Test: General Comprehension - 7 (2015-2015)


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QUESTION: 1

Climate change is a complex policy issue with major implications in terms of finance. All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. Lack of funding is a large impediment to implementing adaptation plans. The scale and magnitude of the financial support required by developing countries to enhance their domestic mitigation and adaptation actions are a matter of intense debate in the multilateral negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Convention squarely puts the responsibility for provision of financial support on the developed countries, taking into account their contribution to the stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Given the magnitude of the task and the funds required, domestic finances are likely to fall short of the current and projected needs of the developing countries. Global funding through the multilateral mechanism of the Convention will enhance their domestic capacity to finance the mitigation efforts.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is/are a matter of intense debate in the multilateral negotiations under UNFCCC regarding the role of developing countries in climate change?
1. The scale and size of required financial support.
2. The crop loss due to climate change in the developing countries.
3. To enhance the mitigation and adaptation actions in the developing countries.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2015]

Solution:

The passage clearly talks about 1 and 3. Refer the 4th sentence, 'The scale and magnitude of the financial support ______ multilateral negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)', which mentions 1 and 3 both. Crop failure, which is an effect of climate change, is not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 2

Climate change is a complex policy issue with major implications in terms of finance. All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. Lack of funding is a large impediment to implementing adaptation plans. The scale and magnitude of the financial support required by developing countries to enhance their domestic mitigation and adaptation actions are a matter of intense debate in the multilateral negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Convention squarely puts the responsibility for provision of financial support on the developed countries, taking into account their contribution to the stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Given the magnitude of the task and the funds required, domestic finances are likely to fall short of the current and projected needs of the developing countries. Global funding through the multilateral mechanism of the Convention will enhance their domestic capacity to finance the mitigation efforts.

Q. In this passage, the Convention puts the responsibility for the provision of financial support on the developed countries because of
1. their higher level of per capita incomes.
2. their large quantum of GDP.
3. their large contribution to the stock of GRGs in the atmosphere.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2015]

Solution:

Refer the 5th sentence, 'The Convention squarely puts the _______ stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere', which clearly mentions 3. 1 and 2 are not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 3

Climate change is a complex policy issue with major implications in terms of finance. All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. Lack of funding is a large impediment to implementing adaptation plans. The scale and magnitude of the financial support required by developing countries to enhance their domestic mitigation and adaptation actions are a matter of intense debate in the multilateral negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Convention squarely puts the responsibility for provision of financial support on the developed countries, taking into account their contribution to the stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Given the magnitude of the task and the funds required, domestic finances are likely to fall short of the current and projected needs of the developing countries. Global funding through the multilateral mechanism of the Convention will enhance their domestic capacity to finance the mitigation efforts.

Q. With regards to developing countries, it can be inferred from the passage that climate change is likely to have implications on their
1. domestic finances.
2. capacity for multilateral trade.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2015]

Solution:

Refer the second last sentence, 'Given the magnitude of the task and the funds required, domestic finances are likely to fall short of the current and projected needs of the developing countries', which clearly shows that climate change is likely to have implications on their domestic finances. 2 is not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 4

Climate change is a complex policy issue with major implications in terms of finance. All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. Lack of funding is a large impediment to implementing adaptation plans. The scale and magnitude of the financial support required by developing countries to enhance their domestic mitigation and adaptation actions are a matter of intense debate in the multilateral negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Convention squarely puts the responsibility for provision of financial support on the developed countries, taking into account their contribution to the stock of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Given the magnitude of the task and the funds required, domestic finances are likely to fall short of the current and projected needs of the developing countries. Global funding through the multilateral mechanism of the Convention will enhance their domestic capacity to finance the mitigation efforts.

Q. Which one of the following is essentially discussed in the passage?

[2015]

Solution:

The passage clearly depicts the tussle between developed and developing countries regarding support for mitigation. The developing nations need financial support to adapt to the new measures and they want the developed nations to bear the expense of what they have caused. (b), (c) and (d) are wrong because the passage does not mention either of exploitation of natural resources, Lack of political will or Governance problems.

