Test: General Comprehension - 1 (2019-2019)


20 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: General Comprehension - 1 (2019-2019)


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QUESTION: 1

A majority of the TB infected in India are poor and lack sufficient nutrition, suitable housing and have little understanding of prevention. TB then devastates families, makes the poor poorer, particularly affects women and children, and leads to ostracisation and loss of employment. The truth is that even if TB does not kill them, hunger and poverty will. Another truth is that deep-seated stigma, lack of counselling, expensive treatment and lack of adequate support from provider and family, coupled with torturous side-effects demotivate patients to continue treatment — with disastrous health consequences.

Q. Which one of the following is the most logical, rational and crucial message conveyed by the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage argues that diagnosis and medical treatment of TB is available in India, but hunger and poverty, lack of awareness as well as counselling, deepseated stigma, inadequate support from family and providers, and expensive medical care forces patients to discontinue treatment.

QUESTION: 2

Access to schooling for those coming of school age is close to universal, but access to quality exhibits a sharp gradient with socio-economic status Quotas for the weaker sections in private schools is a provision introduced by the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. The quotas have imposed a debate on issues of social integration and equity in education that private actors had escaped by and large. The idea of egalitarian education system with equality of opportunity as its primary goal appears to be outside the space that private school principals inhabit. Therefore, the imposition of the quotas has led to resistance, sometimes justified.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Making equality of opportunity a reality is the fundamental goal of the Indian education system.
2. The present Indian school system is unable to provide egalitarian education.
3. Abolition of private schools and establishment of more government schools is the only way to ensure egalitarian education.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage states that with the idea of egalitarian education system with equality of opportunity as its primary goal Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 has forced private schools to keep quotas for weaker sections; and sometimes faces resistance which may be justified. So, assumptions 1 and 2 are valid.
Assumption 3 is invalid as the passage doesn't hint abolition of private schools.

QUESTION: 3

A changing climate, and the eventual efforts of governments (however reluctant) to deal with it, could have a big impact on investors’ returns. Companies that produce or use large amounts of fossil fuels will face higher taxes and regulatory burdens. Some energy producers may find it impossible to exploit their known reserves, and be left with “stranded assets” — deposits of oil and coal that have to be left in the ground. Other industries could be affected by the economic damage caused by more extreme weather — storms, floods, heat waves and droughts.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Governments and companies need to be adequately prepared to face the climate change.
2. Extreme weather events will reduce the economic growth of governments and companies in future.
3. Ignoring climate change is a huge risk for investors.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

According to the passage, climate change and extreme weather events caused by it and the government's efforts to deal with it all affects investors and their companies. Assumptions 1 and 3 are valid on this basis.
Assumption 2 is invalid because governments and companies relentlessly upgrade efforts to counter the challenges of climate change.

QUESTION: 4

The rural poor across the world, including India, have contributed little to human-induced climate change, yet they are on the frontline in coping with its effects. Farmers can no longer rely on historical averages for rainfall and temperature, and the more frequent and extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, can spell disaster. And there are new threats, such as sea level rise and the impact of melting glaciers on water supply. How significant are small farms? As many as two billion people worldwide depend on them for their food and livelihood. Small-holder farmers in India produce 41 percent of the country’s food grains, and other food items that contribute to local and national food security.

Q. What is the most logical and rational corollary to the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

'Farmers can no longer rely on historical averages for rainfall and temperature' ; extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods are more frequent and can spell disaster; much land is lost to sea level rise and melting glaciers have impacted water supply. So, supporting small farmers who contribute 41 percent to food security is indispensable for environmentally sustainable development.

QUESTION: 5

The rural poor across the world, including India, have contributed little to human-induced climate change, yet they are on the frontline in coping with its effects. Farmers can no longer rely on historical averages for rainfall and temperature, and the more frequent and extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, can spell disaster. And there are new threats, such as sea-level rise and the impact of melting glaciers on water supply. How significant are small farms? As many as two billion people worldwide depend on them for their food and livelihood. Small-holder farmers in India produce 41 percent of the country’s food grains, and other food items that contribute to local and national food security.

