Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 2 (2017 - 2016)


30 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 2 (2017 - 2016)


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:
1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India.
2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2016]

Solution:

(i) Pterocarpus santalinus, with the common names Red Sanders, Red Sandalwood, and saunderswood, is a species of Pterocarpus endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India. This tree is valued for the rich red color of its wood. The wood is not aromatic.
(ii) It was in national media during April 2015, when Andhra Pradesh police killed 20 Red Sander smugglers in an encounter. So first statement is right.
(iii) Red Sanders is associated with Tropical dry deciduous forest, as per environment ministry website, Hence 2nd statement wrong.

QUESTION: 2

Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?

[2016]

Solution:

Scientists at the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) have discovered a new species of banana from a remote tropical Krishna Nalah rain forest on the Little Andaman islands. The new species is about 11 metres high, whereas as the usual banana species is about three to four meters high. The fruit pulp is orange in colour, distinctive from the white and yellow color of regular bananas. Hence (a) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 3

What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’, a breed found in India?
1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometers in seawater.
2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.
3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

These camels can swim up to three kilometers into the sea in search of mangroves - So, 1 and 2 are correct.Most families in Jatt and Rabari communities of Kachchh, are traditional rearers of Kharai camels. So, third statement also correct.
Kharai camels found in the Kutch region are very unique. They can swim through deep sea waters and it feeds on mangroves and other saline plants. The breeders have meticulously followed the traditional grazing pattern in the coastal districts. They do not provide special housing or shelter to the camels.Given the breed’s ability to survive both on land and sea, the Kharai camel is one of the most preferred choices of graziers in the arid coastal region of Kachchh. People consume its milk, while male calves are sold for economic returns (females are not sold because they are considered sacred). A male calf fetches anywhere between Rs. 6,000 and Rs.14,000, says Ramesh Bhatti of Sahjeevan, an NGO working on livelihood issues of graziers in Kachchh. It can be domesticated also – so its not wild. They are reared in  four blocks of Abdasa, Bundra, Lakhpat and Bachau of Gujarat.

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)’?
1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.
2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.
3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis.
Select the correct answer using the code given Below.

[2016]

Solution:

(i) National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) is a financing, planning, implementing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganges River, functioning under the water resource ministry of India. The mission of the organisation is to spearhead the river conservation efforts at the national level.
(ii) In 2014, UPSC asked similar question, where one of the statement was- “PM is chairman of NGRBA”. That statement was right as per India Yearbook 2014. Therefore, here statement 3 is wrong, CM can’t be the chairman of NGRBA. By elimination, we reach answer (a).

QUESTION: 5

In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Carbon monoxide
3. Nitrogen dioxide
4. Sulphur dioxide
5. Methane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

The AQI level is based on the level of 8 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulates smaller than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), suspended particulates smaller than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), NH3, Pb, carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) measured at the monitoring stations throughout.
So by elimination we are left with option “b”.

QUESTION: 6

On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label?
1. Ceiling fans
2. Electric geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an agency of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power created in March 2002 under the provisions of the nation’s 2001 Energy Conservation Act. The agency’s function is to develop programs which will increase the conservation and efficient use of energy in India. The government has proposed to make it mandatory for all appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE starting in January 2010.
(ii) According to centre for science and environment (CSE), both 1 and 3 are correct. There is only option (d) whether such combination is possible.

QUESTION: 7

‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The Gadgil Commission was an environmental research commission appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests of India. The Commission submitted the report to the Government of India on 31 August 2011. The Kasturirangan Committee Report has sought to balance the two concerns of development and environment protection, by watering down the environmental regulation regime proposed by the Western Ghats Ecology Experts Panel’s Gadgil report in 2012.
(ii) They’re associated with Western Ghat conservation plan.

QUESTION: 8

‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the

[2016]

Solution:

(i) A Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. Net metering allows residential and commercial customers who generate their own electricity from solar power to feed electricity they do not use back into the grid.
(ii) Under Net-metering system, Customer installs a solar or wind power plant on his premise, gets it grid-connected with the electricity distribution company (DISCOM) Hence (a) is the apt choice.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?
1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’
2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

The National Mission for a Green India was announced by the Prime Minister as one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It recognizes that climate change phenomenon will seriously affect and alter the distribution, type and quality of natural resources of the country. GIM puts the “greening” in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation, meant to enhance ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and storage (in forests and other ecosystems), hydrological services and biodiversity; along with provisioning services like fuel, fodder, small timber.

QUESTION: 10

What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?
1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programs and supportive inter-national partnerships.
2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions.
3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

(i) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive international partnerships. UNCCD is committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating desertification.
(ii) As per of the convention, Statement 3 is right. But UNCCCD focuses on Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern Mediterranean and Central and Eastern Europe. Hence statement 2 is wrong. Therefore, answer (c).

QUESTION: 11

The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

[2016]

Solution:

(i) Countries across the globe committed to create a new international climate agreement by the conclusion of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015.
(ii) INDC are associated with UNFCCC-Climate change. Hence b) is the apt choice.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements: 
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2016]

Solution:

At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030. The history of the SDGs can be traced to 1972 when governments met under the auspices of the United Nations Human and Environment Conference. The ‘Club of Rome’ is a global think tank that deals with a range of international political issues.