QUESTION: 5

The conflict between man and State is as old as State history. Although attempts have been made for centuries to bring about a proper adjustment between the competing claims of State and the individual, the solution seems to be' still far off. This is primarily because of the dynamic nature of human society where old values and ideas constantly yield place to new ones. It is obvious that if individuals are allowed to have absolute freedom of speech and action, the result would be chaos, ruin and anarchy

Q. The author's viewpoint can be best summed up in which of the following statements?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is correct as the passage talks about the conflict between man and State. Moreover, the passage confirms that this is a continuous tussle and is as old as the state history. The solution seems to be' still far off suggests that the conflict will remain unresolved.
(b) and (d) are wrong as they present only the idea contained in the last line of the passage.
(c) is wrong as the passage clearly mentions that old values and ideas constantly yield place to new ones which is contrary to what is mentioned in (c). Moreover, it is not the author's viewpoint.

QUESTION: 6

No Right is absolute, exclusive or inviolable. The Right of personal property, similarly, has to be perceived in the larger context of its assumed legitimacy. The Right of personal property should unite the principle of liberty with that of equality, and both with the principle of cooperation.

Q. In the light of the argument in the above passage, which one of the following statements is the most convincing explanation?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is wrong as it negates the basic premise of the passage.
According to the passage 'No Right is absolute, exclusive or inviolable whereas (a) says that The Right of personal property is a Natural Right.
(b) is wrong as it presents another extreme stand on Personal property by equating it to theft and an instrument of exploitation. It misses out the assumed legitimacy of the right and does not see it in the context.
(c) is wrong as it talks about The Right of personal property being violative of distributive justice and negating the principle of cooperation. It does not explain the argument.
(d) is correct as it clearly explains the argument by mentioning that the Right of each person to acquisition of property has to be reconciled with that of others.Refer the principle of cooperation mentioned in the last sentence.

QUESTION: 7

India has suffered from persistent high inflation. Increase in administered prices, demand and supply imbalances, imported inflation aggravated by rupee depreciation, and speculation - have combined to keep high inflation going. If there is an element common to all of them, it is that many of them are the outcomes of economic reforms. India's vulnerability to the effects of changes in international prices has increased with trade liberalisation. The effort to reduce subsidies has resulted in a continuous increase in the prices of commodities that are administered.

Q. What is the most logical, rational and crucial message that is implied in the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

The passage clearly talks about the high inflation in India and its inability to contain it due to the innumerable external factors which are a result of the economic reforms. So (d) is correct.
(a) is wrong as it talks about avoiding all trade liberalisation policies and all subsidies which is more of a solution of the problem of inflation but not a message of the passage.
(b) is wrong as it talks about reasons for India's non-readiness to take up the trade liberalisation process. It is out of scope of the passage.
(c) is wrong as the passage does not talk about poverty at all.

QUESTION: 8

I must say that, beyond occasionally exposing me to laughter, my constitutional shyness has been of no disadvantage whatever. In fact I can see that, on the contrary, it has been all to my advantage. My hesitancy in speech, which was once an annoyance, is now a pleasure. Its greatest benefit has been that it has taught me the economy of words. I have naturally formed the habit of restraining my thoughts. And I can now give myself the certificate that a thoughtless word hardly ever escapes my tongue or pen. I do not recollect ever having had to regret anything in my speech or writing. I have thus been spared many a mishap and waste of time. Experience has taught me that silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth. Proneness to exaggerate, to suppress or modify the truth, wittingly or unwittingly, is a natural weakness of man, and silence is necessary in order to surmount it. A man of few words will rarely be thoughtless in his speech; he will measure every word. We find so many people impatient to talk. There is no chairman of a meeting who is not pestered with notes for permission to speak. And whenever the permission is given the speaker generally exceeds the time-limit, asks for more time, and keeps on talking without permission. All this talking can hardly be said to be of any benefit to the world. It is so much waste of time. My shyness has been in reality my shield and buckler. It has allowed me to grow. It has helped me in my discernment of truth.

Q. The author says that a thoughtless word hardly ever escapes his tongue or pen. Which one of the following is not a valid reason for this?