Q. The above passage implies that
1. There is a potential problem of food insecurity in India.
2. India will have to strengthen its disaster management capabilities.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019

Solution:

Assumption 1 follows from call for support to small farmers; 2 is valid as a part of support to poor farmers.

QUESTION: 6

With the digital phenomenon restructuring most social sectors, it is little surprise that global trade negotiations are now eyeing the digital area in an attempt to pre-emptively colonise it. Big Data is freely collected or mined from developing countries, and converted into digital intelligence in developed countries. This intelligence begins to control different sectors and extract monopoly rents. A large foreign company providing cab service, for instance is not a network of cars and drivers; it is digital intelligence about commuting, public transport, roads, traffic, city events, personal behavioural characteristics of commuters and drivers and so on.

Q. Which one of the following is the most logical and rational corollary to the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The opening sentence of the passage talks of the threat from developed countries who look to mining Big Data from developing countries to create digital intelligence and control different sectors of global trade. Therefore (b) is the most rational corollary to the passage.

QUESTION: 7

With the digital phenomenon restructuring most social sectors, it is little surprise that global trade negotiations are now eyeing the digital area in an attempt to pre-emptively colonise it. Big Data is freely collected or mined from developing countries, and converted into digital intelligence in developed countries. This intelligence begins to control different sectors and extract monopoly rents. A large foreign company providing cab service, for instance is not a network of cars and drivers; it is digital intelligence about commuting, public transport, roads, traffic, city events, personal behavioural characteristics of commuters and drivers and so on.

Q. Which of the following is most definitively implied by the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Low-end IoT (Internet of Things) devices are cheap commodity items : addressing security would add to the cost. This class of items is proliferating with new applications; many home appliances, thermostats, security and monitoring devices and personal convenience devices are part of the IoT. So are fitness trackers, certain medical implants and computer-like devices in automobiles. The IoT is expected to expand exponentially — but new security challenges are daunting.

Q. Which one of the following statements is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The last sentence of the passage sums up the discussion and gives the most logical inference of the passage.

QUESTION: 9

Around 56 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean had not fully opened and animals, perhaps including our primate ancestors, could walk from Asia to North America through Europe and across Greenland. Earth was warmer than it is today, but as the Palaeocene epoch gave way to Eocene, it was about to get much warmer still – rapidly and radically. The cause was a massive geologically sudden release of carbon. During this period called Palaeocene – Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM, the carbon injected into the atmosphere was roughly the amount that would be injected today if humans burned all the Earth’s reserves of coal, oil and natural gas. The PETM lasted for about 1,50,000 years, until the excess carbon was reabsorbed. It brought on drought, floods, insect plagues and a few extinctions. Life on Earth survived – indeed, it prospered – but it was drastically different.

Q. Based on the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. Global warming has a bearing on the planet’s biological evolution.
2. Separation of land masses causes the release of huge quantities of carbon into the atmosphere.
3. Increased warming of Earth’s atmosphere can change the composition of its flora and fauna.
4. The present man-made global warming will finally lead to conditions similar to those which happened 56 million years ago.
Which of the assumptions given above are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

Assumption 2 is invalid as the passage does not relate the event of separation of landmasses with release of carbon; 4 is invalid as the passage does not predict this.

QUESTION: 10

A bat’s wings may look like sheets of skin. But underneath, a bat has the same five fingers as an orangutan or a human, as well as a wrist connected to the same cluster of wrist bones connected to the same long bones of the arm. What can be more curious than that the hand of a man, formed for grasping, that of a mole for digging, the leg of the horse, the paddle of the porpoise, and the wing of the bat, should all be constructed on the same pattern?

Q. Which one of the following is the most logical, scientific and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

Limbs of various species showing same pattern of construction clearly points to same process of evolution undergone by all.

