Test: General Comprehension - 4 (2017-2017)


20 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: General Comprehension - 4 (2017-2017)


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QUESTION: 1

A landscape-scale approach to land use can encourage greater biodiversity outside protected areas. During hurricane 'Mitch' in 1998, farms using eco-agricultural practices suffered 58 percent, 70 percent and 99 percent less damage in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, respectively, than farms using conventional techniques. In Costa Rica, vegetative windbreaks and fencerows boosted farmers' income from pasture and coffee while also increasing bird diversity. Bee pollination is more effective when agricultural fields are closer to natural or semi-natural habitat, a finding that matters because 87 percent of the world's 107 leading crops depend on animal pollinators. In Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Colombia silvopastoral systems that integrate trees with pastureland are improving the sustainability of cattle production, and diversifying and increasing farmers' income.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The most logical and rational inference that can be made from the passage is agricultural practices that enhance biodiversity can many a time increase farm output and reduce the vulnerability to disasters.

QUESTION: 2

Productive jobs are vital for growth and a good job is the best form of inclusion. More than half of our population depends on agriculture, but the experience of other countries suggests that the number of people dependent on agriculture will have to shrink if per capita incomes in agriculture are to go up substantially. While industry is creating jobs, too many such jobs are low-productivity non-contractual jobs in the unorganized sector, offering low incomes, little protection, and no benefits. Service jobs are relatively of high productivity, but employment growth in services has been slow in recent years.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

Creating conditions for the faster growth of productive jobs outside of agriculture even while improving the productivity of agriculture is the most logical and rational inference made from the passage.

QUESTION: 3

An air quality index (AQI) is a way to combine measurements of multiple air pollutants into a single number or rating. This index is ideally kept constantly updated and available in different places The AQI is most useful when lots of pollution data are being gathered and when pollution levels are normally, but not always, low. In such cases, if pollution levels spike for a few days, the public can quickly take preventive action (like staying indoors) in response to an air quality warning. Unfortunately, that is not urban India. Pollution levels in many large Indian cities are so high that they remain well above any health or regulatory standard for large part of the year. If our index stays in the 'Red/Dangerous' region day after day, there is not much any one can do, other than getting used to ignoring it.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The most logical and rational inference that can be made from the passage is the air quality index is not helpful to the residents of many of our large cities.

QUESTION: 4

Many farmers use synthetic pesticides to kill infesting insects. The consumption of pesticides in some of the developed countries is touching 3000 grams/hectare. Unfortunately, there are reports that these compounds possess inherent toxicities that endanger the health of the farm operators, consumers and the environment. Synthetic pesticides are generally persistent in environment. Entering in food chain they destroy the microbial
diversity and cause ecological imbalance. Their indiscriminate use has resulted in development of resistance among insects to insecticides, upsetting of balance in nature and resurgence of treated populations. Natural pest control using the botanical pesticides is safer to the user and the environment because they break down into harmless compounds within hours or days in the presence of sunlight Plants with pesticidal properties have been in nature for millions of years without any ill or adverse effects on the ecosystem. They are easily decomposed by many microbes common in most soils. They help in the maintenance of biological diversity of predators and the reduction of environmental contamination and human health hazards. Botanical pesticides formulated from plants are biodegradable and their use in crop protection is a practical sustainable alternative.

Q. On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. Synthetic pesticides should never be used in modern agriculture.
2. One of the aims of sustainable agriculture is to ensure minimal ecological imbalance.
3. Botanical pesticides are more effective as compared to synthetic pesticides.
Which of the assumptions given above is/are correct?

[2017]

Solution:

The assumption that one of the aims of sustainable agriculture is to ensure minimal ecological imbalance can be made from the passage.

QUESTION: 5

Many farmers use synthetic pesticides to kill infesting insects. The consumption of pesticides in some of the developed countries is touching 3000 grams/hectare. Unfortunately, there are reports that these compounds possess inherent toxicities that endanger the health of the farm operators, consumers and the environment. Synthetic pesticides are generally persistent in environment. Entering in food chain they destroy the microbial
diversity and cause ecological imbalance. Their indiscriminate use has resulted in development of resistance among insects to insecticides, upsetting of balance in nature and resurgence of treated populations. Natural pest control using the botanical pesticides is safer to the user and the environment because they break down into harmless compounds within hours or days in the presence of sunlight Plants with pesticidal properties have been in nature for millions of years without any ill or adverse effects on the ecosystem. They are easily decomposed by many microbes common in most soils. They help in the maintenance of biological diversity of predators and the reduction of environmental contamination and human health hazards. Botanical pesticides formulated from plants are biodegradable and their use in crop protection is a practical sustainable alternative.

