Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 4 (2013 - 2011)


30 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions | Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 4 (2013 - 2011)


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India?
1. Arsenic
2. Sorbitol
3. Fluoride
4. Formaldehyde
5. Uranium
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Drinking water in some parts of India has contaminants like Arsenic, Fluoride other than many other contaminants. The sources of Arsenic are run off from orchards. The sources of fluoride are erosion of natural deposits, discharge from fertilizers and aluminum factories.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following:
1. Star tortoise
2. Monitor lizard
3. Pygmy hog
4. Spider monkey
Which of the above are naturally found in India?

[2013]

Solution:

Star tortoise is found in India in the dry and scrub forests. Pygmy Hog is an endangered species found in Assam. Only 150 animals are left. Monitor Lizard is found in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Spider Monkey is the inhabitant of tropical forests of Central and South America.

QUESTION: 3

Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms?  

[2013]

Solution:

Ecological Niche is a term that describes the way of life of a species. Each species is thought to have a separate unique niche. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors. A niche is the sum of the habitat requirements that allow a species to persist and produce offspring.

QUESTION: 4

In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat?
1. Tamil Nadu
2. Kerala
3. Karnataka
4. Andhra Pradesh
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Lion-tailed Macaques are found in the mountain forests scattered across three Indian states stated above. The lion-tailed Macaques are endangered as per IUCN.

QUESTION: 5

With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:
1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.
3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2013]

Solution:

A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community to obtain nutrition.
Sample:- Grassland Biome
Grass> Grass Hopper > Rat> Snake > Hawk

QUESTION: 6

Due to improper/ indiscriminate disposal of old and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?
1. Beryllium
2. Cadmium
3. Chromium
4. Heptachlor
5. Mercury
6. Lead
7. Plutonium
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

[2013]

Solution:

Electronic waste or E-waste has ferrous and non-ferrous metals both. Non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium, silver, gold, platinum, palladium etc. The presence of elements like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and hexavalent chromium are classified as hazardous waste.

QUESTION: 7

Vultures which used to be very common in Indian countryside some years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to

[2012]

Solution:

A drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle.

QUESTION: 8

What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?
1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.
3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2012]

Solution:

If phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason then
(i) The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
(ii) The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected as the fishes live on them.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following agricultural practices :    
1. Contour bunding
2. Relay cropping
3. Zero tillage

In the context of global climate change, which of the above helps/help in carbon sequestration/storage in the soil? 

[2012]

Solution:

All the given agricultural practices help in carbon sequestration.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?
1. Global warming
2. Fragmentation of habitat
3. Invasion of alien species
4. Promotion of vegetarianism
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2012]

Solution:

Except promotion of vegetarianism all other acts are threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area.

QUESTION: 11

What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx and Chiru?

[2012]

Solution:

Oryx has adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of cold high mountains.

QUESTION: 12

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services provisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving and cultural.

Which one of the following is supporting service?

[2012]

Solution:

Supporting services of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are necessary for production of all other ecosystem services including soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis to name a few.

QUESTION: 13

Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the category of endangered species?

[2012]

Solution:

Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass, are endangered species.

QUESTION: 14

In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?

[2012]

Solution:

In national parks, local people are not allowed to collect and use the biomass available in the area.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following protected areas:
1. Bandipur
2. Bhitarkanika
3. Manas
4. Sunderbans
Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?

[2012]

Solution:

Bandipur, Manas and Sunderbans are declared Tiger Reserves

QUESTION: 16

The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the air is slowly raising the temperature of the atmosphere, because it absorbs

[2012]

Solution:

Carbon dioxide absorbs the Infrared part of Solar Radiation

QUESTION: 17

The acidification of oceans is increasing. Why is this phenomenon a cause of concern?
1. The growth and survival of calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected.
2. The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely affected.
3. The survival of some animals that have phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.
4. The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be adversely affected.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

[2012]

Solution:

1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.
Marine organisms like coral and phytoplankton are affected by ocean acidification. It decrease growth, reproduction and survival of these species. The acidification of ocean may lead to cloud formation as.
Sulfuric acid seeds the cloud formation which is emitted from ocean in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) produced by phytoplankton. These phytoplanktons produce less DMS when ocean water is acidified and result in less cloud formation.

