomologist August Magnan pronounced the flight of the bumblebee to be aerodynamically impossible

Solution:

Sentences 1534, in that order, form a paragraph on comparison between translators and bumblebees.
1. Translators are like bumblebees.
5. In 1934, the French entomologist August Magnan pronounced the flight of the bumblebee to be aerodynamically impossible.
3. Similar pronouncements about the impossibility of translation have dogged practitioners since Leonardo Bruni’s De interpretatione recta, published in 1424.
4. Bees, unaware of these deliberations, have continued to flit from flower to flower, and translators continue to translate.
Sentence 1 states the intended comparison. 5 speaks of bumblebees, while 3, of translators, but its connecting phrase ‘similar pronouncements’ forms the link 5-3.  Sentence 4 is a concluding remark.
A factoid is an unreliable information reported and repeated so often that it becomes accepted as a fact. Since, only a comparison is made here, it cannot be termed a factoid. So, sentence 2 is odd in the paragraph.

QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for the question : The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

(2018)

1. The woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunlight that falls on the trees.
2. Swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands, but hunt wherever there are insects in the air.
3. With their streamlined bodies, swifts are agile flyers, ideally adapted to twisting and turning through the air as they chase flying insects – the creatures that form their staple diet.
4. Hundreds of thousands of insects fly in the sunshine up above the canopy, some falling prey to swifts and swallows

Solution:

The coherent paragraph forms as follows:
1. The woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunlight that falls on the trees.
4. Hundreds of thousands of insects fly in the sunshine up above the canopy, some falling prey to swifts and swallows.
3. With their streamlined bodies, swifts are agile flyers, ideally adapted to twisting and turning through the air as they chase flying insects – the creatures that form their staple diet.
2. Swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands, but hunt wherever there are insects in the air.
The link of nouns is thus: woodland’s canopy—insects— swifts. The next sentence states how swifts hunt insects, their staple diet; and the succeeding one is linked with the birds’ general spot for hunting insects.

QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for the question : Four of the five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4 and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, from a coherent paragraph. Find the odd one out and key in your answer.

(2018)

1. In many cases time inconsistency is what prevents our going from intention to action.
2. For people to continuously postpone getting their children immunized, they wo uld need to be constantly fooled by themselves.
3. In the specific case of immunization, however, it is hard to believe that time inconsistency by itself would be sufficient to make people permanently postpone the decision if they were fully cognizant of its benefits.
4. In most cases, even a small cost of immunization was large enough to discourage most people.
5. Not only do they have to think that they prefer to spend time going to the camp next month rather than today, they also have to believe that they will indeed go next month.

Solution:

The coherent paragraph forms as follows:
1. In many cases, time inconsistency is what prevents our going from intention to action. 3. In the specific case of immunization, however, it is hard to believe that time inconsistency by itself would be sufficient to make people permanently postpone the decision if they were fully cognizant of its benefits.2. For people to continuously postpone getting their children immunized, they would need to be constantly fooled by themselves. 5. Not only do they have to think that they prefer to spend time going to the camp next month rather than today, they also have to believe that they will indeed go next month. Sentence 1 opens the paragraph with the general term ‘In many cases...’ it is linked to the succeeding ‘specific cases’ of 3. Sentences 1325, in that order, form a coherent paragraph. ‘Time inconsistency’ is the factor that prevents action; but, in the specific case of immunisation, this factor cannot be held sufficient for postponement if people were ‘fully cognizant of’ the benefits of immunisation. If people are continuously postponing immunisation despite knowing its benefits it would mean, they are ’fooled by themselves’ about ’time inconsistency.’ Cost is not a factor considered here; so, sentence 4— In most cases, even a small cost of immunization was large enough to discourage most people — is odd.

QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for the question : The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

(2018)

1. The eventual diagnosis was skin cancer and after treatment all seemed well.
2. The viola player didn’t know what it was; nor did her GP.
3. Then a routine scan showed it had come back and sprea d to her lungs.
4. It started with a lump on Cathy Perkins’ index finger.

Solution:

Sentence 4 introduces the subject Cathy Perkins; 2 goes on to say that neither she nor her GP (general practitioner) knew what that lump was; 1 says that it was finally diagnosed as skin cancer and treated successfully, 3 says that later, a routine scan showed it had returned and spread to her lungs.

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question : Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

(2018)

1. Displacement in Bengal is thus not very significant in view of its magnitude.
2. A factor of displacement in Bengal is the shifting course of the Ganges leading to erosion of river banks.
3. The nature of displacement in Bengal makes it an interesting case study.
4. Since displacement due to erosion is well spread over a long period of ti me, it remains invisible.
5. Rapid displacement would have helped sensitize the public to its human costs.

