Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 3 (2015 - 2013)


30 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 3 (2015 - 2013)


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to 'Forest Carbon Partnership Facility', which of the following statements is/ are correct?
1. It is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples.
2. It provides financial aid to universities, individual scientists and institutions involved in scientific forestry research to develop eco-friendly and climate adaptation technologies for sustainable forest management.
3. It assists the countries in their 'REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+)' efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (activities commonly referred to as REDD+).

QUESTION: 2

'BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes' is managed by the

[2015]

Solution:

Housed within the Carbon Finance Unit of the World Bank, the BioCarbon Fund is a public-private sector initiative mobilizing finance to help for development of projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forest and agroecosystems. It was created in 2004.

QUESTION: 3

Which one of the following National Parks has a climate that varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic?

[2015]

Solution:

Namdapha National Park is located in Arunachal Pradesh. The climate of this area varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic. It is tropical and subtropical in southern regions and arctic type in northern part of the park.

QUESTION: 4

If you travel through the Himalayas, you are likely to see which of the following plants naturally growing there?
1. Oak            
2. Rhododendron      
3. Sandalwood
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Oak and Rhododendron are found in Himalayan zone. While sandalwood is found in South India.

QUESTION: 5

In India, cluster bean (Guar) is traditionally used as a vegetable or animal feed, but recently the cultivation of this has assumed significance. Which one of the following statements is correct in this context?                      

[2014]

Solution:

The seeds of cluster bean is the source of shale gas. The gum made from its seeds is used in the extraction of shale gas. Generally the cluster bean is used as vegetable or animal feed.

QUESTION: 6

Every year, a monthlong ecologically important campaign/ festival is held during which certain communities/ tribes plant saplings of fruit-bearing trees. Which of the following are such communities/tribes?                                  

[2014]

Solution:

The festival starts with the green march celebrating the beginning of the rains and new sowing season during which planting of sapling of fruit bearing trees is done on mass scale.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?
1. Oxides of sulphur
2. Oxides of nitrogen
3. Carbon monoxide
4. Carbon dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

In steel furnace coke reacts with iron to release pollutants like Oxides of sulphur, Oxides of nitrogen, Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide.

QUESTION: 8

Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of

[2014]

Solution:

In organisms called lichens, a chlorophyII -containing partner, which is an alga, and a fungus live together. Fungus provides shelter, water and minerals to the alga and, in return, the alga provides food which it prepares by photosynthesis.

QUESTION: 9

The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2°C above pre-industrial level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3°C above the pre-industrial level, what can be its possible impact/impacts on the world?
1. Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source.
2. Widespread coral mortality will occur.
3. All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.
4. Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Rise in temperature by 3°C to that of pre-industrial level will led as per choice 1 and 2.

QUESTION: 10

The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of

[2014]

Solution:

Biosphere reserves are established under UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Biosphere Reserves Combine Protected areas with zones where sustainable development is nurtured by native dwellers.

QUESTION: 11

In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following?
1. Terrace cultivation
2. Deforestation
3. Tropical climate
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with deforestation. Terrace cultivation helps in less erosion of soil.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following have coral reefs?
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2. Gulf of Kachchh
3. Gulf of Mannar
4. Sunderbans
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Andaman and Nicobar, Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Mannar have coral reefs. However Sunderbans do not have coral reef.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:
1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2014]

Solution:

The Animal Welfare Board of India was established in 1962 under Section 4 of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. The National Tiger Conservation Authority is set up under the Chairmanship of the Minister for Environment and Forests and is a statutory body. National Ganga River Basin Authority was established by the Central Government of India, on 20 February 2009. The Prime Minister is the chair of the Authority.

QUESTION: 14

With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection)  Act, 1972.
2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Eco-sensitive zones are ecological important area under environment protection Act 1986 around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries prohibiting resting certain human activities in the zone.

QUESTION: 15

If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses.
Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?
1. Painted Stork
2. Common Myna
3. Black-necked Crane
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Common Myna are birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. The common myna is readily identified by the brown body, black hooded head and the bare yellow patch behind the eye.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?
1. Volcanic action
2. Respiration
3. Photosynthesis
4. Decay of organic matter
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

Volcanic action, Respiration and decay of organic matter adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth. However, photosynthesis uses Carbon dioxide to produce food.

QUESTION: 17

Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges River Dolphins?
1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers
2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers
3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally
4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

The construction of dams and barrages on rivers, getting trapped in fishing nets accidently and use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields near the rivers are the reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges river Dolphins.

QUESTION: 18

With reference to a conservation organization called “Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/ are correct?
1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2014]

Solution:

This organization is in partnership but not formed by Ramsar convention. The organization was formed in 1954 and Ramsar convention was signed in 1971. “Wetlands International”, It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

[2014]

Solution:

Dampa Tiger Reserve, the largest wildlife sanctuary in Mizoram. Saramati peak is in Nagaland. It is located near Tuensang town with a height of 3,826 m. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary is famous wildlife reserve in Tripura.

QUESTION: 20

With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility'’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

[2014]

Solution:

It is an independent financial organization which  works with countries on environmental issues.

QUESTION: 21

With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements:
1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
2. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.
3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2014]

Solution:

The Bombay Natural History Society is one of the largest non-governmental organizations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.

QUESTION: 22

If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux  Record’, what does  it imply?

[2014]

Solution:

The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.

QUESTION: 23

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a food chain?

[2014]

Solution:

Diatoms are autotrophs which prepare their own food. Crustaceans are herbivorous animals which feed on diatoms. Herrings are carnivorous animals which feed on Crustaceans. This completes the food chain.
Diatoms are autotrophs, prepare their own food. Crustaceans eats diatoms. Crustaceans are members of zooplanktons and are eaten by Herring fish when small.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements regarding ‘Earth Hour’:
1. It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.
2. It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.
3. It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.
Which of  the statements given above is/are correct?

[2014]

Solution:

Earth Hour is a worldwide movement for the planet organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The event is held worldwide annually encouraging individuals, communities, households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following international agreements:
1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
3. The World Heritage Convention
Which of the above has/have a bearing on the biodiversity?

[2014]

Solution:

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is a Convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. The World Heritage Convention is concerned with the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage.All three of them have a bearing on the biodiversity.

QUESTION: 26

With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Bacteria and Fungi both are known as decomposer organisms. Bacteria are important decomposers; they can break down any kind of organic matters. Fungi are primary decomposers, they not only decompose the surface organisms but they can also penetrate deep into the organic matters.

QUESTION: 27

Consider the following fauna of India:
1. Gharial
2. Leatherback turtle
3. Swamp deer
Which of the above is/are endangered?

[2013]

Solution:

Gharial is critically endangered according to IUCN. Overhunting for skin and trophies, habitat loss due to construction of dams and barrages has been the reason for their decline. Leather back turtles are endangered due to human carelessness. Swamp deer occupies a place in the list of the endangered species of the world. Deforestation, draining of swamps and marshes for farming has led to the destruction of their natural habitat.

QUESTION: 28

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?

[2013]

Solution:

The productivity of Mangroves > grasslands > lakes > oceans.

QUESTION: 29

In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of

[2013]

Solution:

The trees cannot replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of water limits and fire.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

[2013]

Solution:

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve is situated in Garo Hills in Meghalaya. Loktak Lake is in Manipur. Barail Range is in Assam. Though Namdapha National Park and Dafla Hill both are in Arunachal Pradesh, the two are separate entities.