Q. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding biopesticides?
1. They are not hazardous to human health.
2. They are persistent in environment.
3. They are essential to maintain the biodiversity of any ecosystem.

[2017]

Solution:

Statements 1 and 3 are stated in the passage.
Statement 2 is contradictory - synthetic pesticides are persistent, not Biopesticides.

QUESTION: 6

Climate change is likely to expose a large number of people to increasing environmental risks forcing them to migrate. The international community is yet to recognize this new category of migrants. There is no consensus on the definition and status of climate refugees owing to the distinct meaning the term refugees carry under international laws. There are still gaps in understanding how climate change will work as the root cause of migration. Even if there is recognition of climate refugees, who is going to provide protection? More emphasis has been given to international migration due to climate change. But there is a need to recognize the migration of such people within the countries also so that their problems can be addressed properly.

Q. Which of the following is the most rational inference from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The passage logically infers that relation between climate change and migration is not yet properly understood.

QUESTION: 7

An innovative India will be inclusive as tell as technologically advanced, improving it lives of all Indians. Innovation and R&D can mitigate increases in social inequality and relieve the pressures created by rapid urbanization. The growing divergence in productivity between agriculture and knowledge-intensive manufacturing and services threatens to increase income inequality. By encouraging India's R&D labs and universities to focus on the needs of poor people and by improving the ability of informal firms to absorb knowledge, an innovation and research agenda can counter this effect. Inclusive innovation can lower the costs of goods and services and create income-earning opportunities for the poor people.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and rational assumption that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The passage assumes that inclusive innovation and R&D can help create an egalitarian society.

QUESTION: 8

The IMF has pointed out that the fast growing economies of Asia face the risk of falling into 'middle-income trap'. It means that average incomes in these countries, which till now have been growing rapidly, will stop growing beyond a point-a point that is well short of incomes in the developed West. The IMF identifies a number of causes of middle-income trap-none of which is surprising-from infrastructure to weak institutions, to less than favourable macroeconomic conditions. But the broad, overall cause, says IMF, is a collapse in the growth of productivity.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical, rational and critical inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The most logical, rational and critical inference of the passage could be once a country reaches middle-income stage, it runs the risk of falling productivity which leads to stagnant incomes.

QUESTION: 9

We live in digital times. The digital is not just something we use strategically and specifically to do a few tasks. Our very perception of who we are, how we connect to the world around us, and the ways in which we define our domains of life, labour and language are hugely structured by the digital technologies. The digital is everywhere and, like air, invisible. We live within digital systems, we live with intimate gadgets, we interact through digital media, and the very presence and imagination of the digital has dramatically restructured our lives. The digital, far from being a tool, is a condition and context that defines the shapes and boundaries of our understanding of the self, the society, and the structure of governance.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical and essential message conveyed by the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The most logical and essential message conveyed by the passage is that the use of digital systems is imperative for the existence of mankind in future.

QUESTION: 10

There has been a significant trend worldwide towards regionalism in government, resulting in a widespread transfer of powers downwards towards regions and communities since 1990s. This process, which involves the creation of new political entities and bodies at a sub-national level and an increase in their content and powers, is known as devolution. Devolution has been characterized as being made up of three factors-- political legitimacy, decentralization of authority and decentralization of resources. Political legitimacy here means a mass demand from below for the decentralization process, which is able to create a political force for it to take place. In many cases, decentralization is initiated by the upper tier of government without sufficient political mobilization for it at the grassroots level, and in such cases the decentralization process often does not fulfil its objectives.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical, rational and critical inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

'Devolution, to be successful, requires a democracy in which there is free expression of the will of the people at lower level and their active participation at the grassroots level' is the most logical, rational and critical inference of the passage.

QUESTION: 11

Disruption of traditional institutions, identifications and loyalties is likely to lead to ambivalent situations. It is possible that some people may renew their identification with traditional groups whereas others align themselves with new groups and symbols emergent from processes of political development. In addition, political development tends to foster group awareness of a variety of class, tribe, region, clan, language, religion, occupation and others.

