Test: General Comprehension - 3 (2018-2017)


20 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: General Comprehension - 3 (2018-2017)


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QUESTION: 1

Global population was around 1.6 billion in 1990—today it is around 7.2 billion and growing. Recent estimates on population growth predict a global population of 9.6 billion in 2050 and 10.9 billion in 2100. Unlike Europe and North America, where only three to four percent of population is engaged in agriculture, around 47 percent of India’s population is dependent upon agriculture. Even if India continues to do well in the service sector and the manufacturing sector picks up, it is expected that around 2030 when India overtakes China as the world ‘s most populous country, nearly 42 percent of India’s population will still be predominantly dependent on agriculture.

Q. Which of the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2018]

Solution:

It is stated in the passage that presently, around 47 percent of India’s population is dependent on agriculture and it is also expected that around 2030, nearly 42 percent of India’s population will still be predominantly dependent on agriculture. Therefore, considering these large percentages, it can be inferred that Indian economy greatly depends on its agriculture.

QUESTION: 2

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.
The right to education goes beyond free and compulsory education to include quality education for all. Quality is an integral part of the right to education. If the education process lacks quality, children are being denied their right. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act lays down that the curriculum should provide for learning through activities, exploration and discovery. This places an obligation on us to change our perception of children as passive receivers of knowledge, and to move beyond the convention of using textbooks as the basis of examinations. The teaching-learning process must become stress-free; and a massive programme for curricular reform should be initiated to provide for a child-friendly learning system, that is more relevant and empowering. Teacher accountability systems and processes must ensure that children are learning, and that their right to learn in a child-friendly environment is not violated. Testing and assessment systems must be reexamined and redesigned to ensure that these do not force children to struggle between school and tuition centres, and bypass childhood.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is/are of paramount importance under the Right to education?
1. Sending of children to school by all parents
2. Provision of adequate physical infrastructure in schools
3. Curricular reforms for developing child-friendly learning system
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2018]

Solution:

The opening line of the passage says that ‘universal access to education’ is no longer enough. So, 1 is not of paramount importance. The second sentence says that ‘facilities’ or infrastructure is a prerequisite but ‘insufficient’ to fulfil the purpose of education So, 2 is not of paramount importance.
3 is mentioned in the second paragraph as being of paramount importance.

QUESTION: 3

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.
The right to education goes beyond free and compulsory education to include quality education for all. Quality is an integral part of the right to education. If the education process lacks quality, children are being denied their right. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act lays down that the curriculum should provide for learning through activities, exploration and discovery. This places an obligation on us to change our perception of children as passive receivers of knowledge, and to move beyond the convention of using textbooks as the basis of examinations. The teaching-learning process must become stress-free; and a massive programme for curricular reform should be initiated to provide for a child-friendly learning system, that is more relevant and empowering. Teacher accountability systems and processes must ensure that children are learning, and that their right to learn in a child-friendly environment is not violated. Testing and assessment systems must be reexamined and redesigned to ensure that these do not force children to struggle between school and tuition centres, and bypass childhood.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. The Right to Education guarantees teachers’ accountability for the learning process of children.
2. The Right to Education guarantees 100% enrolment of children in the schools.
3. The Right to Education intends to take full advantage of demographic dividend.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2018]

Solution:

Assumption 1 can be made from the sentence, ‘Teacher accountability systems...
Assumption 2 follows from ‘universal access to education’ in the opening line.
Assumption 3 follows from, ‘we must address the entire gamut ...,’ which implies that India’s ‘demographic dividend’ or ‘huge young population across diversities’ could be tapped.

QUESTION: 4

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.
The right to education goes beyond free and compulsory education to include quality education for all. Quality is an integral part of the right to education. If the education process lacks quality, children are being denied their right. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act lays down that the curriculum should provide for learning through activities, exploration and discovery. This places an obligation on us to change our perception of children as passive receivers of knowledge, and to move beyond the convention of using textbooks as the basis of examinations. The teaching-learning process must become stress-free; and a massive programme for curricular reform should be initiated to provide for a child-friendly learning system, that is more relevant and empowering. Teacher accountability systems and processes must ensure that children are learning, and that their right to learn in a child-friendly environment is not violated. Testing and assessment systems must be reexamined and redesigned to ensure that these do not force children to struggle between school and tuition centres, and bypass childhood.