[2015]

Solution:

The first six sentences of the passage clearly answers the question. (b), (c) and (d) are clearly mentioned in these sentences. It is not mentioned that the author has no intention to waste his time but what is mentioned is that his constitutional shyness saves or spares him a lot of time.

QUESTION: 9

I must say that, beyond occasionally exposing me to laughter, my constitutional shyness has been of no disadvantage whatever. In fact I can see that, on the contrary, it has been all to my advantage. My hesitancy in speech, which was once an annoyance, is now a pleasure. Its greatest benefit has been that it has taught me the economy of words. I have naturally formed the habit of restraining my thoughts. And I can now give myself the certificate that a thoughtless word hardly ever escapes my tongue or pen. I do not recollect ever having had to regret anything in my speech or writing. I have thus been spared many a mishap and waste of time. Experience has taught me that silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth. Proneness to exaggerate, to suppress or modify the truth, wittingly or unwittingly, is a natural weakness of man, and silence is necessary in order to surmount it. A man of few words will rarely be thoughtless in his speech; he will measure every word. We find so many people impatient to talk. There is no chairman of a meeting who is not pestered with notes for permission to speak. And whenever the permission is given the speaker generally exceeds the time-limit, asks for more time, and keeps on talking without permission. All this talking can hardly be said to be of any benefit to the world. It is so much waste of time. My shyness has been in reality my shield and buckler. It has allowed me to grow. It has helped me in my discernment of truth.

Q. The most appropriate reason for the author to be spared many a mishap is that

[2015]

Solution:

The first half or the first 7-8 sentences of the passage clearly explains the shyness of the author or his hesitancy in speech which has restrainedhis thoughts. As a result, no thought less word is uttered from him while speaking or writing and hence, he has never regretted his speech or writing. This has spared him from many a mishap and waste of time. Immense patience and spiritual person cannot be related to him at all. The author sarcastically mentions that 'silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth'. So, (a) is correct answer.

QUESTION: 10

I must say that, beyond occasionally exposing me to laughter, my constitutional shyness has been of no disadvantage whatever. In fact I can see that, on the contrary, it has been all to my advantage. My hesitancy in speech, which was once an annoyance, is now a pleasure. Its greatest benefit has been that it has taught me the economy of words. I have naturally formed the habit of restraining my thoughts. And I can now give myself the certificate that a thoughtless word hardly ever escapes my tongue or pen. I do not recollect ever having had to regret anything in my speech or writing. I have thus been spared many a mishap and waste of time. Experience has taught me that silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth. Proneness to exaggerate, to suppress or modify the truth, wittingly or unwittingly, is a natural weakness of man, and silence is necessary in order to surmount it. A man of few words will rarely be thoughtless in his speech; he will measure every word. We find so many people impatient to talk. There is no chairman of a meeting who is not pestered with notes for permission to speak. And whenever the permission is given the speaker generally exceeds the time-limit, asks for more time, and keeps on talking without permission. All this talking can hardly be said to be of any benefit to the world. It is so much waste of time. My shyness has been in reality my shield and buckler. It has allowed me to grow. It has helped me in my discernment of truth.

Q. For the author, silence is necessary in order to surmount

[2015]

Solution:

The 10th sentence of the passage 'Proneness to exaggerate, to _______ in order to surmount it' clearly suggests 'tendency to overstate' as the answer. So, (d) is correct answer.

QUESTION: 11

Foods travel more than the people who eat them. Grocery stores and supermarkets are loaded with preserved and processed foods. This, however, often leads to environmental threats, such as pollution generated by long distance food transportation and wastage of food during processing and transportation, destruction of rain forests, reduced nutritional content, increased demand for preservation and packaging. Food insecurity also increases as the produce comes from regions that are not feeding their own population properly.

Q. With reference to the above passage, which of the following statements is/are true?
1. Consuming regionally grown food and not depending on long travelled food is a part of eco-friendly behaviour.
2. Food processing industry puts a burden on our natural resources.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2015]

Solution:

The passage talks about the preserved and processed foods or the Food processing industry and the various impacts it produces - pollution, wastage of food and rain forests, reduced nutritional content, increased demand for preservation and packaging. All this leads to put a burden on our natural resources. So 2 is true. 1 is not correct as the passage does not talk about the regionally grown food. It talks about regions with good produce feeding other parts of the world leaving their own region hungry. So 1 is not correct.