Q. Which one of the following is the best explanation of the above passage?

[2017]

Solution:

The statement that political development is not unilinear process for it involves both growth and decay best explains the passage.

QUESTION: 12

There is more than a modicum of truth in the assertion that 'a working knowledge of ancient history is necessary to the intelligent interpretation of current events". But the sage who uttered these words of wisdom might well have added something on the benefits of studying particularly the famous battles of history for the lessons they contain for those of as who lead or aspire to leadership. Such a study will reveal certain qualities and attributes which enabled the winners to win-and certain deficiencies which caused the losers to lose. And the student will see that the same pattern recurs consistently, again and again, throughout the centuries.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made :
1. A study of the famous battles of history would help us understand the modern warfare.
2. Studying the history is essential for anyone who aspires to be a leader.
Which of these assumptions is/are valid?

[2017]

Solution:

The assumption that the studying the history is essential for anyone who aspires to be a leader is made in the passage.

QUESTION: 13

The greatest blessing that technological progress has in store for mankind is not, of course, an accumulation of material possessions. The amount of these that can be effectively enjoyed by one individual in one lifetime is not great. But there is not the same narrow limit to the possibilities of the enjoyment of leisure. The gift of leisure may be abused by people who have had no experience of making use of it. Yet the creative use of leisure by a minority in societies has been the mainspring of all human progress beyond the primitive level.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. People always see the leisure time as a gift and use it for acquiring more material possessions.
2. Use of leisure by some people to produce new and original things has been the chief source of human progress.
Which of these assumptions is/are valid?

[2017]

Solution:

The passage assumes that use of leisure by some people to produce new and original things has been the chief source of human progress.

QUESTION: 14

In a free country, the man who reaches the position of leader is usually one of outstanding character and ability. Moreover, it is usually possible to foresee that he will reach such a position, since early in life one can see his qualities of character. But this is not always true in the case of a dictator, often he reaches his position of power through chance, very often through the unhappy state of his country.

Q. The passage seems to suggest that

[2017]

Solution:

The passage denotes that despair sometimes leads to dictatorship in a country.

QUESTION: 15

A successful democracy depends upon widespread interest and participation in politics, in which voting is an essential part. To deliberately refrain from taking such an interest, and from voting, is a kind of implied anarchy; it is to refuse one's political responsibility while enjoying the benefits of a free political society.

Q. This passage relates to

[2017]

Solution:

The passage pertains to duty to vote.

QUESTION: 16

In a democratic State, where a high degree of political maturity of the people obtains, the conflict between the will of the sovereign law- making body and the organized will of the people seldom occurs.

Q. What does the above passage imply?

[2017]

Solution:

The passage denotes that in a mature democracy, force is narrowed down to a marginal phenomenon in the actual exercise of sovereignty.

QUESTION: 17

"The individual, according to Rousseau, parts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the General will and in our corporate capacity we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole."

Q. In the light of the above passage, the nature of General Will is best described as

[2017]

Solution:

The nature of General Will, in the passage, is best described as the collective good as distinct from Private Wills of the individuals.

QUESTION: 18

We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for any of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all the people of India what destiny intends them to be. We are citizens of a great country, on the verge of bold advance, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrowmindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or action.

Q. The challenge the author of the above passage throws to the public is to achieve.

[2017]

Solution:

The challenge the author throws to the public is to achieve equal privileges, fulfilment of destiny and political tolerance.

QUESTION: 19

There is no harm in cultivating habits so long as they are not injurious. Indeed, most of us are little more than bundle of habits. Take away our habits and the residuum would hardly be worth bothering about. We could not get on without them. They simplify the mechanism of life. They enable us to do a multitude of things automatically, which, if we had to give fresh and original thought to them each time, would make existence an impossible confusion.

Q. The author suggests that habits

[2017]

Solution:

In the paragraph, the author advocates that habits make it easier for us to live.

QUESTION: 20

The very first lesson that should be taught to us when we are of enough to understand it, is that complete freedom from the obligation to work is unnatural, and ought to be illegal, as we can escape our share of the burden of work only by throwing it on someone else's shoulders. Nature ordains that the human race shall perish of famine if it stops working. We cannot escape from this tyranny. The question we have to settle is how much leisure we can afford to allow ourselves.

Q. The main idea of the passage is that

[2017]

Solution:

The key point of the passage is that there should be a balance between work and leisure.

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