Q. According to the passage, which one of the following is critical in bringing quality in education?

[2018]

Solution:

It is clearly mentioned in the first half of the second paragraph of the passage.

QUESTION: 5

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.
The right to education goes beyond free and compulsory education to include quality education for all. Quality is an integral part of the right to education. If the education process lacks quality, children are being denied their right. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act lays down that the curriculum should provide for learning through activities, exploration and discovery. This places an obligation on us to change our perception of children as passive receivers of knowledge, and to move beyond the convention of using textbooks as the basis of examinations. The teaching-learning process must become stress-free; and a massive programme for curricular reform should be initiated to provide for a child-friendly learning system, that is more relevant and empowering. Teacher accountability systems and processes must ensure that children are learning, and that their right to learn in a child-friendly environment is not violated. Testing and assessment systems must be reexamined and redesigned to ensure that these do not force children to struggle between school and tuition centres, and bypass childhood.

Q. What is the essential message in this passage?

[2018]

Solution:

The entire passage emphasises on giving quality education to all children. Options (a), (b) and (d) are true, but none conveys the essential message of the passage.

QUESTION: 6

Monoculture carries great risks. A single disease or pest can wipe out swathes of the world’s food production, an alarming prospect given that its growing and wealthier population will eat 70% more by 2050. The risks are magnified by the changing climate. As the planet warms and monsoon rains intensify, farmlands in Asia will flood. North America will suffer more intense droughts, and crop diseases will spread to new latitudes.

Q. Which of the following is the most logical, rational and crucial message given by the passage?

[2018]

Solution:

Crop genetic diversification consists in raising a variety of crops depending on suitability to seasonal variations of rainfall and temperatures; and reduces susceptibility to natural disasters like flooding and windstorm, etc., in case of monoculture. Therefore, preserving crop diversity is an insurance against the effects of climate change. Sentence one declares that monoculture carries risk; so, (a) follows.

QUESTION: 7

The practice of dieting has become an epidemic; everyone is looking out for a way to attain that perfect body. We are all different with respect to our ethnicity, genetics, family history, gender, age, physical and mental and spiritual health status, lifestyles and preferences. Thereby we also differ in what foods we tolerate or are sensitive to. So we really cannot reduce so many complexities into one diet or diet book. This explains the failure of diets across the world in curbing obesity. Unless the reasons for weight gain are well understood and addressed and unless habits are changed permanently, no diet is likely to succeed.

Q. What is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2018]

Solution:

The passage conveys that individuals differ in many respects and ‘we cannot reduce so many complexities’ into one copybook diet plan. So, there is no perfect solution.
Options (a), (b) and (c) mention only one aspect each of the discussion and none qualifies as a rational inference.

QUESTION: 8

India’s educational system is modelled on the mass education system that developed in the 19th century in Europe and later spread around the world. The goal of the system is to condition children as ‘good’ citizens and productive workers. This suited the industrial age that needed the constant supply of a compliant workforce with a narrow set of capabilities. Our educational institutes resemble factories with bells, uniforms and batch processing of learners, designed to get learners to conform. But, from an economic point of view, the environment today is very different. It is a complex, volatile and globally interconnected world.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. India continues to be a developing country essentially due to its faulty education system.
2. Today’s learners need to acquire new-age skill-sets.
3. A good number of Indians go to some developed countries for education because the educational systems there are a perfect reflection of the societies in which they function.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2018]

Solution:

As per the last sentence of the passage, today’s educational system is very different i.e. it is a complex, volatile and globally interconnected world; thus, in order to meet these, today’s learners need to acquire new-age skill-sets. Assumptions 1 and 3 cannot be made from the passage.