Solution:

The coherent paragraph  3245 runs thus: 3. The nature of displacement in Bengal makes it an interesting case study. 2. A factor of displacement in Bengal is the shifting course of the Ganges leading to erosion of river banks. 4. Since displacement due to erosion is well spread over a long period of time, it remains invisible. 5. Rapid displacement would have helped sensitize the public to its human costs.
Displacement is clearly the theme noun as it appears in all sentences. Sentence 3 is the opener as it mentions a case study to be brought up next. Sentence 2 follows as it mentions a factor of displacement—erosion of river banks. Sentence 4 is linked as it elaborates on the issue of erosion that it is spread over time. Sentence 5 is the logical follower offering the effect if erosion had been rapid. ‘Thus’ in sentence 1 suggests it might have been the concluding sentence, but it is in fact out of context as ‘magnitude’ of erosion is not being discussed here.  

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question : The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

(2018)

1. Impartiality and objectivity are fiendishly difficult concepts that can cause all sorts of injustices even if transparently implemented.
2. It encourages us into bubbles of people we know and like, while blinding us to different perspectives, but the deeper problem of ‘transparency’ lies in the words “… and much more”.
3. Twitter’s website says that “tweets you are likely to care about most will show up first in your timeline…based on accounts you interact with most, tweets you engage with, and much more.”
4. We are only told some of the basic principles, and we can’t see the algorithm itself, making it hard for citizens to analyse the system sensibly or fairly or be convinced of its impartiality and objectivity.

Solution:

The logical paragraph is formed thus: 1. Impartiality and objectivity are fiendishly difficult concepts that can cause all sorts of injustices even if transparently implemented. 3. Twitter’s website says that “tweets you are likely to care about most will show up first in your timeline…based on accounts you interact with most, tweets you engage with, and much more.” 2. It encourages us into bubbles of people we know and like, while blinding us to different perspectives, but the deeper problem of ‘transparency’ lies in the words “…and much more”. 4. We are only told some of the basic principles, and we can’t see the algorithm itself, making it hard for citizens to analyse the system sensibly or fairly or be convinced of its impartiality and objectivity.
The paragraph discusses that even transparency does not guarantee objectivity and impartiality. Sentence 1 is the opener as it introduces the topic. Link 3-2 is established as the former quotes Twitter website; and the latter expresses problem of ‘transparency’ with the words “… and much more” in it, because it leaves many things still under wraps. Sentence 4 elaborates this further.

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question : Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

(2018)

The conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object first occurred in Europe and is historically related to the European conceptualization of the organism, particularly the human body, as a geometric object with parts having a rational, three-dimensional organization and integration. The European idea of landscape appeared before the science of landscape emerged, and it is no coincidence that Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who studied the structure of the human body, also facilitated an understanding of the structure of landscape. Landscape which had been a subordinate background to religious or historical narratives, became an independent genre or subject of art by the end of sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth century.

Solution:

The three-dimensional understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape.
The paragraph says that conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object in Europe was historically related to three-dimensional geometric conceptualization of the human body; and Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci contributed to the understanding of both of these. So, option D presents the best summary. 

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question : The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

(2018)

1. But now we have another group: the unwitting enablers.
2. Democracy and high levels of inequality of the kin d that have come to characterize the United States are simply incompatible.
3. Believing these people are working for a better world, they are, actually, at most, chipping away at the margins, making slight course corrections, ensuring the system goes on as it is, uninterrupted.
4. Very rich people will always use money to maintain their political and economic power.

Solution:

The logical paragraph is formed thus: 2. Democracy and high levels of inequality of the kind that have come to characterize the United States are simply incompatible. 4. Very rich people will always use money to maintain their political and economic power. 1. But now we have another group: the unwitting enablers. 3. Believing these people are working for a better world, they are, actually, at most, chipping away at the margins, making slight course corrections, ensuring the system goes on as it is, uninterrupted. The pronoun ’these people’ in sentence 3, and connecting phrase ‘But now’ in 1 rule them out as opening sentence. Between the rest, 2 talks of inequality and 4 exemplifies how the rich who always enjoy power on account of their money, institutionalise this inequality. So, 2-4 link is established. Now, 1 follows 4 by mentioning about ‘the unwitting enablers’ of inequality.

QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question : Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph and write the key for most appropriate option.

(2018)

Production and legitimation of scientific knowledge can be approached from a number of perspectives. To study knowledge production from the sociology of professions perspective would mean a focus on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge. The professions approach informed earlier research on managerial occupation, business schools and management knowledge. It however tends to reify institutional power structures in its understanding of the links between knowledge and authority. Knowledge production is restricted in the perspective to the selected members of the professional community, most notably to the university faculties and professional colleges. Power is understood as a negative mechanism, which prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas and information as legitimate knowledge.

Solution:

Professions-approach aims at the institutionalization of knowledge but restricts knowledge production as a function of a select few The paragraph argues that professions perspective focuses on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge; but concretises institutional power structures with links between knowledge and authority wherein knowledge production is restricted to the select members of the professional community.

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