QUESTION: 18

Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.
2. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.
3. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2012]

Solution:

The combustible gas produced during gasification process includes carbon monoxide hydrogen, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrocarbons like methane (CH4).

QUESTION: 19

If National Water Mission is properly and completely implemented, how will it impact the country?
1. Part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through recycling of waste water.
2. The water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.
3. All the rivers of Himalayan origin will be linked to the rivers of peninsular India.
4. The expenses incurred by farmers for digging bore-wells and for installing motors and pump-sets to draw groundwater will be completely reimbursed by the Government.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

[2012]

Solution:

If National Water Mission is properly and completely implemented, then the part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through recycling of waste water and the water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.

QUESTION: 20

The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India?
1. Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under Article 21
2. Provision of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Areas for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1)
3. Powers and functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned under Article 243 (A)
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2012]

Solution:

The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with the Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under Art. 21.

QUESTION: 21

How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting the Indian agriculture?
1. NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources.
2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.
3. Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

[2012]

Solution:

National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) checks the biopiracy and protects the indigeneous and traditional genetic resources. Intellectual property Rights related to genetic biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following:
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Oxides of Nitrogen
3. Oxides of Sulphur
Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?

[2011]

Solution:

Coal combustion at thermal power plants release all of the given products like CO2, NOx and SOx.

QUESTION: 23

With reference to India, consider the following Central Acts:
1. Import and Export (Control) Act, 1947
2. Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation) Act, 1957
3. Customs Act, 1962
4. Indian Forest Act, 1927
Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country?

[2011]

Solution:

There are 35 acts of Indian Government which have relevance to Biodiversity conservation and includes all the four option given in this question.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements:
1. Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
2. Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2011]

Solution:

Biodiversity is higher in the low latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes as the habitat tolerance level is very narrow at greater latitude.
Mountains have high range of species at the low altitude as they can support larger number of species due to climatic condition.

QUESTION: 25

The “Red Data Books’’ published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) contain lists of?
1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.
2. Threatened plant and animal species.
3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[2011]

Solution:

The red data book contains only 8 lists of threatened plant and animal species.

QUESTION: 26

The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge?

[2011]

Solution:

The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots.

QUESTION: 27

Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?

[2011]

Solution:

Zoo and botanical gardens are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, rest all options are natural habitats so are of in-situ conservation.

QUESTION: 28

Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways:
1. Soil formation
2. Prevention of soil erosion
3. Recycling of waste
4. Pollination of crops
Select the correct answer using the codes given below

[2011]

Solution:

Biological diversity helps in the formation and maintenance of soil structure and the retention of moisture and nutrient levels. Biodiversity supports ecosystem services including air quality, climate water purification, pollination, and prevention of erosion.

QUESTION: 29

A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal?

[2011]

Solution:

The Indian wild ass are also called as ghudkhur in local Gujarati language, is a subspecies of the onager native of South Asia. It is unknown how they disappeared though they have never been hunting target during any emperors in India. The history speaks that their number has been declining after due to diseases such as surra and horse sickness. The process related to salt activities have also been a reason behind it.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following:
1. Photosynthesis
2. Respiration
3. Decay of organic matter
4. Volcanic action.
Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on earth?

[2011]

Solution:

Photosynthesis by plants removes about 120 billion tons of carbon from the air per year, but plant decomposition returns about the same amount. When the organic matter is oxidized through respiration, the reverse of photosynthesis takes place. Respiration releases CO2 into the atmosphere.
Respiration and photosynthesis occur at nearly equal rates over one year. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic gases are primarily water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.