QUESTION: 9

Being a member of the WTO, India is bound by the agreements that have been signed and ratified by its members, including itself. According to Articlc 6 of the Agriculture Agreement, providing minimum support prices for agricultural products is considered distorting and is subject to limits. The subsidy arising from ‘minimal supports’ cannot exceed 10 percent of the value of agricultural production for developing countries. PDS in India entails minimum support prices and public stockholding of food grains. It is possible that, in some years, the subsidy to producers will exceed 10 percent of the value of agricultural production.

Q. What is the crucial message conveyed by the above passage?

[2018]

Solution:

The passage conveys the facts that India provides food security to its poor which collides with its trade. But being a signatory of WTO, it has to revise its PDS, Option (b) is not conveyed.

QUESTION: 10

The Arctic’s vast reserves of fossil fuel, fish and minerals are now accessible for a longer period in a year. But unlike Antarctica, which is protected from exploitation by the Antarctic Treaty framed during the Cold War and is not subject to territorial claims by any country, there is no legal regime protecting the Arctic from industrialization, especially at a time when the world craves for more and more resources. The distinct possibility of ice-free summer has prompted countries with Arctic coastline to scramble for great chunks of the melting ocean.

Q. Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

[2018]

Solution:

It is mentioned in the last sentence of the passage that the distinct possibility of ice-free summer has prompted countries with Arctic coastline to rush to get larger part of the Arctic which thereby leads to changes in the geopolitics.

QUESTION: 11

Scientific knowledge has its dangers but so has every great thing. Over and beyond the dangers with which it threatens the present, it opens up as nothing else can, the vision of a possible happy world; a world without poverty, without war, with little illness. Science, whatever unpleasant consequences it may have by the way, is in its very nature a liberator.

Q. Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

[2018]

Solution:

It is clearly mentioned in the second sentence of the passage.

QUESTION: 12

Cooking with biomass and coal in India is now recognized to cause major health problems, with women and children in poor populations facing the greatest risk. There are more than 10 lakh premature deaths each year from household air pollution due to polluting cooking fuels with another 1.5 lakh due to their contribution to general outdoor air pollution in the country. Although the fraction of the Indian population using clean cooking fuels, such as LPG natural gas and electricity, is slowly rising, the number using polluting solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel has remained static for nearly 30 years at about 70 crore.

Q. Which of the following is the most crucial and logical inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2018]

Solution:

The passage states the fact that household air pollution is hazardous to health of the people living in poor areas to such an extent that more than 10 lakh premature deaths occur every year due to it So, it would be appropriate to say that the access to cooking gas can reduce premature deaths in poor households.

QUESTION: 13

All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital in order for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. The problem is more severe for developing countries like India, which would be one of the hardest hit by climate change, given its need to finance development. Most countries do indeed treat climate change as real threat and are striving to address it in a more comprehensive and integrated manner with the limited resources at their disposal.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Climate change is not a challenge for developed countries.
2. Climate change is a complex policy issue and also a development issue for many countries.
3. Ways and means of finance must be found to enable developing countries to enhance their adaptive capacity.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2018]

Solution:

The passage clearly mentions that ‘most countries’ are ‘striving’ to address climate change threat. So, it is a complex policy issue and development issue for all. So, 1 is not valid but 2 is.
Assumption 3 can be made from, ‘the problem is more severe ........... finance development. So, the right option is (c).

QUESTION: 14

A male tiger was removed from Pench Tiger Reserve and was relocated in Panna National Park. Later, this tiger trekked toward his home 250 miles away. The trek of this solitary tiger highlights a crisis. Many wildlife reserves exist as islands of fragile habitat in a vast sea of humanity, yet tigers can range over a hundred miles, seeking prey, mates and territory. Nearly a third of India’s tigers live outside tiger reserves, a situation that is dangerous for both human and animal. Prey and tigers can only disperse if there are recognized corridors of land between protected areas to allow unmolested passage.