QUESTION: 12

India accounts for nearly a fifth of the world's child deaths. In terms of numbers, it is the highest in the world - nearly 16 lakhs every year. Of these, more than half die in the first month of life. Officials believe that the reason for this is the absence of steps to propagate basic health practices relating to breast feeding and immunisation. Also the large reproductive population of 2.6 crore remains bereft of care during the critical phases of pregnancy and post-delivery. Added to this is the prevalence of child marriages, anaemia among young women and lack of focus on adolescent sanitation, all of which impact child death rates.

Q. Which is the critical inference that can be made from the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

The questions asks for the critical inference. (d) is a wrong as it presents a contradictory logic as mentioned in the passage. (a) and (b) are correct statements in the context of the passage but they present only logical part of the passage. Only (c) presents the most critical inference as it highlights the problem and the solutions mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 13

Many people in India feel that if we cut our defence expenditure on weapon-building, we can create a climate of peace with our neighbours, subsequently reducing the conflict or creating a no-war situation. People who proclaim such ideas are either the victims of war or the propagators of false argument.

Q. With reference to the above passage, which of the following is the most valid assumption?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is wrong as the passage says that if we can cut our defence expenses we can find peace or building of weapons systems by us will instigated our neighbours to wage wars against us is a false propagation.
(b) is correct as th e passage supports weapon building by India. It can also be inferred from the passage that India wants to establish peace with our neighbours. So 'weapon-building would lessen the possibility of armed conflict with our neighbours' is the most valid assumption.
Although (c) is also an assumption but use of the words' state of the art 'and' national security' does not make it the most valid assumption.
(d) is an inference but not an assumption.

QUESTION: 14

By 2050, the Earth's population will likely have swelled from seven to nine billion people. To fill all those stomachs - while accounting for shifting consumption patterns, climate change, and a finite amount of arable land and potable water – some experts say food production will have to double. How can we make the numbers add up? Experts say higher yielding crop varieties and more efficient farming methods will be crucial. So will waste reduction. Experts urge cities to reclaim nutrients and water from waste streams and preserve farmland. Poor countries, they say, can improve crop storage and packaging and rich nations could cut back on resource-intensive foods like meat.

Q. Which one of the following statements best sums up the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is wrong as it states a fact mentioned in the passage. It does not sum up the passage.
(b) is wrong as the passage does not restrict the problem to the developing countries only.
(c) is wrong as the passage only says that the food production will have to double. It does not talk about food scarcity at all. Rather it talks about how to meet the required target.
(d) correctly sums up the passage. Food security is increasingly a collective challenge and the passage suggests means to combat it.

QUESTION: 15

Human history abounds in claims and theories confining the right of governing to a few select citizens. Exclusion of the many is justified on the ground that human beings may be rightfully segregated for the good of society and viability of the political process.

Q. Which one of the following statements is least essential as a part of the argument in the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is not or least essential as a part of the argument because it is irrelevant in the context of the passage.
(b) is essential as a part of the argument as the 'super' and 'sub' human beings refers to the 'few select citizens' and the 'excluded ones'..
(c) is essential as a part of the argument as the second sentence clearly says this.
(d) is essential as the recognition of disparities in individual capacities leads to the exclusion policies.

QUESTION: 16

Individuals, groups and leaders who promote human development operate under strong institutional, structural and political constraints that affect policy options. But experience suggests broad principles for shaping an appropriate agenda for human development. One important finding from several decades of human development experience is that focusing exclusively on economic growth is problematic. While we have good knowledge about how to advance health and education, the causes of growth are much less certain and growth is often elusive. Further, an unbalanced emphasis on growth is often associated with negative environmental consequences and adverse distributional effects. The experience of China, with its impressive growth record, reflects these broader concerns and underlines the importance of balanced approaches that emphasize investments in the non-income aspects of human development.