QUESTION: 11

Climate change may actually benefit some plants by lengthening growing seasons and increasing carbon dioxide. Yet other effects of a warmer world, such as more pests, droughts, and flooding, will be less benign. How will the world adapt? Researchers project that by 2050, suitable croplands for four commodities — maize, potatoes, rice and wheat — will shift, in some cases pushing farmers to plant new crops. Some farmlands may benefit from warming, but others won’t. Climate alone does not dictate yields; political shifts, global demand, and agricultural practices will influence how farms fare in the future.

Q. Which one of the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage says that climate change, political shifts, global demand, and agricultural practices will influence how farms fare in the future. So, farmers who adapt, modernize and diversify will benefit.

QUESTION: 12

Inequality is visible, even statistically measurable in many instances, but the economic power that drives it is invisible and not measurable. Like the force of gravity, power is the organising principle of inequality, be it of income, or wealth, gender, race, religion and region. Its effects are seen in a pervasive manner in all spheres, but the ways in which economic power pulls and tilts visible economic variables remain invisibly obscure.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Economic power is the only reason for the existence of inequality in a society.
2. Inequality of different kinds, income, wealth, etc. reinforces power.
3. Economic power can be analysed more through its effects than by direct empirical methods.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage says that all inequality is driven by economic power; but while the former is measurable, the latter isn't. So, Assumption 1 is valid; but, 2 is reverse of what is stated in the passage. As the effects of economic power 'are seen in a pervasive manner in all spheres', assumption 3 also holds true.

QUESTION: 13

Soil, in which nearly all our food grows, is a living resource that takes years to form. Yet it can vanish in minutes. Each year 75 billion tonnes of fertile soil is lost to erosion. That is alarming — and not just for food producers. Soil can trap huge quantities of carbon dioxide in the form of organic carbon and prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Large scale soil erosion is a major reason for widespread food insecurity in the world.
2. Soil erosion is mainly anthropogenic.
3. Sustainable management of soils helps in combating climate change.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

Assumption 1 clearly follows from the first three sentences; 2 is right because though wind or harsh climatic conditions cause soil erosion, overpopulation resulting in excessive grazing, cropping and deforestation accelerate it; and, 3 follows from the last sentence of the passage.

QUESTION: 14

Education plays a great transformatory role in life, particularly so in this rapidly changing and globalizing world. Universities are the custodians of the intellectual capital and promoters of culture and specialized knowledge. Culture is an activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and human feelings. A merely well informed man is only a bore on God’s earth. What we should aim at is producing men who possess both culture and expert knowledge. Their expert knowledge will give them a firm ground to start from and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. Together it will impart meaning to human existence.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. A society without well educated people cannot be transformed into a modern society.
2. Without acquiring culture, a person’s education is not complete.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

Assumption 1 is out of context; 2 clearly follows from the passage.

QUESTION: 15

Political theorists no doubt have to take history of injustice, for example, untouchability, seriously. The concept of historical injustice takes note of a variety of historical wrongs that continue into the present in some form or the other and tend to resist repair. Two reasons might account for resistance to repair. One, not only are the roots of injustice buried deep in history, injustice itself constitutes economic structures of exploitation, ideologies of discrimination and modes of representation. Two, the category of historical injustice generally extends across a number of wrongs such as economic deprivation, social discrimination and lack of recognition. The category is complex, not only because of the overlap between a number of wrongs, but because one or the other wrong, generally discrimination, tends to acquire partial autonomy from others. This is borne out by the history of repair in India.

Q. What is the main idea that we can infer from the passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage says that historical injustice has deep roots , and constitutes exploitation, discrimination and different 'modes of representation'; and 'generally extends across a number of wrongs'. So, it is difficult to repair every manifestation of it.