Q. Which of the following is the most rational and crucial message given by the passage?

[2018]

Solution:

It is clearly mentioned in the last line of the passage.

QUESTION: 15

A male tiger was removed from Pench Tiger Reserve and was relocated in Panna National Park. Later, this tiger trekked toward his home 250 miles away. The trek of this solitary tiger highlights a crisis. Many wildlife reserves exist as islands of fragile habitat in a vast sea of humanity, yet tigers can range over a hundred miles, seeking prey, mates and territory. Nearly a third of India’s tigers live outside tiger reserves, a situation that is dangerous for both human and animal. Prey and tigers can only disperse if there are recognized corridors of land between protected areas to allow unmolested passage.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. The strategy of conservation of wildlife by relocating them from one protected area to another is not often successful.
2. India does not have suitable legislation to save the tigers, and its conservation efforts have failed which forced the tigers to live outside protected areas.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

[2018]

Solution:

It is mentioned in the passage how a male tiger that was relocated in Panna National Park trekked toward its home 250 miles away; and that nearly a third of India’s tigers live outside tiger reserves. These points indicate that though initiatives have been taken for the conservation of wildlife by relocating them, they have not been often successful. The passage does not say anything about any legislation in this regard.

QUESTION: 16

The quest for cheap and plentiful meat has resulted in factory farms where more and more animals are squeezed into smaller lots in cruel and shocking conditions. Such practices have resulted in many of the world’s health pandemics such as the avian flu. Worldwide, livestock are increasingly raised in cruel, cramped conditions, where animals spend their short lives under artificial light, pumped full of antibiotics and growth hormones, until the day they are slaughtered. Meat production is water-intensive. 15000 litres of water is needed for every kilogram of meat compared with 3400 litres for rice, 3300 litres for eggs and 255 litres for a kilogram of potatoes.

Q. What is the most rational and crucial message given by the passage?

[2018]

Solution:

Last few lines of the passage state that meat production through industrial farming is water - intensive; it requires 15000 litres of water for every kilogram of meat. We all are aware of the fact that many people in the world strive to get water to drink and for their household works and so, we can’t afford to lose such huge amount of water on producing meat in farms thus, it can be said that environmental cost of meat production is unsustainable when it is produced through industrial farming.

QUESTION: 17

Really I think that the poorest he that is in England has a life to live, as the greatest he, and therefore truly, I think it is clear that every man that is to live under a government ought first by his own consent to put himself under the government, and I do think that the poorest man in England is not at all bound in a strict sense to that government that he has not had a voice to put himself under.

Q. The above statement argues for

[2017]

Solution:

The passage argues for the rule according to the consent of those who are governed.

QUESTION: 18

The States are like pearls and the Centre is the thread which turns them into a necklace; if the thread snaps, the pearls are scattered.

Q. Which one of the following views corroborates the above statement?

[2017]

Solution:

'A strong Centre is a binding force for national integrity' correctly corroborates the given statement.

QUESTION: 19

Over the last decade, Indian agriculture has become more robust with record production of food grains and oilseeds. Increased procurement, consequently, has added huge stocks of food grains in the granaries. India is one of the world's top producers of rice, wheat, milk, fruits and vegetables. India is still home to a quarter of all undernourished people in the world. On an average, almost half of the total expenditure of nearly half of the households is on food.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical corollary to the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The most logical corollary to the passage can be the increasing the efficiency of farm-to-fork value chain is necessary to reduce the poverty and malnutrition.

QUESTION: 20

The medium term challenge for Indian manufacturing is to move from lower to higher tech sectors, from lower to higher value-added sectors, and from lower to higher productivity sectors. Medium tech industries are primarily capital intensive and resource processing; and high tech industries are mainly capital and technology intensive. In order to push the share of manufacturing in overall GDP to the projected 25 percent, Indian manufacturing needs to capture the global market in sectors showing a rising trend in demand. These sectors are largely high technology and capital intensive.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

India should boost up the public investments and encourage the private investments in research and development, technology upgradation and skill development.