QUESTION: 13

With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2°C or even 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The agreement emphasized on urgent need to address the significant gap between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above preindustrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels.
(ii) Paris Summit - not all nations have signed the agreement and there is no deadline to ratify it. hence, statement 1 is wrong. This eliminates a and b. And developed countries committed to give $100 billion by 2020. But, for future, there is no mention of giving $1,000 billion dollars. Therefore, third statement wrong. We are left with Answer (b) only.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements:
(1) The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
(2) The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The COP-21 Climate Conference was held in Paris, France from 30 November to 12 December 2015. During this conference, India and France have launched the International Solar Alliance (ISA). International Solar Alliance includes an alliance of 121 countries located between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
(ii) While ISA was launched on Sidelines of Paris Summit, therefore first statement right but it includes only the 121 countries between Capricorn and Cancer receiving sunlight for 300 days or more. Hence 2nd statement is wrong.

QUESTION: 15

With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:
1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development
2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2016]

Solution:

Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. Therefore, only first statement right.

QUESTION: 16

What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’?

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. A decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), the GHG Protocol is working with businesses, governments, and
(ii) A is correct according to their "ABOUT US" page

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following statements is/are correct?
Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
1. protection of biodiversity
2. resilience of forest ecosystems
3. poverty reduction

Select the correct answer using the code given below. 

[2016]

Solution:

(i) Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is a mechanism that has been under negotiation by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 2005, with the objective of mitigating climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries.
(ii) Under REDD+ Developing country will have to prove the ‘result’ they have fought deforestation without harming local communities or biological diversity. Only then, they’ll get the Money. Therefore, 1 and 2 are correct.
Although REDD+ has galvanized significant support internationally, among both developed and developing countries, its implications for poverty alleviation at the local level remain unclear. hence 3rd statement is wrong.
Therefore Answer (a).

QUESTION: 18

With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.
2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a study led by Pavan Sukhdev. It is an international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity. Its objective is to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions.
(ii) As per the official page of the organization. 2 and 3 are correct, but there is no mention of their association with UNEP, IMF. Hence 1st statement is wrong. Accordingly answer is “c”

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

[2016]

Solution:

(i) The Kyoto Protocol separates countries into two groups. Annex I includes developed nations, while NonAnnex I refers to developing countries.
A CER is a certificate which is issued every time the United Nations prevents one tonne of CO2 equivalent being emitted through carbon projects registered with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
(ii) All three terms are associated with Kyoto Protocol. Therefore, answer “c” 3 only.

QUESTION: 20

With reference to bio-toilets used by the Indian Railways, consider the following  statements:
1. The decomposition of human waste in the bio-toilets is initiated by a fungal inoculum.
2. Ammonia and water vapour are the only end products in this decomposition which are released into the atmosphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2015]

Solution:

The bio-toilets are fitted underneath the lavatories and the human waste discharged into them is acted upon by a particular kind of bacteria that converts it into CO2, CH4 and non-corrosive neutral water. The new-age green toilets have been designed by Railways along with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) keeping in mind the requirements of Indian trains.

QUESTION: 21

Which of the following statements regarding 'Green Climate Fund' is/are correct?
1. It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund within the framework of the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to redistribute money from the developed to the developing world, in order to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. The Fund is governed by the GCF Board. The assets of the GCF will be administered by a trustee only for the purpose of, and in accordance with, the relevant decisions of the GCF Board. The World Bank was invited by the COP to serve as the interim trustee of the GCF, subject to a review three years after operation of the Fund.

QUESTION: 22

What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?

[2015]

Solution:

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit or Earth Summit. It was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012.

QUESTION: 23

Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of ozone-depleting substances?

[2015]

Solution:

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

QUESTION: 24

Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?

[2015]

Solution:

The Gangetic dolphins have been declared as the National Aquatic Animal of India. River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the Ganges River Dolphin as the National Aquatic Animal on 18th May 2010. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water.

QUESTION: 25

With reference to 'dugong', a mammal found in India, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a herbivorous marine animal.
2. It is found along the entire coast of India.
3. It is given legal protection under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal. Dugong is listed under schedule 1 of India Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. In 2008, a MoU was signed between the Ministry of Environment and Forests and the Government of India, in order to conserve dugongs. In fact the highest level of legal protection is accorded to dugongs in India.

QUESTION: 26

With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between governments.
2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments.
3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take the place of national laws.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

IUCN is not an organ of UN. It has observer and consultative status at the United Nations.

QUESTION: 27

Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that supports a rich biodiversity?

[2015]

Solution:

The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park located in Manipur. It is 40 km in area and the only floating park in the world which is located in North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.

QUESTION: 28

Which one of the following is the best description of the term 'ecosystem'?

[2015]

Solution:

An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere).

QUESTION: 29

In India, in which one of the following types of forests is teak a dominant tree species?

[2015]

Solution:

The tropical moist deciduous for ests are found in Sahyadris, the north-eastern parts of the peninsula and along the foothills of the Himalayas. Teak and sal are found in these forests.

QUESTION: 30

With reference to an organization known as 'Birdlife International', which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a Global Partnership of Conservation Organizations.
2. The concept of 'biodiversity hotspots' originated from this organization.
3. It identifies the sites known/referred to as 'Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas'.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[2015]

Solution:

BirdLife international is a global partner ship of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity. It is working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the World's largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organizations. An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area recognized as being globally important habitat for the conservation of bird populations. The program was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International.