QUESTION: 16

Political theorists no doubt have to take history of injustice, for example, untouchability, seriously. The concept of historical injustice takes note of a variety of historical wrongs that continue into the present in some form or the other and tend to resist repair. Two reasons might account for resistance to repair. One, not only are the roots of injustice buried deep in history, injustice itself constitutes economic structures of exploitation, ideologies of discrimination and modes of representation. Two, the category of historical injustice generally extends across a number of wrongs such as economic deprivation, social discrimination and lack of recognition. The category is complex, not only because of the overlap between a number of wrongs, but because one or the other wrong, generally discrimination, tends to acquire partial autonomy from others. This is borne out by the history of repair in India.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Removal of economic discrimination leads to removal of social discrimination.
2. Democratic polity is the best way to repair historical wrongs.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019

Solution:

It follows from explanation in Answer no.53 that neither 'removal of economic discrimination' nor ' democratic polity' can be the only way to end injustice.

QUESTION: 17

India has banking correspondents, who help bring people in the hinterland into the banking fold. For them to succeed, banks cannot crimp on costs. They also cannot afford to ignore investing in financial education and literacy. Banking correspondents are way too small to be viewed as a systemic risk. Yet India’s banking regulator has restricted them to serving only one bank, perhaps to prevent arbitrage. Efforts at banking outreach may succeed only if there are better incentives at work for such last-mile workers and also those providers who ensure not just basic bank accounts but also products such as accident and life insurance and micro pension schemes.

Q. Which one of the following is the most logical, rational and crucial inference that can be derived from the above passage?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage states that banking correspondents 'help bring people in the hinterland into the banking fold'; yet 'India's banking regulator has restricted them to serving only one bank, perhaps to prevent arbitrage'. It argues that efforts at banking outreach may succeed if they 'ensure not just bank accounts but also products such as accident and life insurance and micro pension schemes'.

QUESTION: 18

A vast majority of Indians are poor, with barely 10 percent employed in the organised sector. We are being convinced that vigorous economic growth is generating substantial employment. But this is not so. When our economy was growing at 3 percent per year, employment in the organised sector was growing at 2 percent per year. As the economy began to grow at 7 – 8 percent per year, the rate of growth of employment in the organised sector actually declined to 1 percent per year.

Q. The above passage seems to imply that
1. most of modern economic growth is based on technological progress.
2. much of modern Indian economy does not nurture sufficient symbiotic relationship with labor-intensive, natural resource-based livelihoods.
3. service sector in India is not very labour-intensive.
4. literate rural population is not willing to enter organised sector.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

[2019]

Solution:

The passage says that growth in employment in organised sector is not at par with the growth in economy.
So, 1 and 2 are correct.

QUESTION: 19

The interests of working and poor people have historically been neglected in the planning of our cities. Our cities are increasingly intolerant, unsafe and unlivable places for large numbers of citizens and yet we continue to plan via the old ways – the static Development Plant – that draws exclusively from technical expertise, distanced from people’s live experiences and needs, and actively excluding large number of people, places, activities and practices that are an integral part of the city.

Q. The passage seems to argue

[2019]

Solution:

The passage states that planning is outdated; 'distanced from people's live experiences and needs' and exclusive of participation of 'people, places, activities and practices integral to the cities.' This implies that it favours participation.

QUESTION: 20

Diarrhoeal deaths among Indian children are mostly due to food and water contamination. Use of contaminated groundwater and unsafe chemicals in agriculture, poor hygiene in storage and handling of food items to food cooked and distributed in unhygienic surroundings; there are myriad factors that need regulation and monitoring. People need to have awareness of adulteration and ways of complaining to the relevant authorities. Surveillance of food-borne diseases involves a number of government agencies and entails a good training of inspection staff. Considering the proportion of the urban population that depends on street food for its daily meals, investing in training and education of street vendors is of great significance.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. Food safety is a complex issue that calls for a multipronged solution.
2. Great investments need to be made in developing the manpower for surveillance and training.
3. India needs to make sufficient legislation for governing food processing industry.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2019]

Solution:

Assumption 1 is clear from 'there are myriad factors that need regulation and monitoring'; Assumption 2 follows from 'Considering the proportion of.