Q. With reference to the above passage, consider the following statements:
1. In developing countries, a strong institutional framework is the only requirement for human development and policy options
2. Human development and economic growth are not always positively inter-related.
3. Focusing only on human development should be the goal of economic growth
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

[2015]

Solution:

3 is wrong as the passage does not talk about focusing only on human development. It do talks about an unbalanced emphasis on growth but that, in any case, does not mean focusing only on human development. 2 is absolutely correct as the passage clearly says an unbalanced emphasis on growth is often associated with negative environmental consequences and adverse distributional effects.
1 is wrong as it is completely out of context of the passage.

QUESTION: 17

Individuals, groups and leaders who promote human development operate under strong institutional, structural and political constraints that affect policy options. But experience suggests broad principles for shaping an appropriate agenda for human development. One important finding from several decades of human development experience is that focusing exclusively on economic growth is problematic. While we have good knowledge about how to advance health and education, the causes of growth are much less certain and growth is often elusive. Further, an unbalanced emphasis on growth is often associated with negative environmental consequences and adverse distributional effects. The experience of China, with its impressive growth record, reflects these broader concerns and underlines the importance of balanced approaches that emphasize investments in the non-income aspects of human development.

Q. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. Higher economic growth is essential to ensure reduction in economic disparity.
2. Environmental degradation is sometimes a consequence of economic growth
Which of the above is/are valid assumption/assumptions?

[2015]

Solution:

1 is wrong as the passage nowhere talks about economic disparity rather it talks about health, education or other non-income aspects of human development. The passage is essentially about drawing a balance between economic growth and human development.
2 is the correct assumption as unbalanced growth sometimes leads to environmental degradation.

QUESTION: 18

Vast numbers of Indian citizens without bank accounts live in rural areas, are financially and functionally illiterate, and have little experience with technology. A research study was conducted in a particular area in which electronic wage payments in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) are meant to go directly to the poor. It was observed that recipients often assume that the village leader needs to mediate the process, as was the case under the previous paper-based system. Among households under this research study area who claimed to have at least one bank account, over a third reported still receiving MGNREGS wages in cash directly from a village leader.

Q. What is the most logical, rational and crucial message that is implied in the above passage?

Solution:

(a) is wrong as it is out of context of the passage.
Further extended MGNREGS only to those who have a bank account would go against the very essence of the scheme.
(b) is wrong in spite of the paper-based system of payments being more efficient than electronic payment system. This is not the main message of the passage.
(c) is wrong as it negates the fact mentioned in the passage. Refer the second sentence which says, 'electronic wage payments in MGNREGS are meant to go directly to the poor.'
(d) is absolutely correct as the opening sentence clearly says that citizens living in rural areas, are financially illiterate. So, it is essential to provide financial literacy to the rural poor.

QUESTION: 19

Flamingos in large flocks in the wild are social extremely loyal. They perform group mating dances. Parents are very fond of their chicks, gathering them into crèches for protection while both males and females fly off to search for food.

Q. Which among the following is the most logical corollary to the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

(a), (b) and (d) are wrong as they talk about birds in general. The passage talks specifically about Flamingos.
(c) is correct as it talks about some species of birds.

QUESTION: 20

Our municipal corporations are understaffed. The issue of skills and competencies of the staff poses an even greater challenge. Urban services delivery and infrastructure are complex to plan and execute.
They require a high degree of specialization and professionalism. The current framework within which municipal employees, including senior management, are recruited does not adequately factor in the technical and managerial competencies required. Cadre and recruitment rules only specify the bare minimum in academic qualifications. There is no mention of managerial or technical competencies, or of relevant work experience. This is the case with most municipal corporations. They also suffer from weak organisation design and structure.

Q. Which among the following in the most logical and rational assumption that can be made from the above passage?

[2015]

Solution:

(a) is wrong as the passage does not talk about organisational expansion of municipal bodies all over the country.
(b) is correct as the passage clearly talks about lack of adequate staff with required skills and competencies in the municipal corporations or local government bodies and that these skills are very much required as the operations are quite complex. Hence, the assumption that our cities can provide better quality of life with quality staff is clearly marked out.
(c) is wrong as the passage does not talk about the reasons for the lack of skilled staff.
(d) is wrong as the demographic dividend and the problems associated with rapid urbanization are out of context of the passage.

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