Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 5 (2011 - 2010)


15 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 5 (2011 - 2010)


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QUESTION: 1

There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon?
1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.
3. Upwelling in the seas.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

[2011]

Solution:

Algae multiply rapidly when nutrients are present. So, discharge of nutrients favour algae and subsequently algal bloom growth from estuaries to sea. The run off from the land during the monsoon bring salts which favours the growth of algae. Upwelling of the sea water brings the nutrients to top level leading to rapid algae multiplication.

QUESTION: 2

The Himalayan range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon?

[2011]

Solution:

Himalayas and its adjoining areas are marked as a confluence of several biogeographical realms. It has variety of forest type and is rich in zoo-biogeographic region.

QUESTION: 3

Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats, Sri Lanka and Indo Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:
1. Species richness
2. Vegetation density
3. Endemism
4. Ethno-botanical importance
5. Threat perception
6. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?

[2011]

Solution:

To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat.
So we choose Species richness as well as Endemism. Along with this Threat perception is necessary to take , because it makes the base of this concept. Adaptation of flora is an arbitrary option, Ethno-botanical importance does nothing with the Biodiversity Hotspot selection criteria, vegetation Density is also discarded.

QUESTION: 4

Two important rivers–one with its source in Jharkhand (and known by a different name in Odisha), and another, with its source in Odisha–merge at a place only a short distance from the coast of Bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea. This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a protected area. Which one of the following could be this?

[2011]

Solution:

The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in India's Orissa state. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves cover an area of 650 km2 in the river delta of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers.

QUESTION: 5

The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole?

[2011]

Solution:

The nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds reacts with CFCs to form chlorine, which catalyzes the photochemical destruction of ozone.

QUESTION: 6

In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the
1. decomposer microorganisms to the surface.
2. nutrients to the surface.
3. bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. This is to do with the phytoplankton’s and nothing to do with the decomposer microorganisms.

QUESTION: 7

Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of
1. its escape into the outer stratosphere.
2. the photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.
3. the trapping of air in the polar ice caps.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Since CO2 is heavier than air, it sinks in ocean than moving up. Also, during winter, it is observed that CO2 is trapped in ice caps.

QUESTION: 8

Regarding “carbon credits’’, which one of the following statements is not correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Under the Kyoto Protocol, the 'caps' or quotas for Greenhouse gases for the developed Annex 1 countries are known as Assigned Amounts and are listed in Annex B.
The quantity of the initial assigned amount is denominated in individual units, called Assigned amount units (AAUs), each of which represents an allowance to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent, and these are entered into the country's national registry.

QUESTION: 9

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty drawn at

[2010]

Solution:

The United Nations framework convention on climate change is an international treaty drawn at UN conference on Environment and development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following which can be found in the ambient atmosphere:
1. Soot
2. Sulphur hexafluoride
3. Water vapour
Which of the above contribute to the warming up of the atmosphere?

[2010]

Solution:

Ambient temperature simply means "the temperature of the surroundings" and will be the same as room temperature. Indoor the common range is 20°C (68°F) to 27°C (80 °F). Similarly, ambient pressure on an object is the pressure of the surrounding medium, such as a gas or liquid, which comes into contact with the object. The soot, sulphur hexafluoride, and water vapour all three can be found at ambient atmosphere which corresponds to ambient temperature and pressure, and subsequently warming up of atmosphere.

QUESTION: 11

What are the possible limitations of India in mitigating the global warming at present and in the immediate future?
1. Appropriate alternate technologies are not sufficiently available.
2. India cann ot invest huge funds in research and development.
3. Many developed countries have already set up their polluting industries in India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2010]

Solution:

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation. Climate change mitigation is action to decrease the potential effects of global warming. At a time rate of mitigation is less in India because appropriate technologies are limited and costly. Moreover India don't have huge funds required for research and development in that area.

QUESTION: 12

India is a party to the Ramsar Convention and has declared many areas as Ramsar sites. Which of the following statements best describes as to how we should maintain these sites in the context of this convention?

[2010]

Solution:

Ramsar convention describes to conserve all the sites through ecosystem approach and allow their simultaneous sustainable use.

QUESTION: 13

As a result of their annual survey, the National Geographic Society and an international polling firm Globe Scan gave India top rank in Greendex 2009 score. What is this score?

[2010]

Solution:

In the third annual survey of National Geographic Society and Globe Scan, Indian top ranked in Greendex 2009 due to environmentally sustainable consumer behaviour.

QUESTION: 14

A pesticide which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon is sprayed on a food crop. The food chain is: Food crop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, the highest concentration of the pesticide would accumulate in which one of the following?

[2010]

Solution:

Biomagnification is the phenomenon of increasing concentration of compound in the tissue of organism, as the compound passes up a food chain, usually as a result of food intake. In this case, the concentration of compound will increase with increasing the trophic level. Biomagnifying pollutants which increases in concentration from producers → Primary consumers → Secondary consumers → Tertiary consumers → Top consumer. Hawk is the top consumer, so the pesticide concentration will be highest in Hawk.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements:
1. The boundaries of a National Park are defined by legislation.
2. A Biosphere Reserve is declared to conserve a few specific species of flora and fauna.
3. In a Wildlife Sanctuary, limited biotic interference is permitted.
Which of the statements given above is / correct?

[2010]

Solution:

The fix boundary of national park is described in Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 and the actual area of the national park is notified by state government.
A biosphere reserve conserves an ecosystem and not just few specific species of plants and animals.